Skip to main content

Full text of "A Biographical Chronicle of the English Drama, 1559-1642"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 



JERKEIEY^N 

IBRARY I 

NIVBKSITY Of j 



Burt Franklin Bibliography and Reference Series #32 



BIOGRAPHICAL CHRONICLE 



OF THE 



ENGLISH DRAMA 



H>eDfcatioiu 



TO 

MY WIFE AND MY SON, 

MY ONLY HELPERS IX THIS TOILSOME WORK. 



BIOGRAPHICAL CHRONICLE 



ENGLISH DRAMA 



.559-1642 



FREDERICK CARD FLEAY 



IN TWO VOLUMES 
VOLUME L 




Burt FrarMtn Bibliography and Reference Series #32 



BURT FRANKLIN 
New York SS, N. Y. 



Published by 

BURT FRANKLIN 

514 West 113th Street 

New York 25, N. Y. 



ORniNALLY PUBLISHBD 
IXmDON-1891 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



A BIOGRAPHICAL CHRONICLE 



OF 



PRfoS/ 

F5 



MmN 



THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 



-M- 



iNTRODUCnOK 

Excursus on the Mirror for Magistrates . 
Biographies of the Playwrights: i 557-1642 

(ADAMSON — JONSON.) 



A BIOGRAPHICAL CHRONICLE 



ov 



THE ENGLISH DKAMA. 



1559-1642. 



-M- 



INTRODUCTION. 

This book in outward form closely resembles the Biographia 
Dramatica of 1764, 1782, and 1812, founded on Lang- 
baine's Di'amatic Foeta of 1 69 1 , which contains all that is 
of any value in J. 0. Halliwell's IHciumary of Old English 
Plays, i860, a mere scissors-and-paste compilation, with 
a few additions, but inaccurate and void of all historical 
grasp of the subject. Langbaine's book was excellent for 
its date, and the successive labours of Baker, Heed, and 
Jones, the editors of the Biographia^ had considerable 
value; but Halliwell, by ignoring all notice of the biog- 
raphies of dramatic authors, deprived their work of its 
principal recommendation to notice as a guide to the 
student. Yet his book has hitherto been accepted as 
our chief work of reference on this important subject it 
is a misleadiug and careless one in every way. The pre- 
sent attempt to supply the deficiency of a dramatic history, 
or rather chronicle on which a future history should be 
based, however like its predecessor in appearance, differs 

VOL. I. A 



a TH£ ENGLISH DBAMA. 

altogether in import. The Biographia professed to give 
lives of the playmakers similar to those in any other Dic- 
tionary or Cyclopedia, and, alongside of these, lists of their 
plays, in order of pablication, with sach brief notices of the 
plays themselves as coald be gathered from their title-pages, 
with such additions as could be gathered from the im- 
perfectly understood stage history of the early theatres and 
acting companies. My object has been to arrange the 
plays in order of original production, with such notices of 
tneir authors, and such only, as bear upon the history of 
the drama itself. The ideal of my work would be reached 
if I could give for every play, from the opening of the 
theatres in 1576 to their closure before the civil wars in 
1642, the authorship in each instance, the date of original 
production, the theatre at which it was acted, the com- 
pany by whom it was played, the relation it bore to other 
plays and to dramatic history :generally. This is a vastly 
more extended scope than anything hitherto attempted, 
and satisfactory results are not always attainable; but I 
trust that my readers will find that in most cases of import- 
ance I have hit, if not the bull's-eye, at any rate an inner 
ring. Many of the larger problems, such as the separation 
of the authorship of the Beaumont and Fletcher folio, the 
chronological arrangement of Fletcher's plays, the dates of 
production of the plays of Heywood, Dekker, Chapman, 
Webster, &c., were regarded as iosoluble even by Dyce, the 
best of play-editors. How far this is the case the reader 
may judge for himself. But the value of solution, when 
attainable, is considerable. Daily the mass of idle guess- 
work accumulates into dust-heaps; we are deluged with 
such stuff as treatises on Shakespeare's supposed thefts from 
Montaigne, Jonson's supposed satire of him as Crispinus, 
Chapman's supposed authorship of Bemavddt^ Alphonsus of 



INTEODUCTION. 3 

Germany, and The Second Maiden's Tragedy^ Shakespeare's 
supposed writing for the Admiral's men at the Rose, and 
the like. All this ''literature*' (bless the mark!) will 
surely be spared if we can get a trustworthy record of 
what really was doing in the theatrical world in Shake- 
speare's time and immediately after. One-third of the 
Variorum notes of editors would be saved, and tiie only 
loss would fall on the writers of popular handbooks on 
early dramatic authors, who would lose all chance of pad- 
ding their stolen materials with futile and mutually destruc- 
tive hypotheses of fictions, leasings, and chimssras. It will 
perhaps be the readiest way to accentuate this statement if 
I now lay before the reader the plan on which the present 
work is disposed. 

The authora are alphabetically arranged. Under each 
name I give first a list of his extant dramatic works in order 
of publication, then such particulars of his career as have 
any bearing on dramatic history ; but I have endeavoured 
to eliminate everything which, however interesting as re- 
gards the man, is unconnected with him as a writer. In 
other words, I have relegated many things which would 
rightly find a place in a Biographical Dictionary, while I 
have inserted many other things, often of the most trivial 
value in themselves, but of import from their connexion 
with or alluding to circumstances that determine date, 
authorship, &c., of the plays here treated of. In this 
matter I differ largely from men whose opinions in most 
things I greatly respect. I am, as Fumess puts it, " more 
clamorous than a parrot against rain " about these trifles, 
and ''to my temperament" the subject has the deepest 
" relation to the play itself, and to the enjoyment thereof." 
See Fumess' Variorum As You Like It, 304. I do not 
care to know whether Troylvs and Cressida was acted in 



^ 



4 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1 60 1 or 1 607 as an abstract separate fact any more than Fer- 
ness does, bat I do care to know Shakespeare's relations with 
Ben Jonson ; and when I find that, from an exact determi- 
nation of the date of this play, I am led by a gradual in* 
dnction (as will be seen in the body of this book under 
Jonson's Poetaster) to the conclusion that he satirised 
Jonson therein, and that the play containing this satire 
was acted, not on the London stage, but at my own Uni- 
versity, then I acquire an interest in these dates somewhat 
greater than in the '* cost per yard of Rosalind's hose." I 
will now go farther : if I could find an entry in some newly 
discovered Diary — say Burbadge's — of Rosalind's hose, I 
would note it carefully ; for it was by the entry of Labesha's 
son's hose in Henslow's Diary that I proved that the Humours 
acted at the Rose ^Wi Chapman's Httmm^ous Day's Mirth, 
and not Jonson's Every Man in his Humour^ and thus 
demolished the elaborate structure raised on that insecure 
guess by Collier and his followers. Hundreds of such in- 
stances will be found in subsequent pages. I have also, in 
some instances, apparently been very inconsequent in the 
details of non-dramatic work by the authors of whom I 
treat. For example, I have for Greene, Kash, and others 
given elaborate lists of their prose works, while even the 
poems of Lovelace, Sackville, &c., are passed over without 
mention ; but the reason is, that I am writing a Biographical 
Chronicle of the Drama, not a Historical Biography of the 
Dramatists. The notice of the prose works of Greene, with 
their changes of motto, was absolutely needed to determine 
the chronology of his plays and to destroy Simpson's fig- 
ments of his relations to Shakespeare, while any mention of 
Lucasta would not have advanced my investigations by one 
jot. Moreover, I should only have been increasing the bulk of 
my book by doing what had already been well done by others. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

After these life-notices I give a detailed notice of the 
author's plays (whether extant or not), in chronological 
order. In most instances I have succeeded, I believe, in 
ascertaining this, and in supplying the previously unknown 
names of the theatres and companies of their first pro- 
duction. Of course, these depend largely on my previous 
History of the Stage; but the reader will, I think, have 
confidence in the results obtained in that book, now that 
they have been endorsed by the, as far as I know, unani- 
mous ^ verdict of the press. In fact, had it not been ior the 
genml sympathy of the reviewers (may I, among so many, 
mention especially the Spectator and the Maruhester Guar- 
dian f) I should not have proceeded with the present book, 
which will supply some lacurue and correct a few errors in 
the former one (mostly errata merely), but far fewer than I 
had dared to hope for ; indeed the general confirmation of 
the one series of investigations by the other — ^which, be it 
noted, could not have been produced independently — is 
most striking, and proves the general accuracy of the 
earlier series. 

In the publication lists and in the detailed notices of 
plays each play is preceded by a reference number, which 
is also used in the Index. As these numbers are for refer- 
ence only, and in many instances had to be inserted after 
the first trial list was indexed, I find it far less likely to 
introduce errors if I asterise the inserted titles than if I 



X One instonoe of the contrary hae reached me since I penned the above 
text. A lady critic in Poet Lore, 1 891, March, complains that mine is one of 
the books "a little dull at first glance, because stuffed so full of details." She 
has not grasped the purport of the book : it is a lens to aid the sight, not an 
eye to see with, and requires an eye behind it The lens without the eye 
reveals no order, and therefore no beauty. The eye is in her wanting, as is 
evident from her concluding sentence, in which she ranks the book as second 
to my L\fe of Shahetpeare, Nevertheless her notice b, on the whole, genial and 
favourable, though not appi^eciative. 



6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

go over the whole list and renumber from the beginning, 
especially in the plays of anonymous authorship. The 
reader will therefore frequently meet with 150* and the 
like, where, if a perfect list had been at first accessible, I 
should have written 151, &c. This will not cause any 
practical inconvenience. 

In determining authorship (especially joint-authorship) 
the ground is apparently not so firm as in the other prob- 
lems, because internal evidence much more than external 
has to be taken into account ; and the personal equation of 
the critic, his crotchets, weaknesses, and other disabilities, 
may interfere with the accuracy of his results- Yet the all 
but unanimous agreement of subsequent critics with what I 
published in 1874 on the authorship of plays attributed to 
Shakespeare, Beaumont, Fletcher, Rowley, and Massinger 
(I except Middleton and Field, whom I had incompletely 
studied, and concerning whom I advanced nothing but 
what was expressly stated to be conjectural) encourages 
me to believe that in this matter also I have succeeded 
in getting near the truth. The evidence adduced in the 
present work is of a different character from the metrical 
considerations in my early work, but it must not be sup- 
posed that these have been neglected when not expressly 
referred to. I see no good end in reproducing the elaborate 
tables I have already published for Shakespeare, Fletcher, 
&c. ; and in other instances, such as Hey wood, other tests 
are more available. Nevertheless, every play that I possess 
has been metrically analysed, and I hold the results ready 
for reference at the service of any critic who may desire to 
avail himself thereof. In no single instance have I found 
a contradiction between this kind of evidence and other 
kinds in determining authorship, and in very few cases 
have I found it useful in determining date. This arises 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

partly from the truism, that only the greatest minds (Shake- 
speare, to wit) develop in form continuously throughout their 
career, but still more from the fact that plays were altered 
for revivals, Court performances, &c., at dates long apart; 
and it is not till we know the stage history of a play that 
we are in a position to disentangle the added and reformed 
parts, which is a necessary preliminary to the application 
of metrical tests, but which, at the same time, makes the 
application needless. It may be well, however, to refer 
here to my Shakespeare Manual for a few notes on the 
chief playwrights' metrical characteristics. 

There is a closely allied method of testing the chrono- 
logical arrangement of poets' work, of which, being chiefly 
applicable to non-dramatic forms, I must here give only 
one illustration — I mean the elaborate choice at different 
periods of different forms of versification. Those who 
care to pursue the subject will find further applications to 
Spenser and Chaucer in other publications of mine. I here 
choose Drayton because the succession of his writings is 
valuable for Dramatic History. The notation adopted is, 
I think, self-explanatory; it is fully exemplified in my 
Logical English Grammar y and is, so far as I know, the 
only complete metrical notation for English verse as yet 
proposed. 

I begin with Iambic five-foot lines. 

Quadrains, 5xa ABAB (Gondibert metre), used by Dray- 
ton in The Harmony of the Church, 1591, Nos. 8, 1 1, 14. 
Eclogues, I593> ^os, 2, 4, 6, 9. Moses, 1630. Elysium, 
1630, No. 10. 

5xa ABBA, used in The Harmony, Nos. 2, 9, 10. Ely- 
sium, 1630, No. 4. 

I think it fair to conclude that the ''Quadrains" in 
Moses and the Mxises Elysium were written very early. 



8 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

c. 1592, though publifihed late, in the year before Drayton's 
death. He had distinctly discarded this metrical form. 

Quinzains, 5xa ABABB. Eclogues, 1593, No. 5. 

Sestins, 5 za AB ABCC. Harmony , 1 5 9 1 , No. i . JSdogueSy 
I593i ^OB* I, 7i 8, 10. Gaveston, 1594. 

Stanza of seven, 5xa ABABBCC. Matilda^ 1 5 94. Bohert, 
iSg6. Mortimeriados, 1596. 

Ariosto's stanza^ 5xa ABABABGC. Barons' Wars, 1603. 
Cromwellf 1607. Margaret, 1627. Jgincourt, 1627. 

Drayton, in 1603, deliberately abandoned all these stanzas 
except Ariosto's, and declared his reasons. The '' often 
harmony " of the Septain was too soft ; the Quadrain never 
brought forth '' Gemells " or Couplets ; the Quinzain too 
soon; the Sestin '' hath twins in the base, but they detain 
not the music nor the close long enough." Surely this 
justifies me in making 1603 the commencement of Dray- 
ton's second manner. 

Geminels, Heroics, 5 xa A A. Endymion, l S 9 S • Heroical 
EpistleSj 1597 (written some years before), dwl, 1604. 
Man in the Moon, 1605. Mooncalf^ 1627. Elegies, 1627 
(written earlier). Elysium^ 1630, Nos. 3, 7. Noe, David, 
1630. 

Sonnets, 5xa ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG. Most of the 
earlier sonnets, i 594, are of this lax form, and this was 
the form adopted from Drayton by Shakespeare. 

5xa ABBA, CDDC, EPPE, GG, Nos. 12, 13, 14, 
16, 17, 18, 29, 34, 35, 40, 42, and one of the omitted 
early ones are of this form. I now note the long-line 
metres. 

6xa AA. : Harmony, 1591, Nos. i, 18, 20. Polyolbion, 
161 3-19. Elysium, 1630, No. 6. 

7xa AA. : Harmony, 1591, Noa 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 15, 17. 
Cynthia, 1627. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

6xa A, yxA A. : Harmony^ 1591. Nos. 3, 13. Then for 
shorter lines. 

4xa ABAB. : Harmony, 1591, Nos. 16, 19. Eclogues, 
1593, Nos. 7, 9. Of the varied short metres in the Odes 
and Eclogues, which, being used once only, cannot lead to 
any result in testing, I need not take notice, but the repeti- 
tion of the following in the Eclogues and Nymphal is note- 
worthy : — 

4za AA. : Edogues, 1593, No. 2. Elysium, 1630, 
Nos. 2, 3, 8. 

2 (4xa A, 3xa B), Ballad mejtre : Eclogue, 9. Elysium, 
Description, i, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9. 

2 (4xa A A, 3xa B). : Eclogue, 4. Elysium^ 3. 

2 (3xa AAA, 2xa B) : Agincourt (ballad), 1606. Ely- 
sium, 3. 

The metrical test would lead to the conclusion that the 
Nymphals (with Cynthia and Sirend) were written much 
earlier than the publication date, or that Drayton in his age 
recurred to his 1605 manner, but I must refer for this to 
the article in the body of this book. 

Thus far I have endeavoured to justify my assumption in 
the title that I have written a Biography of our earlier 
Drama; I have yet to show in what sense it is also a 
Chronicle. While considering the form in which I should 
arrange my material I was met by a great difficulty. If I 
adopted the arrangement on which I ultimately decided, there 
would result a book of reference useful, I hoped, and cer- 
tainly in far the greater part of it new, but not as a whole 
chronologically arranged. If I attempted to place the authors 
in the succession of time, after the fashion of Morley's His- 
tory of English Literature, I should have to dislocate the 
careers of many authors ; for how else could I treat of Jonson, 
Heywood, Massinger, &c., whose careers extended over several 



lo THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

periods of the divisions into which I should necessarily have 
to separate the subject ? And, moreover, the careers of many 
authors — as, for instance, of Chapman, Marston, Dekker, 
Hey wood, Ac., — which run parallel for their mainly impor- 
tant early portions, are widely separated in their later divisions. 
After much consideration I hit on what seems to be a solu- 
tion of the difficulty. I shall place at the end of the Index 
a list of authors who wrote for one company, only arranged 
chronologically, and also a table in which the theatrical 
career of each author who wrote for more than one com- 
pany will be indicated by dates. Opposite each name will 
be found the time during which he was connected with 
every company for which he wrote. This will give, in brief, 
his theatrical biography. But, as I have shown in my His- 
tory of the Stage that only five companies were acting in 
London at one time, I have only to arrange these dates in 
five vertical columns to obtain simultanegusly with the 
authors' careers, which occupy horizontal lines, a statement of 
which of these authors were at any given date engaged in 
writing for any individual company. Thus, if the reader 
merely wishes for information as to Marston, he will at once 
turn up Marston's name in the book in its alphabetical 
order. If he desires to know about Eastward Ho^ or any 
other play, he will seek out the play in the index ; but if 
he is looking for the details of all that was doing by the 
Chamberlain's company between 1594 and 1603, he will 
ran his eye down the last column of this table and look 
up the separate notices of every author, Shakespeare, Jonson, 
Drayton, &c., who therein have dates opposite their names, 
and then refer to the other list ; and, finally, if he desire a 
complete chronicle of our drama, he can examine the whole 
book in the order in which the names are given in these 
tables, with the assurance that he will thus omit no name 



INTRODUCTION. ii 

of any particular importance. These tables apply to pub- 
licly acted plays, not to masks at Court or University plays. 
The case of divided authorship is further provided for by 
numerous cross-references in the body of the work. So 
much for publicly acted plays. For University plays (Eng- 
lish and Latin), masks, entertainments, &c., separate indexes 
are given ; and a rimmi will also be found of the University 
plays, &c., with cross-references, in the body of the work. 
I trust that this arrangement will be found convenient, and 
justify the heavy labour it has cost me. 

I must now make a few general observations. The out- 
come of the detailed investigations of this treatise has been 
entirely satisfactory in confirming the results of my former 
work ; it has brought out some things to be added thereto, 
but has disclosed veiy little to be taken from it; it has 
especially confirmed the main division therein adopted into 
periods, (i.) The first period, 1 557-1 586, enters only 
slightly into the present treatise, although I should not 
have felt justified in omitting mention of any play known 
to have been produced between those dates. It was the 
time of the birth of Tragedy and Comedy, and of the decay 
of Moralities. I would call it the final period of Interludes, 
or if, following Ruskin's well-chosen method, we name it 
after the author then most conspicuous, the period of 
Lyly, or still better, of Wilson. (2.) The second period, 
1587—1593, is undoubtedly to be named from Marlow ; 
it was in it that Tragedy, especially Historic Tragedy, 
assumed a complete form in all essential particulars. The 
Comedy of Greene was quite subordinate. (3.) The third 
period, 1594— 1603, is that of Shakespeare (as a writer of 
Comedies and Histories). No name appears by the side 
of this central figure at this epoch ; for whatever stir the 
theatrical war of Jonson, ^arston, &c., made at the time. 



1 2 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

it was ephemeral and resultlesB. (4.) The fourth period, 
1603— 161 5, I name that of Jonson, as a mask-writer, 
in spite of its being the time of the highest tragical 
development of Beaumont, of Webster, and, above all, of 
Shakespeare ; for their tragedy was, though colossal, still 
simply the outcome of Marlow's — ^the manhood, so to say, 
of the vigorous youth of the earlier bard. But the Jon- 
sonian mask was, alike in its dedication to Court patronage 
and in its introduction of expensive dresses, properties, and 
movable scenes, pregnant with imminent change which 
would affect the whole manner of presentation for the 
future post-Restoration public stage, and whose influence is 
overwhelming even in our own time. I mark these epochs 
by birth-dates rather than by maxima of development, and 
in this one the higher tragedy died in the fulness of its 
strength, not leaving offspring for the stage even in the 
works of Shelley or Browning, while the mask was the 
parent of our modem Shakespearian revival, with its inci- 
dental music, of the scenery and dress of modem presen- 
tations, with all their local colour of the Terpsichorean 
ballet, and even of Wagnerian opera. (5.) The fifth period, 
1616— 1625, is of course the period of Fletcher, the time 
of Tragi-Comedy, in which the seeds of decay first begin 
to germinate. (6.) The sixth period, 162 5- 1636, that of 
Massinger, is that of Historical Tragedy, not the Chronicle 
English History of Shakespeare, but the pseudo-classical or 
Byzantine History, in which, not presentation of fact, but 
distortion of fact to political ends, disguise of contemporary 
events under the costume of antiquated stories, is the main- 
spring of the machinery ; and finally, (7.) the period 1637— 
1642 is that of Shirley at the Blackfriars as a reviver 
of the Tragedy of the early Jacobean time, the only period 
of Shirley's work of real importance — his comedies of 



INTRODUCTIOX. 13 

the preceding period having little more significance in 
general dramatic history than those of Brome or Nabbes, 
however interesting they may be to the antiquary and to 
the dramatic specialist for their connexion with the work 
of other and greater men. Such is the division almost 
forced on us in this investigation, and fortunately exactly 
coinciding with that previously obtained from entirely 
different considerations. 

I cannot pass over in silence one point which has been 
impressed on me at every step in this long labour — the 
central importance of Ben Jonson. Fourteen years since, 
in a conversation with the present Laureate at his Hasle- 
mere mansion, he rebuked me for my comparatively low 
estimate of his illustrious predecessor ; and although he has 
since forgotten me (for what reason X know not), I have 
not forgotten one word of the many weighty apophthegms 
which he uttered in that two days' converse. I have since 
then studied Jonson deeply, and I do not exaggerate when 
I say that, although Shakespeare is the central figure in 
our dramatic literature, Jonson certainly is the central 
figure in our dramatic history. In the variety of his work, 
plays, poems, masks, entertainments, and especially in his 
IHscoveHes (the full value of which has been appreciated, 
as far as I know, by no one till Mr. Swinburne — to whom, 
by-the-bye, I owe a debt of gratitude for personally direct- 
ing my attention to Chapman twenty-six years since) ; in 
his connection with the Court; in his multiple relations 
with '' great ones," as shown in his numerous poems 
addressed to them; in his large acquaintance with other 
authors, from Selden to Coiyat ; in his origination of new 
dramatic forms of masks, comical satire, and induction ; 
in his personal experience as actor on many stages ; in his 
personal biography, of which we know more (thanks to 



14 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Drammond) than of any other of the great dramatists; 
in his adoption of author ''sons" (the playmakers, Field, 
Brome, Cartwright, Marmion, Randolph, Suckling, Butter, 
Falkland, Digby; to say nothing of Bishop Morley, Sir 
Henry Morison, Herrick, and Howell) ; and in his unique 
knowledge, among dramatists of his time, of the only other 
dramatic literature of anything like equal importance with 
our own ; — he stands pre-eminently foremost. No wonder 
that Drayton calls him " long lord here of the theatre." 
Nor did his influence cease with his death. Through his 
'' sons" he founded a school of dramatic writing which is 
far more than anything else the connecting-bridge between 
ante and post Restoration drama. Shakespeare founded no 
school; he, like Milton, Dante, Angelo, Blake, Browning, 
and other men too great for imitation, produced his influence 
silently and unawares ; no Laureate complaint that ''Brome" 
had appropriated his sweepings or called his flower a weed 
ever escaped him ; but his very greatness, like that of the 
large-lettered name of a country in a map, made him less 
recognisable and less prominent in a chronicle like the present 
than that of Jonson, whose name may rather be compared to 
that of a large town with many suburban villages around it. 
For his predominant influence on the careers of all the next 
greatest dramatists to Shakespeare I must refer the reader 
to the articles on Fletcher, Beaumont, Field, &c., in the 
body of the work. I need hardly add that the characteri- 
sation of Volpone along with " some of Balzac's master- 
pieces" as human reptiles "pver-fattened in the vast slime 
of the poet's brain " by Mr. J. A. Symonds is to me most 
repulsive, and I might use a stronger word. 

I need, I think, say little as to the pressing need for a 
book of this kind. If the earlier literature of England has 
not lost for the coming generation all its interest through 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

the detestable practice of cramming undeveloped brains with 
shilling primers and Clarendon Press editions with notes 
compiled from Concordances and Dictionaries (among which 
I do not include A. W. Ward's scholarly Fatisttts and Friar 
Bacon) ; if the study of dramatic history is to be continued in 
the future by any one outside a circle of faddists who think 
that in perpetual statement of individual opinion as to 
whether Andronicus is or is not good enough to be Shake- 
speare's there can be any element of human interest ; if the 
chronological succession of an author's works is a necessary 
basis for appreciating the value of each of them, and if the 
relations between different authors are of import in determin- 
ing the position of each one in such a literaiy history, then 
such a book is absolutely necessary, not as being the history 
itself, but the preceding chronicle on which the history of 
a truly philosophical kind must necessarily be based. For 
luch an entanglement as that presented by the prevailing 
arrangement by date of publication surely never existed 
elsewhere : owing to the retention by the companies of most 
plays from the press, the publication date often differs half- 
a-century from that of original production ; and this pro- 
duces mischief extending far beyond even dramatic history. 
For instance, in the large English Dictionary edited by Dr. 
Murray the quotations of plays are frequently far too late, 
and the whole history of our language is thus reduced to an 
inextricable muddle ; and I have no doubt that many quota- 
tions earlier than those given might be supplied by any one 
who will use this book of mine as a chronological guide. I 
did, indeed, offer to do this for that work, but, unfortunately, 
my handwriting was declared illegible (as it often has been by 
others — ^yet, strangely, printers do not complain of it); and 
although my name has been printed among the ^' readers " 
without my authority, and I am thus made responsible for 



i6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

the fifty-one plays in the Fletcher folio, I never contributed 
more than a few notes for half-a-dozen. 

Bat this last paragraph depends on numeroos '* ifs," and 
as to the first of these I am veiy doubtful. I have rather 
a large juvenile and communicative acquaintance, and I 
hear continually how hard it is for an Aske's schoolboy to 
recollect which plays were written by Shakespeare " up on 
the heights," and which '' down in the depths ; " what a 
bore it is in the City of London School to be told every 
week that Greene called Shakespeare a Shakescene; how 
unpleasant it is for a Queen's College student to be re- 
minded at intervals of some ten days for six months 
together that Fleay (her uncle in this instance) is utterly 
wrong in his hypothesis about Jvlius Cxsar^ that I greatly 
fear that Shakespeare, and, a fortiori, all the " mushrooms 
that grew under the Shakespearian oak," will be hated by 
the next generation as much as Cassar and Horace, Thucy- 
dides and Euripides, were by the average schoolboy of my 
own time ; while, as to the general public, any one who 
looks into the Transactions of Shakespearian Societies or 
Shakespearian periodicals — the American Shakespeariana, for 
example— or the publications of Delius or Delia, Ignatius 
Donnelly or Mr. Feis ; nay, who even considers the amount 
of dust-heap to be sifted before Fumess can issue one of 
his splendid Variorum editions, will regard any one devoting 
patient study to such matters as a probable monomaniac. 
But enough — I have written the book, and it must speak 
for itself. The plays therein treated of can speak also for 
themselves; many of them are of the immortfis, and if 
neglected for a time through passing influences, they will 
again come into notice more brilliant than before. 



MIKKOK FOR MAGISTRATES. 17 



EXCURSUS ON THE MIRROR FOR MAGISTRATES. 

As the importance of this series of poems as one of the 
principal origines of our historical drama has never been 
sufficiently recognised, I give an abstract of its contents, 
with references to plays more or less founded on them. 

i. T. Marsh's original issue 1559, licensed 1 5 58, but 
partly printed by Wayland a 1655, and suppressed under 
Queen Mary. All these legends are ''since the time of 
Richard 2." I give historic dates, authors, titles, and 
remarks. 

1. 1388. Ferrers. Robert Tresilian. 

2. 1329; 1387. Baldwyn. The two Roger Mortimers ; 
cf . Edward 2 and The Fall of Mortimer. 

3. 1397. Ferrers. Thomas of Woodstock ; cf. the older 
play on Richard 2. 

4. 1398. Churchyard. Lord Mowbray; cf. Shake- 
speare's Richard 2. 

5- I399« Baldwyn. Richard 2 ; cf. ibid, 

6. 1 40 1. Phaer. Owen Glendower ; cf. Henry 4. 

7. 1407. Baldwyn. Henry Percy ; cf. Henry 4. 

8. 1415. Baldwyn. Richard Plantagenet, Earl of 
Cambridge. 

9 . 1428. Baldwyn. Thomas Montague, Earl of Salisbury. 

10. 1437. Baldwyn. James 1 of Scotland. 

11. 1450. Baldwyn. William de la Poole, Earl of 
Suffolk ; cf. 2 Henry 6. 

12. 14050. Baldwyn. Jack Cade; cf. 2 Henry 6. 

13. 1460. Baldwyn. Richard Plantagenety DvJce of 
York; cf. Henry 6. 

14. 1 46 1. Baldwyn. Lord Clifford; cf. Henry 6. 

15. 1470. Baldwyn. Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester. 
VOL. I. B 



i8 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1 6 . 1 4 7 I . Bald wyn. Richard Nevil, Earl of Wartcick, 
and John Nevil, Lord Montague ; cf . 3 Heni*y 6. 

17. 147 1. Bald wyn. Henry 6; cf. H^nry 6. 

18. 1478. Baldwyn. Oeorge Plantagenety Duke of 
Clarence ; cf. Henry 6, Richard 3, Edward 4, The older 
Richard 3, Richard Crookback, Henry RicJimond, 

19. 1483. Skelton. Edward 4 ; cf. ibid. 

ii. In Marsh's 1 563 edition, reprinted I 57 1, were added 
as Part II. : — 

20. 1483. Baldwyn? Antony Woodville, Lord Rivers^ 
&c. ; cf. t(it2. 

21. 1483. Dolman. Lord Hastings, ct ibid. 

22. 1483. Sackville. Henry Duke of Btukingham 
(with Induction) ; cf . ibid. 

23. 1483. Baldwyn? Colliiiboume, executed for a 
foolish rhyme. 

24. 1485. Seagers. Richard Duke of Gloster ; ci. ibid, 

25. 1483. Churchyard. Jane Shore; cf. Edward 4, 
Sho7'e*s Wife. 

26. 1454. Ferrers. Edmond Duke of Somerset; cf. 
Henry 6. 

27. 1496. Cavyl. Michael Joseph the Blacksmith and 
Lord Audley. 

iii. In I 574 were published as a first part (because earlier 
historically) the legends by Higgins of mythical and Roman 
Britain, here numbered as in the ultimate arrangement : — 

I. 1085, Albanact (cf. Conan [Coron] of Cornwall). 2. 
1085, Humber. 3. 1064, Locrine. 4. 1064, Elstride. 
5. 1064, Sabrina. (On this group cf. Zocri7i€.) 6. loog, 
Madan. 7. loog, Malin. 8. gSg, Memjnicitis. 9. 844, 
Bladud (cf. Bmte Greenshidd and the Finding of the Bath). 
10. 800, Cordila (cf. King Lear and the older Leir). 1 1. 
2 66 f Morgan (cf. ibid,). 13. 491, Ferrex. 14. 491, 



MIRROR FOR MAGISTRATES. 19 

Porrex (cf. Gorhodiic). 19. 321, Kimanis. 20. 303, 
Morindus. 24. 52, Nenniu^. 25. Sij Irelanglas, covsin 

m 

to Cassibelan, was added in 157$. 

The only other addition in the editions of IS75.IS78 
was an enlargement of the L'envoy from 5 stanzas to 1 5- Bnt 
in 1 578 R. Webster published a rival ** second part," written 
by Blennerhasset only, containing the following legends : — 

I. 17, Guiderius (cf. Cymbeline). 2. 219, Caravsius, 
3. 289, Helena, 4. 446, Vortiger (cf. Vodtiger and The 
Mayor of Quhrborough). 5. $00, Uter Pendragon (cf. The 
Birth of Merlin). 6. 6%^, Cadwallader. 7. 7^^^ Sigebert. 
8. 870, -B65a. 9. Sy2,Alivred(c{. Alfrediis). 10. 1016, 
Egelrede (cf . Edgar in a Knack to Kmw a Knave). 1 1 . 
lOi 8, JSaric. 12. 1066, Harold. 

In 1 587 Marsh added to his " First Part " of the Mirror 
the following " Tragedies " by Higgins : — 12. 612 B.C., Jagc. 
15. 441, Pinnar (cf. MulmtUius 3unwallow). 16. 441, 
Stater. 17. 441, Ricdacke of Wales. 18. 375, -Brcnni«(cf. 
The True Trojans). 21. 235, ^merianws. 22. 137, C%ar- 
rinnus. 23. 136, Fixrianus. Then after 25 follows the 
envoy. Then 26. 44, Julius Ccesar (cf. Julius Cassar, 
Caesar's Fall). 27. 39 a.d., Nero (cf. iVero). 28. 42, 
CaligiUa. 29. 46, Guiderius (cf. Cymhdine). 30. 46, 
Lelius Hamo. 31. 56, Tiberius Drusus. 32. 70, Domi» 
tius. 33. 71, ffoZJa. 34. 71, 0^/w. 35. 71, Vitellitcs. 
36. 80, Zondricus the Pict. 37. 213, SSsverte^. 38. 213, 
Fulgentius the Pid. 39. 214, (reto. 40. 209, Caracalla. 

There are also in this 1 587 edition some modern instances 
added which would have suited the 1 5 59— 7 1 book better ; 
these were : — 

28. 1440. Ferrers. Eleanor Cobham; cf. 2 Henry 6. 

29. 1440. Ferrers. Humphrey Duke of Gloster. But 
were not these two in the 1578 edition ? 



20 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

30. 1 44 1 . Higgins. Sir Nicholas Burdett, 

31. 1513. [Dingley.] Javus 4 of Scotland (writteD 
fifty years since ; cf. Greene). 

32. 1 5 1 3 . Dingley. Flodden Field. 

33- 1530* Churchyard. Rise and Fall of WoUey 
(cf. Cromwell, Henry 8, When you see me, etc.; i. 2. 
Wolsey). 

Finally, in 16 10 F. Kingston published an enlarged 
edition containing A. 1-40 from Higgins' 1587 edition; 
B. I- 1 2 from Blennerhassett's 1578; 0. 1-27 from Bald- 
wyn's 1571; and 28-33 from Newton's 1587, with the 
following exceptions. He omits 10, Baldwyn's Jam£S I ; 
24, Seagar's Richard 3 ; 31, 32, Dingley's James 4, and 
Flodden: the Richard 3 in favour of his own; the rest 
because they are on Scotch history. He adds : — 

34. 1540. Drayton. Lord Cromwell (cf. i. 2. Wolsey, 
Cromwell, Ac), and A Winter Night's Vision, by Niccols, 
containing the following: i. Arthur; 2. Edmund Iron- 
side ; 3. Alfred ; 4. Godudn Earl of Kent (cf. 1.2. Godivin) ; 
5. Robert Curthose; 6. Richard Cceur de Lion (cf. R. C,'s 
funeral)', 7. John (cf. John, the older play, John and 
Matilda, Look about you, 8. Edioard 2 (cf. Edward 2, 
The Fall of Mortimer) ; 9. The Princes murdered in the 
Tower ; 10. Richard 3. 

He then appends England's Eliza, Bat all this Niccols 
group came too late to serve as foundation for plays; it 
was rather founded on them. Among rival legends to the 
Mirror should be noted Daniel's Rosamond, 1592 ; Lodge's 
Elstred, 1593 ; Chute's Shore's Wife, 1593 ; C. Middleton's 
Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, 1 600 ; Giles Fletcher, senior, 
Rising of Richard 3, 1 593 ; C. Brooke's Ghost of Richard 3, 
1 6 1 4 ; and above all these, W. Warner's Albion's England, 
I 586-1602. 



THE 



BIOGRAPHIES OF THE PLAYWEIGHTS, 

1557-1642. 

ALPHABETICALLY ARRANGED ; 

WITH THE CHRONOLOGICAL SUCCESSION OF 

THEIR WORKS. 



Adamson, Patrick. (Latin.) 

I. Herodes, T. c. 1572. 

AiNSwoRTH, George. (Latin.) 

I. Clytophoriy C. MS. in Emanuel Library, Cambridge, 
which belonged to a William Breton. 

Alabaster, William. (Latin.) 

1 . 1632, May 9, for Andrew Crook. Soxarta, T. 1632. 

Born at Hadleigh, Saffolk; scholar of Westminster school ; 
elected to Trinity, Caiilbridge, 1583; M.A. ad eundenij 
Oxford, 7th July 1592 ; chaplain to Robert, Earl of Essex, 
in the Cadiz voyage, 1595 ; became a Roman Catholic, but 
returned to the Church of England; appointed preben- 
dary of St. Paul's, D.D. and rector of Tharfield, Hertford- 
shire. Died April 1640. Nicholas Bacon of Gray's Inn 
was executor to his will. 

I. Boxana, Trngcedia, a plagiarii unguihus mndicata 
aiLda et agnita ah mithore Gvlielmo Alahastro was several 
times acted at Trinity, Cambridge. There was an earlier 
surreptitious edition also dated 1632. (Hazlitt.) 

Alexander, Wiluam,^ of Menstrie, afterwards Earl of 
Stirling. (Unacted plays.) 

I. 1604, April 30, for Edward Blunt. Works, contain- 
ing the Monarchic Tragedies, viz. — 

1. Darius^ T, 1604 (Edin. ed. 1603), 1607, 1 6 16. 

2. Crosstis, T. 1604, i607> 16 16. 

3. The Alexandrcearij T. 1605, 1607, 1 6 16. 

4. Julius Ccesar,T. 1607, 16 16. 

The text of the 1 6 1 6 edition differs much from the earlier 
ones. These plays appeal solely to the literary student 
In form they retain tlie Greek method, with expository pro- 



as 



24 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

logues, stichomytliia, lyric chomseSi and messenger narra- 
tions. As there is no trace of any connexion of Alexander 
with the stage beyond the lines to Alleyn, c. 1619 (Collier's 
Alleyn, p. 178), and even these relate to him rather as 
founder of Dulwich College than as player, any further de- 
tails of his career in this place would savour of book-making. 
Armin, Robert. (Actor and playwright.) 

1. The Two Maids of Moreclacke, H, 1609. By 
N. 0[kes], for T. Archer. 

2. 1615, Feb. 21, for R. Lownes. T?ie Valiant Welsh- 
many T. C, 1615 ; 1663. 

From a story in Tarleton's Jests (the second part of 
which was entered S. R. 1600, Aug. 4) it appears that 
Armin was bom c. 1568, apprenticed to a goldsmith c. 
1 582, and adopted as his '* son" and successor c. 1585—7. 
In 1590 he wrote a preliminary address to A Brief Resolu- 
tion of the Bight Beligion. In 1593 Harvey mentions him 
in Piercers Supererogation along with Stubbs and Deloney as 
a " son of Elderton " among the ** common pamphleteers." 
Before 1599 he was one of Lord Chandos' players as 
clown ; Jack Miller gave him the name of Grumball (Nest 
of Ninnies). About 1599 he replaced Kempe as Dogberry 
with the Chamberlain's company. In The Italian Taylor 
he calls himself " a beggar " (i.e,, an armin) ** who hath been 
writ down an ass in his time, and pleads under forma 
pauperis in it still, notwithstanding his constableship and 
office," and in Tarleton's Jests ''at the Globe on Bankside 
men may see him ; " it is clear that he joined them before 
1 600, Aug. 4, probably on their removal to the Globe, 1 599, 
Mar. He had been in Scotland {Nest of Ninnies) no doubt 
in 1 60 1, when the Chamberlain's men went there. In 
1603, May 19, his name stands eighth in the Kings 
players patent. He acted in The London Prodigal as 



ARMIN. 25 

Mat. Flowerdale : cf, v. i. — " Luct, So young an Armin ? 
Mat. Fl, Armin : I know not what yon mean by that, but 
I am almost a beggar." He was then about thirty-six. In 
1604, June 1 1, S. R., he prefixed a dedicatory letter to his 
relative Gilbert Dugdale's Trvjt JXscourse on the Poisoning 
of Tfiomas CaJdwelL This dedication is addressed to Lady 
Mary Chandos, widow of Lord Chandos, who died 1602. 
In it Armin calls himself '* Pink/' i.e., Bagged Bobin 
{Lychnis Flos Cuculi), another allusion to his poverty 
hitherto unnoticed. In 1605, May 4, A. Phillips left 
him in his will 20s. Also in 1605, for W. Perbrand, he 
published Fool upon Fool, or Six Sorts of Sots : — 

I. A Fat Pool. 2. A Plat Pool. 

3. A Lean Pool. 4. A Clean Pool. 

5. A Merry Pool. 6. A Very Pool. 

Omnia s^cnt Sex Clonnico del mondo Snuffe, This work 
gave offence, as Armin tells us in The Italian Tailor, and 
was altered and reissued, 1608, by T. E. for J. Deane as 
A Nest of Ninnies simply of themselves without compound^ 
stvltorum plena sunt omnia, by Robert Armin. The dedi- 
cation to the gentlemen of Oxford, Cambridge, and the 
Inns of Court mentions the Globe. He was at this time 
writing for the Eang's Revels boys at the Whitefriars, 
having probably left the Eang's men in consequence of 
this offensive book. Whether in 1605 (i,e., between 1605, 
Mar. 25, and 1606, Mar. 26) he was with Kempe managing 
the (Queen's) Revels children at Blackfriars depends on the 
authenticity of the document cited by Collier {Actors, p. 
117) from "the city archives." See under Kempe, and, 
for the fools, my History of the Stage, p. 375. "As 
Hamlet says, things called whips in store " in .^ Nest of 
Ninnies is an additional proof that Kyd wrote the early 



26 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Hamlet. "Things called whips'' is a phrase of his often 
ridiculed. In 1609, Feb. 6, S. R., for T. Pavier, PhantcLsma 
the Italian Tailor and his Boy (dedicated to Lord and Lady 
Haddington, and translated from Straparola's Notte Pia^ 
cevoli, viii. 5), was entered by Robert Armin, ** servant to his 
majesty : " he had therefore rejoined the King's men on the 
breaking, I suppose, of the King's Revels children. He acted 
for them in Jonson's Alchemist in 16 10, and in Davis of 
Hereford's Scourge of Folly, S. R., 1610, Oct. 8, is men- 
tioned as still alive. A reference to S. R. would have 
saved a mass of dispute as to the date of the last-named 
work. He probably quitted the stage at the end of 1610, 
and died a 161 1. He did not act in Catiline, 161 1. 
Dekker's If it be not good the DeviTs in*t was published 
161 2. In So. 3 it alludes to A Nest of Ninnies, and 
Grumbal the fiend (Armin's nickname, see supra) was 
altered to Lurchall, probably in consequence of the death 
of Armin, of whom this character was a caricature. 

1 . The History of the Two Maids of Moreclacke (Mortlake), 
" with the life and simple manner of John in the Hospital," 
was acted by the children of the King's Revels [at White- 
friars] in 1608, published 1609 as by R. Armin, ** ser- 
vant to the King's most excellent Majesty." Armin acted 
John " in the City if not in the (w)hole," and at Court. 
There is Welsh in this play. 

2. The Valiant Welshman, or The Chronicle History of 
the Life and Valiant Deeds of Caradoc the Great King of 
Cambria^ now called Wales, T. C, ** by R. A., gent.," S. R., 
1615, Feb. 21, was acted by the Prince of Wales' ser- 
vants, i.e., Prince Henry's. Charles was not created Prince 
of Wales till 1 6 1 6, Nov. It was therefore doubtless The 

Welshman, acted at the Rose, 1595, Nov. 29, as an old 
play (originally written before 1593), but not The Welsh-- 



ARTHUR— BACON. 27 

marCs Prize, by Chettle and Drayton of 1598. "R. A." 
was certainly meant for Armin, but not having read tbe 
play, I give no opinion on its authorship. 

Arthur, Thomas (Latin), of St. John's, Cambridge. ^ 

1. Microcosmus, T. 1 Two MSS. in St John's Library, 

2. Mundiis Plumbem, T.j 1 6th century. r 
Atkinson, Thomas. (Latin.) 

I. Homo, T. MS. Harl. 6925. Dedicated to Laud, 
then President of St. John's, Cambridge, c. 161 2. 
B., R. (Plays.) Query Richard Bower. 
I. 1567—8, for R. Jones. Appius and Virginia^ C, 

1575; 

See my History of the Stage, p. 6 1 • 

Richard Bower was master of the Chapel children in 
1559, when they played the offensive play [Misogonus], 
3 1 Dec. He had held that office under Henry YIII. and 
Edward VI., and was continued in it 30th April 1559 at a 
salary of £/^o. In 1563 he may have been a master 
at Westminster; but J. Taylor was the master. Bower 
may have lost his place for allowing Misogonus to be pre- 
sented. See also 2. Common Conditions and 3. Clyomon 
and Clamydes, 

Bacon, Sir Prancls. (Masks.) 

1. 1588, Feb. 28. Bacon devised some of the Dumb 
Shows in The Misfortunes of Arthur, presented by the 
gentlemen of Gray's Inn to the Queen at Greenwich. 

2. c. 1592-3 [query 1592, Nov. 17]. He wrote 
speeches for a Device presented to the Queen, printed by 
Mr. Spedding as ** A ConfereTice of Pleasure,** and about 
the same time a Sonnet (in honour of the Earl of Essex), 
when he entertained the Queen at Twickenham Park. 

3- I595> Jc^- 3* Bacon contributed to the Gesta 
Graiorum the speeches of the six councillors to the Prince 



a8 THE ENGLISH DEAMA. 

of Purpoole (Nichols, Eliz. iii. 288—295, oomp&i*e L— xxi. ; 
Ward ii. 147). 

4. 1595, Nov. 17. He wrote the speeches for the 
Device [query the Fssex Antic Mask'] exhibited by the Earl 
of Essex to the Queen on the anniversary of her accession 
(Nichols, Miz, iii. 371). 

5. 161 3, Feb. 20. He was the "chief contriver" of 
Beaumont's mask of The Mai^riage of the Thames and the 
Bhine at the Princess Elizabeth's marriage (Nichols, James^ 

ii. 591). 

6. 1 614, Jan. 6. He was the "chief encourager" of 
the Mask of FbwerSy presented by the gentlemen of Gray's 
Inn at the marriage of the Earl of Somerset (Nichols, Janus, 
ii. 735. It cost him jf2000, ii. 705). 

Bale, John, Bishop of Ossory. (Play.) 

I. The only play of Bale's that comes within the pur- 
view of the present work is John^ King of England, printed 
from the Duke of Devonshire's MS. by Collier for the Cam- 
den Society, 1838. This was doubtless performed before 
the Queen at Ipswich, Aug. 1 561, as then altered by Bale, 
who died soon after, not later than Nov. 1563, astaiis 67. 
I have given further details on this play in my History of 
the Stage, "pp. 62-64. Bale's earlier interludes date before 

1538. 
Barclay, Sir William. (Play.) 

I. 1638, Mar. 5, for John Okes. T?ie Lost Lady, T. C, 
1638. The copyright was transferred to J. Coleby 1638, 
Sept. 24, and from him to R Boiston 1640, Sept. 5. I 
do not think this play was acted, but Cornelia (not pub- 
lished), by Sir William Bartley (Barclay), was, at Gibbon's 
Tennis- Court, Vere Street, Clare Market, ist Jun^ 1662. 
Barclay died 13th July 1677. Fortunately he has left 
nothing but this worthless play, and needs no further notice. 



BARKSTED— BAENES. 29 

Barkoted, William. (Actor and play-cobbler.) 

This man acted in Jonson's Ejpicene, 16 10 [Jan.] as a 
member of the Queen's Bevels children ; in 1 6 11 , Aug. 
29, he became a member of the Lady Elizabeth's men ; in 
1 61 2— 13 acted in The Coxcomb, sjid 161 6, Mar. 20, signed 
the articles of agreement with Alleyn as one of Prince 
Charles' men. His only appearance as an author is as the 
vamper of i. The Insatiate Countess in 161 3, for which see 
under Marston. There is a curious difficulty in the title- 
page of Barksted's poem Hiren, or The Fair Greeky 161 1, 
in which he is called " one of the servants of His Majesty's 
Bevels." He was certainly at that time a servant of ffer 
Majesty's Bevels ; but there may have been an earlier edition, 
for I cannot find the poem entered in S. B., although his 
Mirrha the Mother of Adonis, or Lust's ProdigieSy duly 
appears there, 12th Nov. 1607: '^Whereunto are added 
certain eglogs by L[ewis] M[achin]," who was one of the 
authors of The Dumb Knight, acted by the children of His 
Majesty's Bevels," and entered 6th Oct. 1608. Mirrha and 
The Dumb Knight were transferred by John Bache to Bobert 
Wilson, 19th Nov. 16 10. I think Barksted must have 
belonged to His Majesty's Bevels in 1608, and that Hiren 
was sent to the publisher at that time. 

Bahnes, Barnabt. (Plays.) 

I. 1607, Oct. 16, for John Wright. The Tragedy of 
Pope Alexander 6, 1607. 

Barnes was a younger son of Bichard Barnes, Bishop of 
Durham. Born in Yorkshire, 1569 ; student of Brazenose, 
Oxford, 1586, but took no degree. He accompanied the Earl 
of Essex to France in 1591. In 1593, May 10, S. B., was 
was licensed for John Wolf his Parthenophil and Parthenope, 
Sonnets, Madrigalsy Megies, and Odes. Dedicated to William 
Percy, his dearest friend, with verses to Henry Earl of Nor- 



30 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

thamberland, Robert Earl of Essex, Henry Earl of Sontb- 
ampton, Lady Mary, Countess of Pembroke, Lady Strange, 
and Lady Bridgett Manners. On 25th Aug. 1595, S. R., 
for John Windett, was entered A Divine Century of Spiritual 
Sonnets, On 3rd Feb. 1606, for George Bishop, Four Books 
of Offices^ Ac. 

1. 1606, Feb. 2. The DeviFs Charter^ T., "containing 
the life and death of Pope Alexander 6/' was played by 
the King's men before His Majesty. It was " corrected and 
augmented " (raore's the pity) before publication. 

2. Hie Battle of Hexham MS. was sold among Isaac 
Reed's books in 1 807. 

3. 1624, May 3. A new play called The Madcap was 
licensed by Herbert for Prince Charles' company, " written 
by Barnes." 

He has verses prefixed to Harvey's Pierce's Supererogation, 
1593; Florio's World of Words, i S98 ; Ford's Faine's Me- 
morial, 1606. 

As his career, excepting The Madcap, is unknown after 
1607, that play may have been written by some other 
Barnes, possibly the actor " little Will Barnes," who was a 
boy member of Pembroke's company in 1 597. 

Baron, Robert. (Play). 

Bom 1630. Of Cambridge, 1647, and Gray's Inn. 

1. Gripus and Hegio, or The Passionate Lovers, P., 1647. 
Founded on, or rather taken from, Webster's Duchess of 
Malfy and Waller's Poems. 

2. Deorum Dona, mask, 1647 (in his romance, Tlie 
Cyprian Academy), taken chiefly from Waller. 

3. Mirza. T. n, d. Same story as The Sophy ; same 
method as Jonson's Catiline. All these plays were written 
but not acted at Cambridge. 

Barry, Lodowick. (Play.) 



BARRY. 31 

I. 1 610, Nov. 9, for Robert Wilson. Sam Alley, or 
Merry Tricks, C, 161 1, 1636, 1639. This o°® pro- 
dnction of this Irish gentleman had been acted '**^ers 
times heretofore" by the children of the King's Revels; 
probably in 1609, certainly after the 1606 November 
statute against drunkenness called "the last statute/' iv. i, 
and before the next statute on 9th February 1 6 1 o. The 
allusions to Borneo and Juliet are very numerous. "The 
operation of the third pot," iiL 2 (cf. R. J., iii. I, 8, 
** The operation of the second cup ") ; " Is there no trust, 
no honesty in men?" iii. 4 (cf. R, J,, iii. 2, 85, "There is 
no trust, no faith, no honesty in men ") ; " He moveth not, 
he stirreth not, he waggeth not" (cf. -B. J,, ii. I, 15, "He 
heareth not, he stirreth not, he moveth not"). Now, a 
new edition of Romeo and Juliet appeared in 1609, probably 
after the reopening of the theatres on December i, after 
nearly a year's closure on account of the plague : copies would 
hardly sell well while the playhouses were shut. Again, in 
iv. I, " I dwindle as a new player does at a plague bill certified 
forty." The only "new" players within the limits of date were 
the Queen's men, whose patent on their opening their new 
house, the Red Bull, dates 1 5 th April 1 609 ; but they could 
not play till December on account of the plague. In i. 2 
we find that baboons, calves with two tails, and motions 
(puppets) were very popular. This also points to a time 
when the regular theatres were closed. In iv. 4, " You 
know the law has tricks" looks very like an allusion to 
Day's Law Ti'ickSy published 1608. All these indications 
point to Christmas 1 609— 10 as the date of performance 
of the play. But either before or after its first appearance 
it was (imperfectly) revised, the name of the Captain having 
been changed. He appears sometimes as Face, sou^etimes 
as PufiE. The play is anti-Puritan : i. 4 contains a capital 



32 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

paraphrase from Hooker beginning *' Law is the world's 
great light," and is especially interesting to the Shakespeare 
student for its reminiscences of lines from Henry 4, The 
MercharU of Venicey Hamlet ^ Othello, &c., as well as whole 
passages from Kjd's Jeronymo. If the allusion, v. 2, to 
the Ninnies '^ not in London held the smallest kindred " be 
(as I think it is) to the characters in Field's Weathercock 
Woman (acted 16 10 after 4th January), the exact date of 
performance will lie between 4th January and 9th February. 
Beaumont, Fbancis. See Fletcher, John. 
Belchier, Dabridgecourt. (Play.) 
I. 161 8, June 3, for Bernard Alsope. See me and See 
me not, C, 161 8. 

The eldest son of William Belchier of Gillesborough, 

Northamptonshire; entered at Corpus Christi, Cambridge, 

2nd March i S97 ; B.A., Christchurch, Oxford, 6th February 

1 600 ; settled at Utrecht, and while there adapted his one 

play from the Dutch. Died in the Low Countries, 162 1. 

I . Hans Beerpot, his invisible comedy of See me and See 

me not : " acted in the Low Countries by an honest Company 

of Health-Drinkers," but probably not acted in London. 

BoNEN, William. (Plays.) 

Two entries of his name occur in Herbert's MS. 

I. 1623, Sept. 12, The Cra\_fty'] Merchant, or Come 

to my Country House, C, for the Lady Elizabeth's 

players. The authorship of The Crafty Merchant, or The 

Soldiered Citizen, no doubt the same play, was assigned to 

Shakerley Marmion in Warburton's list ; but Marmion took 

care not to leave his plays unpublished, and the names of 

authors in that list are frequently untrustworthy. The 

cancelled title therein which Halliwell would identify with 

this play. The Merchant's Sacrifice, is probably a simple error 

for Minerva's Sacrifice, The further notice printed by Collier 



BOURNE— BRAITHWAITK 33 

and copied by Halliwell (though Chalmers had given it 
rightly) about the players being none of the four companies 
belongs to Day's play, Come see a Wonder. 

2. 1623, Nov. 19. Two Kings in a Cottage, T., for 
the Palsgrave's players. 

BouBNE (or Bird), Wiluam. (Actor and playwright.) 
1597, Aug. 10. This actor engaged himself to Henslow 
to play at the Rose with the Admiral's men, and in no other 
house public in London for three years (Diary, p. 2 5 8). 

1. 1600, Feb. 9. "Lent unto me, W. Bird, to pay for 
a new book to Will. Boyle, called Jugurth, zxx.s., which if 
you dislike I'll repay it back" {Diary y p. 164). This play 
is never mentioned again by Henslow, but was licensed by 
Buck, and again as '' Jugurth, King of Numidiay an old 
play," by Herbert, 1624, May 3 (he does not say for what 
company). I think Boyle, who is utterly unknown else- 
where, is merely a nom de plume for Bird himself. 

2. 1 60 1, Dec. 20—24. He aided S. Rowley in Joshua. 
See Rowley, S. 

3. 1602, Nov. 22. He aided S. Rowley in additions to 
Doctor FavMtis. See Marlow, C. Bird remained with the 
same company, afterwards patronised by Prince Henry, and 
then by the Palsgrave, till 3 ist Oct. 161 8 at least, but died 
or left acting not later than the burning of the Fortune in 
1 62 1. He accompanied S. Rowley throughout his career. 

Boyle, William. See Bourne, 

Brandon, Samuel. (Play.) 

I. 1598, Oct. 5, for William Ponsonby. The Virtuous 
Oetaviay T. C, 1598. This play, written in the Seneca 
manner, with choruses, was probably not acted. At the end 
are printed two epistles between Octavia and Antony. 

Braithwaite, Richard. (Political squib ; in English and 
Latin.) 

VOL. I. c 



34 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

I. Mercurius BritannicuSy or T?ie English Intelligencer 
A tragi-comedy at Paris. Acted with great applause 1 64 1 . 

This quasi-dramatic discussion of ship-money, also called 
in its half-title The Censure of the Judges, or The Court 
Cure, needs no further notice here. For an excellent account 
of the author and his works, see Haslewood's edition of 
Barnabee*s Journal. 

Breton, Nicholas. (Editor.) 

I. An old man*s lesson and a young man*s love, 1605. 
An interlude, edited by N. Breton. 

Brewer, Antony. (Plays.) 

1. The Country Girl, C, "often acted," by T[ony] 
B[rewer]. ■ 1 647. Scenes at London and Edmonton. 

2. The Lovesick King, T. H., " with the life and death 
of Cartesmunda, the fair Nun of Winchester." 1655. 

The Lovesick King was not, I think, acted at London, but 
at Newcastle. In ii. I, "Is he not one of those players of 
interludes that dwells at Newcastle?" "If there be any 
Helicon in England, 'tis here at Newcastle." In iii. i, 
V. 3, Newcastle sea-coals are preferred to Croydon char- 
coals. In ii. I Monday, the playwright, is alluded to: 
" What day is this ? 0, Monday ; I shall love Monday's vein 
to poetize as long as I live." Cf. Jonson, The Case is Altered, 
1598, i. I, where Antonio Balladino (Monday) says, "An* 
they'll give me twenty pounds a play, I'll not raise my 
vein." Grim the Collier is one of the characters. Haugh- 
ton's play of that name dates March 1600. Heywood's 
How to learn of a woman to woo (acted at Court 1605, 
and of course earlier in public) seems to be alluded to at the 
end of Act L and in Act ii. All these indicate a date of 
c. 1604. The names of the characters, Grim, Osric, Hoffman, 
Randal, Canutus, &a, seem to be taken from Admiral's men's 
plays of 1597-1603. 



BROME 35 

Bbome, Alexander. (Play.) 

I. Tfie Cunning Lovers, C, 1654. 

This play was successfully acted by Queen Henrietta's 
men at the Cockpit before 1639, Aug. 10, when it occurs 
in Beeston's list. This fact throws doubt on the date, 
1620, assigned to Brome'fi birth in Biog. Dram. For the 
plot of the play see The Seven Wise Masters of Borne and the 
novel called TJie Forttmate Deceived and Unfortunate Lovers. 

For Brome's Songs and other publications see Hazlitt's 
Handbook. He gave to the press two vols* of Bichard Brome's 
plays, 1653—9 ; to which author, he expressly tells us in his 
verses prefixed to the second volume, he was not related. 

Brome, Richard. (Plays.) 

1632, Mar. 24, for Nicholas Vavasor. 6. The Northern 
Lass, C, 1632, 1635, 1663. 

1640, Mar. 19, for n6. The Antipodes, C, 1640. 

Francis Constable. |i3. Sparagus Garden, C, 1640. 

8. The Covent Garden, C, 1658. 

^ . -.11.-4 New Academy or Exchange, 

1640, Aug. 4, for 0. 1 65 8. 

Andrew Crooke. ^ ' ^ . , ^ ^ 

3. The Lovesick Court, C, 1658. 

,15. The English Moor, C, 1659. 

12. The Queen and Concubine^ C, was published with 

these four in 1659 as '' Five new plays." 

17. The Jovial Crew, C, for E. D. and N. E., 165 1. 
5. The Damoisdle, C, 

18. The Court Beggar^ C, 
14. The Mad Couple well 

maichedy C, 
4. The City Wit, C, 
9. Novella, C, , 

7. The Queen's Exchange, C, 1657, 1661, for Henry 
Brome. 



were published 1653 for 
T. Dring and B. Marriot 
as " Five new plays." 



36 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1. A Favlt in Friendship was licensed 1623, Oct. 2, 
"for the Prince's serrants/' who then acted at the Red 
Bull. ^' Written bj Brome and young Jonson." 

2. The Lovesick Maid^ or The Honor of Young Ladies, 
was licensed Feb. 1629 ; acted by the King's men at Conrt 
1629; entered S. R. 1653, Sept. 9, for H. Moseley. 

3. The Lovesick Court , or The ambitious Politic^ would 
seem, by its title, to be of a near date to the preceding;, 
but there is no definite evidence on the question. 

4. The City Wit, or The Woman wears the Breeches, 
was written (according to the Prologue spoken at a revival) 
in former times, when it bore the seal of Ben ; some may 
have seen it ere the actor who took the Pedant's part wore 
a beard. In my judgment this is the earliest of Brome's 
plays that has come down to us. Dekker's influence is more 
clearly visible in it than in the other playa Moreover, a 
ballad, " A Woman vxmld wear the Breeches " [Briches], 
was entered S. R. 26th Nov. 1629, and ballads in Charles' 
time were as commonly taken from plays as plays in Eliza- 
beth's were from ballads. I date this play c. 1629. Note 
that the speaker of the Prologue carries the title-board with 
the play-name. 

5. The Damoiselle, or Tlie New Ordinary, would seem, 
from allusions in the Prologue, Epilogue, and iii. i., to 
have been produced before Davenant got his Laureate pen- 
sion and Sack on 13th Dec. 1638, but after Jonson's death, 
Aug. 1637 : note in iii. I : — 

** The gift, One has, to bounce up his own works." 

Beeston and Davenant were then not friends. Compare 
Lady Alimony for a like quarrel in 1658. 

6. The Northern Lass, or A Nest of Fools, was written 
after Nov. 1630. See iii. 2, which alludes to Dr. Leighton 



BROMK 37 

" cropt and slit worse than a Parliamentai delinquent for 
blaspheming the Blood RoyaL" The "late long silence" 
in Brome's address, on its publication 24th Mar. 1632, is 
that cansed by the closing of the theatres for the plague in 
1631. See my History of the Stage, p. 335. In the com- 
mendatory verses to this play Jonson calls Brome his faithful 
servant and loving friend. He also mentions his prentice- 
ship, %.e., of seven years, 1623—29. The " Good Woman " 
in the verses of Brome's brother Stephen is Rowley's New 
Wonder y S. R., 24th Nov. 163 1 ; and Heywood's Oirl worth 
Oold, also alluded to, was published, S. R., i6th June 163 1. 
Ford and Dekker (who calls Brome his " son ") also contri- 
buted verses commendatoiy. This play was acted at the 
Globe and Blackfriars by the Eling's men. 

7. The Queen's Exchange, called The Boyal Exchange in 
1 66 1 edition, was acted at Blackfriars by the King's men. 
Henry Brome, who published it with this (no doubt correct) 
statement on the title-page, curiously enough forgot to alter 
his Address to the Readers where he says, "When 'twas 
written or where acted I know not." In ii. 2, " We have 
prayed for the King these seven years" fixes the date to 
1631 or 1632. 

8. The Covent Garden Weeded, or The Middlesex JiLstice 
of Peace^ or The Weeding of the Covent Garden, was un- 
doubtedly acted in 1632. Compare Nabbes' Covent Garden 
and the ballad, S. R., 25th June 1633, " ITie new town, or 
the description of Common Garden^'* for the date. In a 
Prologue for a revival which cannot be later than 1642, 
Brome speaks of this play as written "some ten years 
since." The "new church," i. i., St. Paul's, was built 
1641 : this passage was therefore intercalated at the 
revival. The " two poetical Drury Lane writers, the Cobler 
and the Tapster," iii. I, might seem to mean Shirley and 



38 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Heywood, the principal writers for the Cockpit in 1632, 
but the Babseqnent allasions do not admit of this identi- 
fication. The " new French Balls '' are mentioned iii. i ; 
compare Shirley's Bally Nov. 1632, in iv. 2. 

^ Great Damboys burink and give a little groand" 

is from Chapman's Bussy JD'Ambois, ii. i . Thi3 play was 
revived not long before Chapman's death, May 1634, and 
was acted at Court 7th April 1634. The "proclamation 
of restraint," ii. i, was made 1632 {Btuhwarth, ii. 144), 
and Prynne's book was '* writing/' but not published, iv. 2 ; 
it was entered S. B. i6th Oct 1630, and published Jan. 
1633. The date of the play is therefore certainly 1632, 
and it was doubtless acted by the King's men, as we know 
Brome's other plays about this date were. 

9. The Novella was acted at Blackfriars 1632, according 
to the title-page, i.e., before 2 5th Mar. 1 6 3 3, by his Majesty *s 
servants. In i. i, " Some Nightwalkers that throw Balls at 
their Mistresses " surely alludes to Shirley's Ball, licensed 
1 8th Nov. 1632, and his Ifightwalker, altered from Fletcher, 
licensed i ith May 1633. If we date ITie Novella in Mar. 
1633, when Shirley was, of course, known to be preparing 
The Nightwalker, the allusion will be accounted for. The 
'' noted Almaine " had late come to town, iv. 2. 

10. The Late Lancashire Witches, or The Witches of 
Lancashire^ an alteration by Brome of an old play by Hey- 
wood, was acted at the Globe 1634, and was the last play 
in which we can trace Brome as writing for the King's 
men. See further on this play under Heywood. 

11. The New Academy, or The New Exchange. I fail to 
ascertain any definite note of time in this play, or indication 
of the company who produced it, but am inclined to set it 
down as an early play for the King's men, as it has neither 



BROME. 39 

Prologue nor Epilogue. I guess it to be c. 1628, in which 
case the "false prophet" of iy. i would be ^^Chalcedon 
Smith," as to whom see Fuller's Church History, p. 132. 

12. The Qu,een and Concubine, with its plot on a falsely 
accused Queen, looks like a covert refutation of Prynne; 
while the lines v. 7 — 

" No longer brothers of the Bench we'll be, 
But of the Bevels for his Majesty," 

looks as if the play were performed by the Company of His 
Majesty's Bevels, Probably it was Brome's first play for 
that company at Salisbury Court. It was not entered S. B. 
in 1640, as all the other 1659 " Five new plays " were, and 
was probably obtained from a different source by Crooke the 
publisher. The difference in type, use of italic, &c., con- 
firms this. 

13. The Sparagus Garden, or Tom Hoyden of Taunton 
Dean, was acted in 1635 by the Kings Bevels men at 
Salisbury Court. It contains allusions more or less definite 
to The Weeding of Covent Garden, The New Ordinary^ The 
Alchemist, The Lovesick Maid^ The New Inn, and especially 
to The Knight of the Burning Pestle, ii. i. 

1 4. The Mad Couple well matched (or met) was certainly 
acted by the Queen's men at the Cockpit under Beeston, 
for it is found in the 1639 list of such plays retained by 
Beeston. The date is almost certainly 1636. In iii i 
Glapthome's Lady*s Privilege is glanced at. 

1 5. The English Moor^ or The Mock Marriage^ was acted 
by the Queen's servants. It appears from the Prologue 
that they had been restrained, and had to make humble sub- 
mission for offending the State. They had acted during 
the prohibited time in the 1636—7 plague; they may also 
have meddled with State matters ; but if the latter, it is 
strange that nothing is he^rd of it elsewhere. In any case 



40 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

the play was acted, I think, at Salisbury Court, on the re- 
opening after their inhibition. They were inhibited 1 2th 
May 1637. The other theatres reopened 2nd Oct., but this 
company, probably by way of punishment, somewhat later. 

16. The Antipodes was acted 1638 by the Queen's 
men at Salisbury Court, but was intended for them at the 
Cockpit [in 1636]. See the authors note at the end of 
the play. He had left the Bevels company on bad terms, 
or he would not have used the phrase in ii. 5, '^ The chil- 
dren of the Devil's Black Bevels." This play afterwards 
passed to Beeston's boys at Drury Lane. 

1 7. The Jovial Crew, or The Merry Beggars, was acted at 
the Cockpit by their Majesties' servants in 1641. Although 
the Queen's men had acted The Antipodes, Brome carefully 
informs us that it had been meant for Beeston. In truth, he 
never wrote for the newly constituted Queen's company at 
Salisbury Court, though they acted two of his plays which 
had been written for them before their change of theatre. 
Brome stuck by the Beestons to the last. From the Dedi- 
cation we learn that in 1652 Brome was old and poor. 
In fact, he died before the " Five new plays " were published 
in 1653. Alex. Brome also says in his verses that Jonson 
envied him, which cannot be true (see The Northern Lass), 
Of greater interest is the fact noted in the Dedication that 
this play '' had the luck to tumble last in the epidemical 
ruin of the scene," being acted right up to the closure of 
the theatres by the Parliament. From allusions in iv. 2 it 
appears that The Heir and The Old Go%vple had been recently 
i*evived at the Cockpit (see May), and in i. i The Court 
Beggar is unmistakingly denoted. 

18. The Court Beggar I treat last, although it preceded 
The Merry Beggars, because it is necessary for the reader to 
have all Brome's career in full view to judge fairly of the 



BBOME. 41 

bold innoyation I am going to lay before him. On the 
title-page we read "Acted at the Cockpit/' which is no 
donbt true, but " by his Majesty's servants, anno 1632," is 
not trae, and, I think, copied by mistake from the title of 
the preceding play, The Novella, For the Prologue speaks 
of Brome as full of age and care, which he was not in 
1632 ; it alludes to the gaudy scenes (of Killigrew's Pul- 
larUus and Hudara, Cartwright's Boyal Slave, Heywood's 
Love's Mistress, &c,, which all date 1634 or later) : and the 
Epilogue alludes to the purchasing of plays from Univer- 
sity scholars (Cartwright, Habington, &c.) ; mentions Tovi 
Hoyden, 1635, The Antipodes, 1638; and speaks of the 
governor of this stage (William Beeston), who has trained 
up these youths (Beeston's boys) both in his father's days 
(Christopher Beeston's) and since. The play is certainly 
one acted by their Majesties' servants at the Cockpit, anno 
1640. Massinger's Kin^ and Subject, licensed 5th June 
1638, is alluded to in iii. 2, and " women actors now grow 
in request," v. 2. Compare Cartwright's Lady Hrrant. 
Another possible explanation is, that we should read in the 
title acted at the Cockpit [1640, and] by his Majesty's ser- 
vants, 1632. Some other plays by Brome are lost, viz. : — 

19. Wit in a Madtiess. S. R., for F. Constable, 19th 
March 1640 (entered with others). 

20. Christianetta, "1 S. R., for A. Crooke, 4th Aug. 

2 1 . The Jcvnsh Gentleman,} 1 640 (entered with others). 

22. The Apprentice's Prize. 

23. The life and death of Sir Martin Skink, " with the 
Wars of the Low Countries." These last two were entered 
S. R, 8th April 1654. They were written by Brome and 
Heywood ; i.e., they were probably altered, from Heywood's 
old plays, by Brome, like The Lancashire Witches, for the 
Kings men, c. 1634, or earlier. 



42 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. * 

Brookes, Dr. Samuel. (Latin and University.) 

1. 1613, Mar. 3. SciroSy a pastoral, was acted at Cam- 
bridge before Prince Charles and the Elector Palatine by 
Trinity men. MSS. copies are extant in the University 
and Emamiel Libraries. 

2. 1 6 1 5 , Mar. i o. MeUinthe, fabula pastoralis, was pre- 
sented to the King by the same College, and printed at 
Cambridge the same year. 

Browne, William. (Mask.) 

T?ie Inner Temple Mask [Circe and Ulysses] was pre- 
sented " to please ourselves in private " by the Inner Temple 
gentlemen, 1617—23, and printed from a MS. in Emannel 
College Library in 1772. I cannot identify the occasion of 
performance. The mask called Inner Temple Mask in the 
Index to Nichols' James, presented to the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, 16 1 7, Jan. 17, would suit the date very well; but in 
the text, iii. 243, this is said to have been performed by the 
gentlemen of the Middle Temple. 

BuRNELL, Henry. (Dublin play.) 

I. Landgartha, T. C, "as it was presented in the New 
Theatre in Dublin" [in 1639]. Landgartha was wife of 
Begner, the Amazon Queen of Denmark and Norway. 
Printed 1641. 

BuRROUGHES, . (Play.) 

I. 1646, Sept. 4. The Fatal Friendship, 

Burton, William. (Latin.) 

I. Amores Perynthi et Tyantes, C. Not acted nor 
printed. Written I 596. 

C, J. (Play.) 

I. 1620, May 22, for L. Chapman. The Two Merry 
Milkmaids^ C, 1620, 1 66 1. 

I. A pleasant comedy, called The Two Merry Milkmaids, or 
The best Words wear the Garland, *' as it was acted before the 



CALFHILL— CAMPION. 43 

King with general approbation by the Company of the Revels, 
by J. C," printed by B. Alsop for L. Chapman. Partly 
founded on the Decameron^ x. 5. The date of presentation 
mast be after 161 9, Mar. 2, when Queen Anne died, and 
was most likely during the 1619—20 Christmas. J. C. was 
probably John Cumber, oi^e of the Bevels actors. 

C, R. (Mask.) 

Death of Dido, by R. C. Dated by Chetwood 162 1. 
Jacob first gave the title to it. 
^^yjkWBXLL^ James. (Latin play.) 

Admitted at Oxford 1545; student of Christ Church 
1 548 ; A.M. 1552; second canon 1 560 ; D.D. before 
1566; dean of Booking; archdeacon of Colchester ; nomi- 
nated bishop of Worcester 1570, but died before conse- 
cration. Wrote other works. 

I. Frogne, acted before the Queen at Christ Church, 
Sth Sept. 156(5. Nichols, i. 215. 

Campion, Edmond. (Latin.) 

Of St. John's Oxford ; A.M. i 5 64. Turned Papist. 

I. A^eetar et Ambrosia, T. 

Campion, Dr. Thomas. (Masks.) 

1594, Dec. 2. Thom89 Campiani Pt^eTTzo/a, 1595, 1 6 19. 
Observations in the art of English Poesy, 1602. This was 
answered by S^ Daniel in his Defense of Rhyme, 1603. 

Verses prefixed to B. Barnes' Four books of Ojffices, 1 606. 

I. 1607, Jan. 26, for John Brown. The Description of 
a Mask presented before the King's Majesty at Whitehall 
on Twelfth Night last in Jionor of the Lord Hayes and his 
bride. Daughter and Heir to the Honorable Lord Denny, 
their marriage having been the same Day at Court solemnized. 
To this occasion other small Poems [and the music of the 
Songs] are adjoined. 1607. 

[1610]. I, 2. Books of Airs, 



44 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

[i 6 1 2]. 3, 4. Books of Airs. 

2. Relation of the late Soyal Entertainment given by the 
Lord Krufwles at Cawsome [Ca^ershain] JHoTise, near Beading, 
to our most gracious Qaeen, Queen Anne, in her progress 
towards the Bath in [27th, 28th] April 161 3. 

Whereunto is annexed the Description, Speeches, and 
Songs of 

3. The Lords' Mask on the Marriage night of the Count 
Palatine and the Lady Elizabeth. For John Bridge, 161 3. 

A new Way of making four parts in Counterpoint, &c. 
1613. 

4. The Description of a Mask presented at the Banquet- 
ing Boom at Whitehall on Saint Stephen's night last [26th 
Dec. 1 6 1 3] At the Marriage of the Right Honorable the 
Earl of Somerset And the right noble the Lady Frances 
Howard (with the airs). By E. A., for Laurence Lisle, 
1 6 1 4. This is The Squires* mask which Halliwell calls The 
Squire's mask, and dates 1 615. Campion also prefixed 
verses to B. Barnes' Four hooks of Offices, 1606. He was 
Doctor of Physic of Cambridge, and probably died in London 
Jan. 1623. His chief concern with the drama lies in his 
rivalry with Jonson in mask- writing. As early as 1594 he 
wrote the hymn in praise of Neptune in the Gesta Gfraiorum 
(Nichols, Eliz. iii. 310; James, ii. 104). 

Carew [Cakey], Lady Elizabeth. (Play.) 
I. 161 2, Dec. 17, for Richard Hawkins. Mariamne, 
the Fair Queen of Jewry, T., 16 1 3. This play, printed as 
" Mariam" by Lady K C, was probably never acted. It is 
written in sextains with Seneca choruses, and was dedicated 
(in some copies) to " Diana's Earthly Deputess, and my 
worthy sister. Mistress Elizabeth Carey." This has been 
greatly misunderstood. It means to Queen Elizabeth's 
deputy (but not the '* second Delia ; " see Daniel), and my 



CAREW. 45 

siBter by marriage, not in blood. It was Sir George Carey's 
daughter Elizabeth that was the second Delia; bat t(here 
were two other Elizabeth Careys, sisters by connexion ; for 
of Henry Carey's sons, one, George, married Elisabeth 
Spense^; and another, Edmund, married Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Lord Latimer. As George was Elizabeth's Deputy 
as Governor of the Isle of Wight, his wife might well be 
called her Deputess ; the authoress would then be Edmond 
Carey's wife, her sister-in-law. The conjecture of Oldys 
that Sir Henry Carey's wife wrote this play is absurd. Her 
name was not Elisabeth, but Anne. That Carey, not 
Carew, is the right name is proved by the Dedication of 
England^ 8 Helicon^ 2nd edition, 1614. 

Carew, Thomas. (Mask.) 

I. 1634, Feb. 18. Ccdum BrUannicum. A Mask at 
Whitehall in the Banqueting House on Shrove Tuesday 
Night For Thomas Walkley, 1634. 

This Mask was performed (with 8 anti-masks) by : — 

I. THE KING'S MAJESTY. 

2. The Duke of Lennox 9. Lord Fielding. 

3. The Duke of Devonshire. 10. Lord Digby. 

4. The Earl of Holland. 1 1 . Lord Dungarvin. 

5. The Earl of Newport. 12. Lord Dunluce. 

6. The Earl of Elgin. 1 3. Lord Wharton. 

7. Viscount Grandison. 14. Lord Paget. 

8. Lord Ritchie. 15. Lord Saltire. 

Young Lards and Noblemen's Sons, 

16. Lord Walden. 21. Mr. Thomas Howard. 

17. Lord Cranbom. 22. Mr. Thomas Egerton. 

18. Lord Brackley. 23. Mr. Charles Cavendish. 

19. Lord Chandos. 24. Mr. Bobert Howard. 

20. Mr. William Herbert. 25. Mr. Henry Spencer. 



1638, Oct. 26, for 
John Crooke and 
Richard Serger. 



46 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

This list ought to have been inserted in my History of the 
Stagey p. 320; compare p. 318. 

As Carew had no connexion with oar subject beyond this 
mask, his career and his poems do not concern us here. 
Carlell, Lodowigk. (Plays.) 
I. The Deserving Favorite, T. C, 1629, 1639. 

'3. I Arviragus and PkUida, T. C, 

1639. 
4. 2 Arviragus and. Philicia, T. C, 
1639. 
V 5. I The Passionate Lover, T.Cy i6ss. 

6. 2 The Passionate Lover, T. C, 1655. 

7. The Fool wovld he a Favorite, or The Discreet Lover, 

T. C, 1657. 

8. Osmond the GreaJt Turk, or The Noble Servant, T., 1 6 5 7. 
Carlell was gentleman of the bows to Charles I., and 

groom of the Sling's and Queen's privy c]iamber. 

1. Before 1629. The Deserving Favorite was acted 
several times before the Eling and Queen at Whitehall, 
and at Blackfriars [by the King's men]. 

2. 1634, 7%e Spartan Ladies was acted. See Sir H. 
Mildmay's Diary, It was entered S. R. 1646, Sept. 4, 
and is mentioned in Moseley's Catalogue, at the end of 
Middleton's More Dissemilers besides Woitveny 1557. 

3. 4. 1636. Both parts of Arviragus and PhUida must 
have been acted at Blackfriars. The second part was acted 
before the King and Queen i6th Feb. 1636, and both 
parts on April 18, 19, at the Cockpit at Whitehall, before 
the King, Queen, Prince, and Prince-Elector, by the Eling's 
men; and yet again on Dea 26, 27, at Hampton Court. 

5, 6. The Passionate Lover was acted twice before the 
King and Queen at Somerset House, and very often after^ 
wards at Blackfriars. 



CARTWEIGHT. 47 

7. The Fool would he a Favorite^ or The Discreet Lover, 
was, like the rest of Carlell's worthless plays, acted with 
great applause. 

8. Osmond the GreaJt Turk, or The Noble Servant, is 
founded on the taking of Constantinople, in 1453, by 
Mahomet II., but the scene and names are altered. 

9. fferadiuSj Emperor of the East, T., is merely an 
adaptation from Corneille, published in 1664. 

The value of Carlell's works is simply negative; they 
show what rubbish was palatable to Charles and Henrietta. 
Cartwright, George. (Play.) 

1 . The Heroic Lover, or The InfarUa of Spain, T., 1 66 1 , 
"penned many years ago;" probably not acted. Scene, 
Poland. 

Cartwright, William. (Plays at University and Court.) 
^ Z. The JRoyal Slave, T. C, Oxford,"! 
1639, 1640. 

2. The Lady Errant, T. C. 
4. The Siege, or Love's Convert, 

T. C. 
I. The Ordinary, C. 
Son of William Cartwright, innkeeper, Cirencester; 
christened at Northway, Gloucestershire, 26th Sept. 161 1 ; 
educated at the Free School, Cirencester, afterwards at West- 
minster; student of Christ Church, Oxford, 1628; B.A., 
M.A., 1635 ; took Holy Orders 1638 ; succentor at Salis- 
bury 1642, Oct. ; Junior Proctor 1 2th April 1642. Died 
29th Nov. 1 642. Jonson said of him, " my son Cartwright 
writes all like a man." His dramatic career seems to have 
ended in 1638. 
i, I . The Ordinary has a title-i>age of different form from 
the other plays " by W. Cartwright, M.A.," not " late student 
of Christ Church, and proctor, &c." It was written before 



For Humphrey Moseley, 
1651. 



Y 



48 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1635, Mar. 27, in ''the tenth of our King/' iii. i, and web 
probably produced on Cartwright's taking his M.A. degree. 

2. Hit Lady ErrarU appears, from the Prologue and 
Epilogue, to have been performed before Boyal personages, 
possibly the Elector Palatine and Prince Rupert, 1635—36, 
but not at Court ; the female characters by women. An 
incomplete quotation in Ward's Hist, of Engl. Dram. Lit., 
ii. 415, led me to suppose that this was the play alluded 
to in Prynne's Histrionuutix, but a reference to the original 
shows that Prynne spoke of French actresses only. One 
scene is from Aristophanes. 

3. The Roycd Slave was presented before the King and 
Queen at Oxford, 30th Aug. 1636, by the students of Christ 
Church, and afterwards, 12th Jan. 1637, at Hampton Court, 
by the King's players. The students acted best. The 
players probably did not bestow much pains on this stilted 
production. It had 8 " appearances, or stage scenes." 

4. The Siege, or Lwe^s Convert, was rescued from the 
flames, and rewritten with the second title at the King's com- 
mand [c. 1637]. A play of Davenant's, 1629, had already 
been called The Siege. This one was not worth rescuing. 
It is founded on Plutarch's Cymon and Boccaccio's Deca^ 
meron, ix. i. Cartwright's poems are useful occasionally 
by supplying a date or two, but require no notice here. 

Cavendish, William, Dake of Newcastle. (Plays.) 

I. The Country Captain^ and 2. TJie Variety: two 
comedies. Written by a person of Honor. 1 649. London 
and The Hague. 

Both these plays were acted by the King's men at Black- 
friars, c. 1639—40. 

I. A manuscript of Tfie Country Captain in the British 
Museum, MS. Harl. 7650, was renamed by Halliwell Cap- 
tain Underwit, and printed under that title by Mr. A. H. 



CAYWORTH-CIHAMBERLAINE. 49 

Ballen, with -the accompanying statement, that " it is abso- 
lately certain . • • that Captain Underwit is a comedy of 
Shirley's." It is unfortunate that this gentleman will rush 
in with rash assertions where sound critics fear to tread. 
His special delight is to set up ninepin hypotheses, and then 
bowl them down again. But no doubt it pays him and his 
publisher. In his notes to the play he says that Parsons' 
ResoliUions (the well-known book by Parsons, the Jesuit) is 
a fictitious title, and that the date of Tarleton's death is 
unknown; he also quotes Webster's Vittoria Carrorribarea 
[sic]. Immediately after, he, ?mting anonymously in the 
columns of the Athenceumy accused me of inaccuracies — me, 
who had saved him from publishing so many of his own. 
The date of T?ie Country Captain is proved by an allusion 
in it to the Treaty of Berwick, June 1639. 

2. T?ie Variety is alluded to in Brome's Covent Garden 
Weeded^ but the extant copy of that play is that of its 
revival, c. 1641. 

The other works of Cavendish lie outside the limits of this 
book ; nor does his career concern the dramatic student. 

Cayworth, John. (Private mask.) 

I. Enchiridion Christiados. A twelve days' task, or twelve 
verdicts and visions upon Christ, his Incarnation, Nativity, 
Circumcision, &c., presented for a Christmas mask to Wil- 
liam Faston, Esq., High Sheriff of Norfolk, and the Lady 
Katharine, his wife, 1636. MS. Addit. 10,311. 

Cecil, . (Latin.) 

I. jSmilia, C. Acted at St. John's, Cambridge, 7th Mar. 
161 5, before the King. The chief part a counterfeit Sir 
Edward Batcliff, Doc. Phys. Pretty shows, broad speech, 
but dry. Nichols' James^ iii. 49. 

Chamberlaine, Robert. (Play.) 

I. 1640, April 2, for Andrew Crooke. The Swaggering 

VOL. I. D 



so THE ENGLISH DEAMA. 

Damsel, 1640. Chamberlaine was a member of Exeter 
College, Oxford. For hia various publicatioDS, 1636-61, 
see Hazlitt^ Handbook. 

1. The Swaggering Damsel has commendatory verses by 
Rawlins, whose SebeUion (which was entered S. B. for Daniel 
Frere, 20th Nov. 1639) had similar verses prefixed by 
Chamberlaine, and was acted by the Bevels company. But 
the entry S. R. included T. Killigrew's PrisonerSf which was 
act^d at the Phcenix ^y Queen Henrietta's men], where 
also many other plays published by A. Crooke were acted. 
(See Shirley and Brome.) I incline, therefore, to the opinion 
that this play was acted by the Queen's men. But it is 
hardly worth discussing. 

Chapman, George. (Plays and Mask.) 

2. 1 598, Aug, 1 5, for William Jones. The Mind Beggar 
of Alexandria^ C, '^ upon condition that it belong to no 
other man." 1598. 

^ 3. An hum4)urous day's mirthy C, 1599, by Vialentine 
Syms. Probably licensed 1599, Mar. See my History of 
the Stage, p. 107. 

6. All FoolSj C, 1605, for Thomas Thorpe. 

1605, Sept. 4, for William Aspley. Eastward Ho^ C, 
1605 (three editibns). 

9. The Gentleman Usher, C, 1606, by V. Sjjms], for 
Thomas Thorpe. 

1 1 . Monsieur d Olive, C, 1 606, by T. C[reede], for 
William Holmes. 

1 2. 1 607, June 3, for William Aspley. Bussy dAmbois, 
T., 1607, 1608, 1 6 16, 164 1 ; "corrected and amended" 
1657. 

16, 17. 1608, June 5, for Thomas Thorpe. The Con- 
spira/yy and Tragedy of Charles, Duke of Byron, T., 1608, 
1625. 



CHAPMAN. SI 

8. May Day^ 0., i6i i, for John Browne. 

) (The Widow's Tears, C, 1612. 

^ ', \^ { Th^ Revenge of Bussy d'Ambois, 

John Browne. I m ^ 

I T., 1613. 

19. 161 3, Jan. [Feb.] 27, for George Norton. The 
mask of the Middle Temple and Lincoln's Inn (with Beau- 
mont's Jlfosi), 16 1 3. 

18. 163 1, May 18, for Thomas Harper. Ccesar and 
Pompey, T., 163 1 (and again as The Wars of C. and P., 

1631), 1653- 

See also Sir Giles Goosecap, AlpJtonsus Emperor of Ger- 
many y Bevenge for Honour , The Second Maiden's Tragedy 
(Usurping Tyrant), Two Wise Men and all the Best Fools, 
Eastxoard Ho; and, under Shirley, The Ball, and Chabot, 
Admiral of France, 

Non-Dramatic Works. 

The Shadow of Night, 1594, by R F., for William 
Ponsonby. Dedicated to Matthew Boydon. 

Ovi^s Banquet of Sense, 1 595, by J. R, for Richard 
Smith. Dedicated to Matthew Roydon. Copyright trans- 
ferred S. R. 1598, Nov. 6; so that it must have been 
licensed originally. 

Lines prefixed to W. Jones' Nennio, 1595. 

Be Guiana, prefixed to L. Keymis' A Second Voyage to 
Guiana, 1596. 

1 598, Mar 2. E. Blunt assigned to Paul Linley his copy- 
right in Hero and Leander, but Blunt had already printed 
the Marlow part (Sestiads, i. ii., as entered S. R. for J. 
Wolf, 1593, Sept. 28), with dedication to Sir T. Walsing- 
ham. Chapman's continuation in Linley's edition is dedi- 
cated to Lady Walsingham. 1598 (two editions, as afore- 



52 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

said), 1 600, 1 606, 1 609 (for E. Blant, who had reparchased, 
or Btill possessed, the right of printing Marlow*8 part, and 
W. Barret), 1613, 1629, 1637. Petore's continuation 
(called Henry Polone's, S. R.) was entered 1598, April 14, 
for A. Harris, ^^on condition that he get farther lawful 
authority/* and printed 1598. The knowledge that this 
was coming oat accelerated, I think, the issue of Chapman's 
version, which was probably written c. 1594—5. , 

1 598, April 10, for Toby Cooke. Eovier's Iliads L— vii., 
was entered and ^' expunctum per mandatum" but was pub- 
lished, as well as Achilles' Shield^ as "printed by John 
Windet 1 598." Both were dedicated to the Earl of Essex. 
It appears from Euthymice Rapttta that he had '^ Englished " 
Homer at Hitchin (before he settled in London in 1593). 
Hence all Chapman's poems yet mentioned were written 
before his time of play-making, 1 596—1608. 

In England* 8 Parnassus^ 1 600, there are many extracts 
from Chapman's poems and plays previously published. 

Chester's Love's Martyr, 1 60 1 , contains verses by Chap- 
man, Jonson, Marston, and Shakespeare. 

1604, Nov. 2. Verses by Chapman were prefixed to 
Jonson's Sejanus. 

Verses were also prefixed to Jonson's Volpone 1607, and 
to Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess [1609]. 

1609, M^y 4> for R. Bonian and H. Whalley. The 
Tears of Peace, with interlocution {Euthymice Papttis), 1609. 
Dedicated to Prince Henry, his patron, who had seen his 
ffomer, and ordered him to go on with it. 

The Iliad, i-xii., was accordingly printed c. 1609-10. 

161 1, April 8, for N. Butter. Tfie Iliady i.-xxiv., n.d. 
[161 1], with 22 sonnets to lords and ladies '^of Prince 
Henry's train ; " the last of these to Sir Edward Phillips, 
his first mention in Chapman's dedications. 



CHAPMAN. 53 

i6i I, Nov. 23. Verses "to his loved son," N. Field, on 
A WomarCs a Weathercock. 

161 2, Jan. 13, for H. Selman. Petrarch's Seven Penir 
tential Psalms, &c. The "greater labours" mentioned in 
the dedication to Sir E. Phillips, as commanded by Prince 
Henry, are of course the translations of the rest of Homer's 
works. 

16 1 2, Dec. II, for J. Budge. An Epicede, or Funeral 
Song on the Death [Nov. 6] of Henry, Prince of Wales 
[buried Dec. 7]. Dedicated to Henry Jones. 

Eugenia, or True Nobility's Tears, 16 14. On the death 
of William, Lord Russel [16 13, Aug.; buried Sept. 16. 
See S. R., Nov. 6]. Dedicated to Francis, Lord Russel. 

1 6 1 4, Mar. 1 6, for Laurence Lyle. Perseus and Andro- 
meda, 16 14 {Andromeda Liberated, or The Nuptials of P. 
and -4.). Dedicated to Robert, Earl of Somerset, and his 
wife. Lady Frances, who were married 161 3, Dec. 26. 

A justification of the "maliciously misinterpreted" An* 
dromeda Liierata was issued separately by L. L'Isle 16 14. 

1 6 14, Nov. 2, for N. Butter. Homer's Odysseys, n.d. 
Dedicated to the Earl of Somerset. 

The complete works of Homer (i.e., Iliad and Odyssey), 
n.d., for N. Butter. 

1 61 6, July 27, for W. Jaggard. Musceus of Hero and 
Leander. A comparatively close translation, not enlarged 
like the former one. Dedicated to Inigo Jones. 

1 61 8, May 14, for Miles Partrich. Hesiod's Georgics, 
Dedicated to Sir Francis Bacon. 

Verses beneath Prince Henry's portrait in Holland's 
Heroologia, 1620. 

1622, Nov, 8, for T. Walkley. Pro Vere Autumni 
Lacrymce. In memory of Sir Horatio Vere, " besieged and 
distrest in Mainhem.'* Dedicated to the Earl of Somerset. 



54 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

The Crown of all HoTners WorkSy Batrachomyomachia^ or 
The Battle of Frogs and Mice, Bis Hymns arul Epigrams^ 
by John Bill, his Majesty's Printer, n.d. [c. 1622]. Dedi- 
cated to the Earl of Somerset. Heber's copy of this work 
had an inscription to Lord Bussel [Francis, not William, as 
W. C. Hazlitt supposes; cf. Ettgenicb], In the postscript 
Chapman says — 

^ The work that I was bom to do is done." 

This is his last work of importance. He attained his 
grand climacteric in 162 1—2. 

1627, Nov. 9. Lines "To the Volume " were prefixed 
to [Hart's] Hippolito and Isabella, S. R., for N. Field, 
Chapman's " loved son." Printed " by T. Harper and N. 
Field 1628." These men were then partners. 

A Justification of a strange auction of Neros^ Ac., and A 
Just reproof of a Soman smell-feast y Juvenxd, Satire F"., 1629, 
by T. Harper (alone). Dedicated to Bichard Hubert, 
Esq. 

^7%^ Invective against Jon^san, from a commonplace-book 
in the Ashmole MSS. (Bodleian), was certainly written after 
A Tale of a Tub, 1633, May 7, the " poor thing writ new ; " 
it is full of allusions to Jonson's later work. The scribe 
adds, "More than this never came to my hands, but was 
lost in his [Chapman's last] sickness." It is sad that the 
last* verses of Chapman should indicate a quarrel with so 
old a friend. 

A few other verses of Chapman's I am unable to date, 
and therefore do not notice them, the main object of this 
list being to show that Chapman was fully employed in 
non-dramatic work except from 1596 to 1608. 

George Chapman, of Hitchin, Hertfordshire (see Euthymia 
Baptus), was bom 155 8—9, as his portrait in his Homer, 



CHAPMAN. 55 

da':ed i6i6,is cetatis 57. He entered at Trinity, Oxford, 
1 574, and resided two years, but took no degree. Marlow 
(baried 1593, June i) mast Have known poems of his: 
in Hero and Zeander Chapman mentions Marlow's late 
desires that he shoald ^'surrender to light his soal's dark 
ofispring," i.e., publisn The Shadow of Night. Chapman 
had come to London then by 1 593, probably on purpose to 
pablish. It will be seen from the above list of his works 
that he had written a good deal. From 1596 to 1608 he 
wrote plays, in 1609 was patronised by Prince Henry, and 
after his death, in 161 2, by the Earl of Somerset, Francis 
Lord Bussel, and others. His life is best read in his dedi- 
cations. He was baried at St. Giles in the Fields, 1634, 
May 12. 

Plays. 

. I, The Disguiae^f 1 595, Oct. 2. See below. May Day. 

2. The Blind Beggar of Alexandria, 159^9 F^^- 12, 
with ** his variable hamoars in disguised shapes." Printed 
from a stage copy and published by the company, not by 
Chapman. Ko Dedication. Note Chapman's fondness for 
"disguises" in his early plays "acted in London." No 
theatre mentioned. Bankside is reck<xied as London. 

3. The Comedy of Humours^ 1597} ^^y H- Certainly 
the same play as A Humorous Day's Mirths not Jonson's 
Bvery Man in his Humour, ^'Verone's son's hose" and 
'' La Besha's coat with gold buttons " are apparel noted in 
Henslow's inventory, 1598, Mar. This play was also per- 
formed 1597, Oct. II, after the junction of Pembroke's 
men with the Admiral's. In Sc. 8 the same error, Ustts 
promptus fadty occurs as in Bvery Woman in her Humor, 
iii. I , No dedication. Not publii^ed by Chapman, but by 
the company. 



$6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

4. 1598, May 16, 23, June 10. Chapman had pay- 
ments, £2, I OS., in earnest of '^ a book," apparently the 
same as that of Jane 15, The Will of a Woman, £1 ; but 
this title was so like that of A Woman will have her 
Will, by Haughton, 1 598, Feb.-May, that I feel sure that 
the title was altered to The Fountain of New Fashions, for 
which Chapman received ;f 4, 1598, Sept. 31 (sic), Oct. 12. 
This last -pskjment was '' in full" The total would then 
be ;^8, IO&, the same sum as he had for All Fools. Chap- 
man, it would seem, got better terms than Dekker, Drayton, 
&c I think M. cCOlive was an altered form of this 1 598 
play. See further on. 

5. 1598, Oct. 23. Chapman received £3 "on his play- 
book " (probably some MS. pledged to pawnbroker Henslow), 
and " two acts of a tragedy on Benjamin [Jonson]'s plot ; " 
and 1 599, Jan. 4, on " three acts of a tragedy," £^ ; and 
on Jan. 8, "in full payment for his tragedy," £$, This 
tragedy (for which, out of the above sums, £8^ 1 os. was pro- 
bably paid) was possibly the play which Jonson had engaged 
to write by Christmas 1 597, the plot of which he had shown 
to the compaDy 1597, Dec. 3. It may have been The Fall 
of Mortiiner, the plot and commencement of which alone are 
extant. But I must not omit the fact that a " Fero's suit " 
(Pero is a character in Bussy d*Ambois) occurs in the 1 598 
Mar. inventory ; this, however, is too early to apply to the 
present tragedy. A play called Berowne or Burone is men- 
tioned 1602, Sept.— Oct., but this is more likely to have 
been i?wr[6](w, or Hie Trial of Chivalry, than Chapman's 
Byron, This entry, with its " scafifold," is too late for the 
present tragedy. Byron was executed in 1602. Again, 
Sejanus cannot be the play, for that was '' first acted " at 
the Globe by the King's men. 

1598, Oct. 24. Chapman gives 1.0. U. to Henslow for 



CHAPMAN. 57 

;£^I0, I OB., probably a private transaction. It is not men- 
tioned in the company's accounts, Diary, p. 191. 

6. 1599, Jan. 22, Feb. 13, June 2, 21, July 2 (in full). 
Chapman gets ;^8 iob. for a play called The World runs en 
WJuelSy but now (July 2) All FooU but the Fool. Of course, 
the same as All Fools, for which see further on. Note the 
Chapman habit of changing the title, and the absolute cer- 
tainty in this instance of his refashioning an Admiral's play 
for the boys at Blackfriars. 

7. 1599, July 17. Chapman receives £2 in earnest of 
a " Pastoral Tragedy" probably never finished, and leaves 
the Admiral's men. 

8. May Day^ C, was '^ acted at the Blackfi'iars," by the 
children of the Chapel, I suppose, c. 1601. In iv. i — 

'' Fill red cheekt Bacchus, let the Bourdeaux grape 
Skip light lavoltas in their swelling veins ! " 

is printed in quotation marks, and is taken in ridicule from 
Marston, 2 Antonio and Mellida, v. 4 (acted in 1600) — 

" Fill red cbeekt Bacchus, let . . . the plump lipt god 
Skip light lavoltas in your full sapt veins ! " 

This ridicule of Marston must, I think, be anterior to 
Chester's Lovers Martyr y 160 1, to which Chapman and he 
both contributed. There are other quotations in the play. 
''Temperance was a delicate wench," Tempest, ii. i, unex- 
plained by Shakespeare's editors, alludes to the bawd in this 
play ; in iv. 4, Quintilians describes her ironically as " a 
wench, a delicate young morsel." The innumerable men- 
tions of '' disguises " in this play makes me think that it 
was founded on the play of that name acted at the Rose 
1595, Oct. 2. There are three disguised characters in May 
Day. It was not published by Chapman. If the passage 
in Orim (begun 1600, May 6), where the collier says, ii. 2, 



58 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

be has called himself Joan's handmaid since last May-day, 
allades to this play, we should have to date it 1600, May i, 
or suppose that Haughton finished his later than 1600. A 
comedy or moral with Dame Temperance in it is refused 
for the Court in Marston's What you toill, v. i, 1601. This 
is, I think, this May Day. 

9. The GrenUeman UsJier, to which no company or theatre 
is assigned in the title, was acted, I think, in the Christ- 
mas season 160 1-2 by the Chapel boys at Blackfriars; 
certainly after Sir Giles Ooosecap (with which it should be 
carefully compared, with a view to determine its authorship), 
cf. ii. I ; as certainly before Marston's Maicontent. ^^ A 
gentleman usher called me coxcomb t'other day, and to my 
face too." Bassiolo (who is a rough anagram of Bilioso, 
performed by the same actor) is twice called coxcomb to his 
face in Hu Gentleman Usher. This limits the date to c. 
1 60 1 Nov.- 1 602 Feb. 

10. All Fools J published in 1605, was most likely 
written in 1 603, as it was acted at Blackfriars, and " lately " 
{i.e.t on Shrove Tuesday 1604 or Jan. 1605) *' before his 
Majesty." It was issued by Chapman himself, with a Dedi- 
cation (afterwards cancelled) to Sir T. Walsingham. The 
Prologue seems to contain an allusion to the ** asses' ears " 
in Satiromastix. In ii. i there is a palpable allusion to a 
speech of Ophelia's, Hamlet^ iv. 5, as acted in 1603. The 
" columbine " does not occur among her flowers in the early 
version of Hamlet ; it is found in the 1 604 Quarto. This 
play is, of course, a remodelled form of The World runs on 
Wheels of July 1 5 99. An indication of the original date still 
remains in iv. i, "given the 17th 'Sav.Jifteen hundred cmd 
so forth." The publication was no doubt due to a favourable 
reception of the play at Court This was the first of Chap- 
man's plays published by himself. He seems to have feared 



CHAPMAN. 59 

that the Admiral's men would publish the earlier and inferior 
version. See the Dedication, the genuineness of which has 
been suspected, the copy from which Collier printed it not 
being forthcoming. But if , as I suppose, it was suppressed, 
at Walsingham's request, immediately, this is not remarkable. 
Perhaps only the copy sent to him survived. The Dedica- 
tion of Byron addresses him as if that of All Fools had 
never been penned. 

1 1. Monsieur 1/ Olive, published 1606, as acted by Her 
Majesty's children at the Blackfriars, cmd therefore not earlier 
than 1604, Jan. 30, appears to belong to 1604. It alludes 
to King James' Ejiights in L 2. I think this play is a 
remodelled form of The WUl of a Woman of June 1598, 
(cf. " Strange will in women," ii. i,) so called fix>m the Mar- 
cellina plot, but named afterwards The Fountain of New 
Fashions^ Oct 1598; cf. D'Olive's speech about teaching 
fashions to younger sons, iii. i end. Not published by 
Chapman. 

12. Bussy d'Ambois was published in 1607. The 
allusions in it to the Elnights of James I, the "innovation" of 
1603—4, and to Elizabeth as an '* old queen," forbid a date 
earlier than 1603; and the statement in i. 2, "'tis Leap 
Year," which must apply to the date of production, as Bussy 's 
introduction at Court was in 1569, not a Leap Year, fixes 
the time of representation to 1 604. Nevertheless, the line 
in Satiromastix, Sc. 7 — 

" For trusty Daniboys now the deed is done," 

seems to be taken from a play on the subject earlier than 
1 60 1. It was published as acted by the Paul's boys, which 
is puzzling, as Chapman did not write for them any other 
play. It appears, however, from the Revels accounts that 
E. Elirkham, who in 1604 ^^ ^ manager of the Revels 



6o THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

children, before 1605 became a manager of tbe Paul's boys. 
He probably took this play with him to his new manage- 
ment One of Chapman's latest literary occupations was 
the revision of the text as in the 1641 edition. The play 
in this form was acted by the King's men, with Swanston 
as Bussy. This we learn from Gayton's Festivaus notes on 
Don Qvixote, 1654. It appears from the Prologae that 
Field had previoasly acted this part — for the King's mpn, 
I suppose, c. 1617—18, as this is a Prologue written for 
that company. Swanston, who was a King's man 1625—42, 
no doubt acted it at Court 1634, April 7, when it was 
revived there, and the corrections and emendations made 
^' by the author before his death " were the very last writing 
left us of his pen. I think the play was written for the 
Queen's Bevels boys late in 1 604, but, on account of the 
Eastward Ro affair and their consequent inhibition, not 
produced by them, but transferred to Paul's and acted in 

1605. A parallel case to the transference from them to 
the King's men, c. 1607, will be found in Beaumont's 
Woman Hater. The '^ horns " in iv. i should be compared 
with the "V" in May Day, iv. 4, first explained by my 
lamented friend H. Staunton, and with King Christian's 
making 'Hhe sign of the horns with two fingers" at the 
Admiral {Raumer, ii. 2 1 6) to amuse " good Queen Anne," 

1606, Aug. 31. The "killing of the King," iii. 2, is 
frequently alluded to in other plays. 

13. Eastward Ho was written 1604—5, Winter, by 
Jonson, Chapman, and Marston. Chapman's part is from 
ii. 2 to iv. I. For the imprisonment, &c., of the authors, 
see under Jonson and Marston. The allusions to the Scots 
occur in Marston's and Chapman's parts. Marston intro- 
duces Poldavy in a Scotch farthingale, and makes Girtred 
say, " Is this a right Scot ? Does it clip close and bear up 



CHAPMAN. 6f 

round ?" i. 2. And again, in ii. I, Quicksilver (a caricature 
of Luke Hatton, see AthenoBum^ 1 3th Oct. 1883) ^Y^y " She 
could have been made a lady by a Scotch Knight." In 
iv. I, by Chapman, is the better-known passage, "I ken 
the mon weel; he is one of my thirty pound Knights." 
On the relation of this play to Hamlet much interesting 
matter — injured, however, by a want of knowledge of 
stage history — will be found in Mr. Feis' Shakspere and 
Montaigne. This play was entered 4th Sept. 1605, and 
published, no doubt by way of vindicating the authors, 
soon after their release. 

14. Tfie Widow's Tears^ published on 17th April 161 2, 
S. R, was acted at Blackfriars c. 1605, and afterwards at 
Whitefriars. It contains in its filial scenes a better satire 
on the incompetence of judicial authorities who condemn on 
merely presumptive evidence. This seems to be Chapman's 
Tevenge for his imprisonment for Eastward Ho. There is 
not a line in it which implies a later date than 1605. In 
Appius and Virginia, c. 1607, "I would not have my beef 
powdered with a "Widow's Tears" seems to refer to this 
play. It must have been written before 1 609, and surely 
could not have been a later production than Byron. It was 
published by Chapman, with a Dedication to Mr. Jo. Reed 
of Mitton. Lysander of Dipolis looks like a Grascized form 
of Freeman of Ditton. The play may be a personal satire. 
In i. I the drawing up in a basket, and letting Tharsalio 
hang '' for all the wits in the town to shoot at," seems per- 
sonal. Compare Vandall (Mendall) in Haughton s English- 
men for my Mimey, iv. 2, which dates 1598, Feb. "Mono- 
polies are cried down," i. i, surely alludes to the Act of 
Jan. 3, 1605. ^^® prose in this play is in many parts 
corrupted verse, and I feel sure that, though published with 
Chapman's authority, he had nothing to do with overseeing 



62 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

the text for the press. The plot is from The Ephesian 
Matron in Petronius Arbiter. As Mr. Greenstreet's recent 
discovery, published since the issue of my History of the 
Stage, that the children of the King's Bevels performed at 
Whitefriars 1607-8, may seem to throw a doubt on the 
company for whom Chapman wrote this and other plays, 
it may be well to point out here that no connexion what- 
ever has been traced between him and the King's Revels 
boys, and also that they never performed at Blackfriars. 
The Revels boys of Chapman are those of the Queen's 
Revels only. 

15. The Revenge of Bussy d'Ambois is like Byron, but 
not so like the play of 1 604—5 ^ which it is a sequel. The 
description of the results following a ^^ tedious siege " in i. i 
infer a time subsequent to the taking of Ostend in 1604. 
The allusions to stage puppetry and Puritan innovation, 
also suit a date a 1606. It was entered S. R. 17th April 
1 6 1 2, with the Widow's Tears, and, like it, although printed 
in 1 6 1 3 as acted at Whitefriars, was probably produced at 
Blackfriars originally. In iii. I, "like a Sir John Smith," 
Sir John Smith was knighted 1603, May ii. Chapman 
dedicated this play to Sir Thomas Howard. 

16, 17. Byron's Conspiracy , 1607, and Byron's Tragedy, 
1608, were entered S. R. Sth May 1608. They were 
published with a dedication to Sir T. Walsingham and his 
son, in which Chapman calls them his '' poor dismembered 
poems." It appears &om a despatch from Beaumont, the 
French Ambassador (Raumerj ii. 219, in the translation), 
dated 5th April 1608,^ that he caused the acting of this play 
to be forbidden, that when the " Court had lefb town they 

^ 1605 in the translation, and bo in the inaccurate editions of Chapman 
hitherto published. Chapman has never yet been really edited. Some future 
Dyoe may accomplish this work. 



CHAPMAN. 63 

persisted in acting it ; nay, they brought upon the stage 
the Queen of France and Mademoiselle Yemeuil. The 
former, having first accosted the latter with very hard words, 
gave her a box on the ear. At my suit three of them were 
arrested ; but the principal person, the author, escaped." It 
is plain from iv. I of the Conspiracy that Qaeen Elizabeth 
was in the original play also represented on the stage, that 
scene being clearly a rewriting in narrative form of a scene 
at the English Court. Note especially the absurdity of the 
line in the present version spoken by Cr^qui to D'Aumont — 

" Then spake she to Crequi and Prince d'Auvergne ; " 

the change of person in — r 

'* He said he was no Orator, but a soldier, 
More than this air in which you breathe hath made me 
My studious love," &c, ; 

and the peculiar printing of the first eight lines, followed by 
Thus, as if to point this word as the real beginning of the 
scene. ' No such type is used elsewhere in the play except 
at the beginning of i. I . The end of this scene and all the 
rest of Act iv. has been cut out. Again, in the final scene, 
from Enter Esp. to the end, great alterations have been 
made. The only remains of the original are Sav, " After 
— matter" (14 lines): Hen. "Well, cousin — happiness" 
(25 lines), and the final couplet. None of the characters, 
Espemoun, Vitry, Janin, D'Aumont, Or^qui, Ladies, have 
been transferred from the original, so far as the present 
conduct of the play is concerned. Note also that in these 
altered passages Byron is called Duke of B/ron, in the 
original Duke Byron, except once in a doubtfully bombastic 
passage, iii. I, "Within my left hand — Duke of B^ron 
forth," where " Duke Byron " immediately precedes. If 
these alterations were made wholly or partly by Chapman at 



64 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

the order of the Master of the Beyels, he has made them 
intentionally in such a clumsy way as to show where the 
sutures occur. A peculiarity of the play is, that nine actors 
only are required. In the Tragedy still greater mutilations 
have been made ; the early part of Act ii. has been omitted, 
and a passage, '' If this suffice — yours/' has been inserted 
to partially fill the gap. The dance evidently ought to follow 
Cupid's last speech. Henry's utterance at the end of Act ii. 
about ''the reconcilement of my Queen" is unintelligible 
as the play now stands. The part here omitted was that 
which offended the French Ambassador. In v. i Duke of 
Byron occurs occasionally for Duke Byrdn^ but only by 
printer's error ; never, as in the former play, by necessity of 
metre. In v. 2 is a compliment to the Scots by way of 
amendment for Eastvxird Ho, 

In 1602, Sept-Oct, Henslow mentions a play called 
Berowne or Burone which was acted by Worcester's men. 
It could not have been Chapman's play ; the entries^ which 
refer only to properties, were probably preparatory to the 
production of The Unfortunate General, the " French his- 
tory " which was produced in Jan. 1603 ; or they may refer 
to Chettle's anonymous " tragedy " of Aug. 24. Byron was 
executed in July 1602. 

A mask containing part of Byron is extant^ Brit. Mus., 
Egerton MS.y 1994, and ought to be reprinted. 

The plays on Byron were, in my opinion, the last brought 
on the stage by Chapman. The attempt to imprison him a 
second time deterred him henceforth from the theatre. But 
he had some unfinished plays at this time in hand. 

1 8. TJie tragedy of Cesar and Pompey was entered S. R 
163 1, May 18, and dedicated to the Earl of Middlesex. 
This is, I think^ an old play which Chapman had on his 
hands when he left stage-writing in 1608, or perhaps in 



CHAPMAN. 6s 

1604. It was never acted. The text is in a disgraoefnl 
state, never baying been competently edited. In both stage- 
directions and text Bmtns is continually misprinted for 
Butas, and Septimias, Septius, and Sextus are so confused 
that it is only by reading the play with constant reference 
to Plutarch's Lives, on which it is entirely founded, that the 
complication can be disentangled. The text was certainly 
not revised by Chapman, who expressly tells us that the 
style avoids hasty prose ; yet prose parts (apparently from 
the Admiral's play of 1594, Nov. 8) have been allowed to 
remain : in ii. I , (Fronto's part,) " thunder — supplied," except 
I o lines, " See all — pickle ; " and in v. i , " See your princess 
— ^view me better." This early play may have been by Chap- 
man; if so, he intended to rewrite the whole, but was 
interrupted. He says the play [as it stands] was written 
long since, before his age had attained timely ripeness. It 
may seem forced to even guess that a personal allusion is 
meant in the title " proposition," Only a just man is a free- 
man [sic, not free man], but see above under T/is Widow's 
Tears, and note that Sir Francis Freeman of Nottingham- 
shire was knighted 1 607, May 1 1. Chapman was aji 
inveterate punster. 

19. The memorable Mash of the Middle Temple and Hn- 
colrCs Inn [Mask of Plutus and Honour'] was performed at 
Whitehall ^ 161 3, Feb. I5i at the nuptials of the Palsgrave 
and Princess Elizabeth. ''Invented and fashioned . . • 
by our kingdom's most artful and ingenious architect, Innigo 
Jones. Supplied, applied, digested, and written by George 
Chapman." " Next to himself only Fletcher [Beaumont ; 
Fletcher made none] and Chapman could make a mask" 
(Jonson, Conversations, iii.). The " vulgar esteemed upstart, 

^ Note thif 1 61 3. Jonson and Chapman begin their year Jan. I ; meet 
other writen Mar. 26. These latter would have printed 1612. 

VOL. I. £ 



66 THE ENGLISH DRA^IA. 

the rank-brained writer and judge of poetical writing, who 
sells poesy's nectar and ambrosia, as well as mustard and 
vinegar " [for poultices], of Chapman's Introduction, is T. 
Campion, M.D., author of The Art of English Poesy, 1602, 
and supplanter of Jonson in T/ie Lord's Mask of the day 
before Chapman's. Yet Inigo Jones contrived the motions 
for that mask also. The Insania attributed to Campion by 
Chapman will be understood on comparison with the mad- 
ness of Entheus (Campion) in ITie LorcCs Made. 

20. The BaU. 21. ChdboL For these plays see Shirley, 

I3» 23. 

22. Fatal Love, a French tragedy, S. R., for H. Mose- 
l©y» 29th June 1660. MS. destroyed by Warburton's 
servant. 

23. T?ie Yorkshire Gentlewoman and her Son, T., S. R., 
for H. Moseley, 1660, June 29. MS. destroyed by War- 
burton's servant. 

Cheeke, Henry. (Play.) 

I. Freewill, n.d., black letter. A tragedy written first in 
Italian by F[rancisco] N[ero] (Niger) B[assentino], trans- 
lated into English by Henry Cheeke, " wherein is set forth 
in manner of a tragedy the devilish Device of the Popish 
Religion. London, by John Tysdale." S. R. 1 561, May 11. 
Mr. Halliwell says "about 1589." The original Tragedia 
del Libero ArUtrio, 1546, is in the Cambridge University 
Library ; also a Latin version, made by Nero or Niger him- 
self, Geneva, ISS9« In the Trinity College Italian copy, 
1547, the name is printed "Nero;" in the 1546 copy, 
" Niger." 

Chettle, Henry. (Plays.) 

3 2. Tfie Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, See Day. 
I. 16. I. 2. Robert Earl of Huntingdon, See Mon- 
day. 



CHETTLE. 67 

25. Patient GfrisselL See Dekker. 

42. 45. Hoffmann, See Hey wood. 

47. iKr Thomas Wyatt. See Dekker. 
Chettle was born c. 1562; apprenticed to T. East, 
stationer, Sj|}h Oct. 1 577, for 8 years as from the preceding 
Michaelmas; on 6th Oct. 1584 was admitted freeman of 
the Stationers' Company; in 1591 entered into partnership 
with J. Hoskins and J. Danter. He is mentioned as " your 
old compositor " in Nash's Eave with you to Saffron Walden, 
1 596. In the latter part of 1 592 he edited Greeners Oroats^ 
worth of Wit ; the same year he prefixed an epistle to the 
second part of Monday's translation of Bordelois' OerUeon ; 
c. Jan. 1593 he issued his Kvndharts Dream; in 1595, 
Piers Plainness^ seven years Prenticeship ; in 1603, Eng^ 
lancCs Mourning Garment^ in which he speaks of himself as 
''young almost 30 years ago," and enumerates the then 
chief living poets, viz. : i. Daniel, 2. Warner, 3. Chapman 
(Coryn), 4. Jonson (English Horace), 5. Shakespeare (Meli- 
cert), 6. Drayton (Corydon), 7. Lodge (Musidore), 8. Dekker 
(anti-Horace), 9. Marston (young Melibee), 10. Petowe (Hero's 
last MussBus), II. the author of ^^ King James prodaimed," 
S. B. 30th Mar. 1603. Chettle died before Nash's Knight's 
Conjuring was published, Jan. 1 606. His dramatic career, 
as far as known, lies between 1597 and 1603. -^^ ^^^^ 
follows is from Henslow's Diary, He was mentioned by 
Meres in 1598. 

1. 1598, Feb. 20, 25, 28 ; Mar. 8, The second part of 
the Downfal of Earl Huntington^ sumamed Sobin Hood 
(with Monday). 

2. 1598, Mar. 13. ''A book wherein is a part of a 
Welshman written " (with Drayton), probably the same as 

3. 1598, Mar. The famous wars of Henry i and the 
Prince of Wales (with Dekker, Drayton). 



68 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

4. 1598, Mar. 25, 30. I. £arl Godwin arid his thru 
sons (with Dekker, Drayton, Wilson). 

5. 1 598 [April]. Piers of Exton (with Dekker, Drayton, 
Wilson). 

6. 1598, May 22. i. EkuJc Betman of the North (with 
Dekker, Drayton, Wilson). 

7. 1 598, May 6 ; June 6, 10. 2. Godwin (with Dekker, 
Drayton, Wilson). 

8. 1598, June 13,14, 15,17,21,23,24,26. Richard 
Cordelion's Funeral (with Drayton, Monday, Wilson). 

9. 1598, June 26; July 8, 13, 14. 2. Black Betman 
(with Wilson). 

10. 1598, July 14. A woman tragedy, 

11. 1 598, July 30 ; Aug. 8 ; Sept. 9, 16. The Conquest 
of Brute with the first finding of the Bath (with Day). 

12. 1598, Oct. 12, 22. Brute [second part]. See 
Anon. 208. 

13. 1598, Aug. 18. Hot Anger soon cold (with Jon- 
son, Porter). 

14. 1598, Aug. 19, 24. Chance Medley (with Drayton, 
Monday, Wilson). The entry is self-contradictory, having 
Chettle in one place to correspond with Dekker in another ; 
but Chettle is more likely. Compare Cordelion's Funeral. 

15. 1598, Aug. 21, 26, 29. Catiline's Conspiracy (with 
Wilson). 

16. 1598, Nov. 18, 25. For Mending i. Bobin Hood 
for the Court. 

17. 1598, Nov. 25, 28. 'Tis no deceit to deceive the 
Deceiver, 

18. 1599, Feb. 26, 27. Tray's Revenge, with the 
tragedy of Polyphemns, 

I9« IS99> M^r. 22. The Spencers (with Porter). 

20. 1 5 99i April 7, 1 6. Troilus and Cressida (with Dekker). 



CHETTLE 69 

21. 1599 [April]. Sir Plcuddas. 

22. 1599, May 26. Agamemnon (with Dekker). 

23. 1599, Jaly 24; Aug. 23, 25 ; Oct. 14. The Step- 
mother's Tragedy (with Dekker). 

24. 1599, Sept. 3, 15, 16, 27. Bdbert 2, King of 
Scots (with Dekker, JonsoD, and ** other Jentellman.'' 
Query Marston, or, as I think, more likely Wadeson). 

25. 1599, Oct.; Dec. 19, 28, 29. Patient Grisell {yf\\h. 
Dekker, Hanghton). 

26. 1 599, Nov. 10, 27 ; 1601, Sept. 24. The Orphans* 
Tragedy. 

27* iS99i Dec. 13, 17. Arcadian Virgin (with 
Hanghton). 

28. 1600, Feb. 16; Mar. 10; April 26. Damon and 
Pythias (licensed for press 1 6th May). 

29. 1600, Mar. I, 2, 8. The Seven Wise Masters (with 
Day, Dekker, Hanghton). 

30. 1600, May 10, 14. The Golden Ass: Cupid and 
Psyche (with Day, Dekker). 

31. 1600, May. The Wooing of Death. 

32. 1600, May 26. The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green 
(with Day). 

33. June 19, 20. 2. Fair Constance of Borne (with 
Day, Hathway). 

All the preceding plays were written for the Admiral's 
men at the Bose ; the next group for the same company at 
the Fortune. 

34. 1 60 1, Mar. 31; April 6. All is not gold that 
glisters. 

35. 1601, April 18; May 16, 22. King Sebastian of 
Portingal (with Dekker). 

36. 1 60 1, June, S, 28; July 14, 17; Aug. 18, 24. 
Cardinal Wolsey's Life (licensed for press 3rd. Sept.). 



70 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

37. 1601, Oct. 10; Nov. 6, 9, 12. The Rising of Car- 
dined Wo^sey (with Drayton, Monday, Smith). 

38. 1601, Nov. 14; 1602, Jan. 6, 7. Too good to be 
true, or The Northern Man (with Hathway, Smith). 

39,. 1602, Jan. 21. Mending The Proud Woman \of 
Antwerp^ by Hanghton. I suppose for the Court]. 

40. 1602, May 4. Love parts Friendship (with Smith). 
1602, May 15. Mending the First Part (i.e., The Life) 

of Cardinal Wolsey, But I think, as properties, &c., were 
bought at this time for the performance of the Second Part, 
or Rising, that Henslow has made a mistake, and meant 
the Second Part The First Part had already been expen- 
sively produced. 

41. 1602, May 16; June 2, 26, 27. Tobias. 

42. 1602, July 7. Danish Tragedy [Hoffmann], 

43. 1602, Sept. 9, 15. Femelan^, Robinson, unknown 
elsewhere as a playwright (although Mr. Collier asserts 
the contrary, Diary, p. 225), was paid £'i on 9th Sept. (in 

. part payment), but on 15 th Sept. ChetUe got los. more 
(in part payment for " his tragedy of Femelanco "). Robin- 
son was, I think, to Chettle what Mrs. Harris was to Mrs. 
Gamp. 

44. 1602, Dec. 17, 20, 22 ; 1603, Ja^* 7- The 
London Florentine (with Hey wood). 

1602, Dec. 29. A Prologue and Epilogue for the 
Court (probably for As Merry as may be). 

45. 1602, Dec. 29; 1603, Jan. 14. A Tragedy called 
Hoffmann (with Heywood. N.B. — '* Like to like " in this 
entry is a forgery). 

46. 1603, Mar. 12. 2,* Florentine. 

Here end the Admiral's plays by Chettle ; but simul- 
taneously with the latter part of them he was writing for 
Worcester's men at the Rose, also under Henslow. 



CO— COKAIN. 71 

45. 1602, Aug. 24; Sept 7, 8, 9 ; 1603, Jan. 14. 
A tragedy (with Heywood). Undoubtedly Hoffmann. In 
this instance, by no means a solitary one, Henslow entered 
the play to the debit of both the Admiral's company and 
Worcester's. The ** Bobin hoodfdlow " (a second thought for 
" Robin Rood ") and ** Robin (roodfdlow^^ p. 239 of the Diary ^ 
are forgeries. Collier no doubt intended to identify the 
play with Grim the Collier of Croydon, 

47. 1602, Oct. 15, 21. I. Lady Jane (with Dekker, 
Heywood, Smith, Webster). See Dekker. 

48. 1602, Nov. 2, 23, 26. Christmas comes but once a 
year (with Dekker, Heywood, Webster). 

49. 1603, May 9. A play wherein is Shoi'es Wife 
(with Day). 

All through these Henslow entries there is abundant 
evidence of Chettle's poverty. In June 1598 he borrowed 
I OS. of Henslow, and was then 30s. in his debt; on 1 6th 
Sept. he owed ;^8, 9s. ; on 22nd Oct. £gy 93. ; in Nov. 
he borrowed 1 8s. 4d. **to arrest one with L. Leicester;" 
on 17th Jan. 1599 Henslow advanced 30s. for his charges 
in the Marshalsea; on 22nd March he strikes los. off his 
debt, but on 27th March again borrows 5 s., and on 2nd May 
20s. ** to discharge Ingram's arrest" On 2Sth March 1602 
he sealed a bond to write for Henslow's companies only ; on 
1 6th July he borrows 5 s., and on 7th March 1603 Henslow 
had to advance 20s. to get his play out of pawn. These 
details show great penury. 

Co, Ja. (Play.) 

I. ** The design of a tragedy called Romanus^ by Ja. Co," 
Brit. Mus., MS, HarL 4628, ,17th century. 

CoKAiN, Sir Aston. (Mask and Plays.) 

1. The Obstinate Lady, C, 1657, 1658, 1662. 

2. Trappolin supposed a Prince, T. C, 1658, 1662. 



72 THE ENGLISH DRAMA, 

3. Made at Bretbie, 1658, 1662. 

4. Ovid, T., 1662, 1669. 

Born 1608, Dec. 28, in Derbyshire; member of Trinity, 
Cambridge, and of Oxford ; entered at one of the Inns of 
Court; travelled on the Continent 1632; married Anne 
Eniveton of Mircaston, Derbyshire. Died at Derby,Feb. 1684. 

1. The Obstinate Lady, C. The first edition was surrep- 
titious ; the second and third formed part of A chain of 
Chlden PoemSy along with Trappolin and ITie Mask, This 
play was written (and I think acted) before the closing of 
the theatres in 1642. It abounds with allusions to theatres 
as open (see pp. 30, 43, 54, 64, 73, Maidment's edition), 
and once mentions the Blackfriars and Cockpit. I conjec- 
ture the date of production to be c. 163 1. 

2. Trappolin supposed a Prince is, as he tells us in the 
Prologfue, an adaptation of a piece he had heard twice at 
Venice, but not a translation ; it was therefore produced 
after his return from the Continent. 

3. The Mask was presented on Twelfth Night 1639-40, 
at Bretbie, in Derbyshire, before Philip Earl of Chesterfield 
(the author's uncle) and his Countess, two of their sons 
acting in it. 

4. Ovid's tragedy was published in 1662, with the 2nd 
edition of the poems, as " intended to be acted shortly ; " it 
was therefore probably written after the closing of the 
theatres in 1642. 

Cokain's information in his letter to his cousin Charles 
Cotton (repeated in his verses to the publishers of the 
Fletcher folio), that Massinger joined Fletcher in writing 
some of his plays, is of great value, as giving a certain basis 
for critical separation of Fletcher s work. 

Cooke, John. (Play.) 

I. Greene's Tu Qiwcpu, or The City Gallant, for John 



COWLEY. 73 

Trundle 1614, John Dewe 1622, M. Flessher [1628]; 
acted by Queen Anne's servants [at the Bull], Thomas 
Greene taking the Tu quoque part. As he died in August 
161 2, a posterior limit of date is fixed. The allusion to 
the Bull, So. 12, gives an anterior limit, isth April 1609. 
Heywood prefixed an address to the play, Cooke being dead. 
It was performed at Whitehall before the Prince 6th Jan. 
1625 (the mask having been put off) by the Queen of 
Bohemia's servants, into whose hands it had passed on the 
breaking of the Revels company, formerly Queen Anne's. 

As Sc. 16 seems to be directed against Coryat, whose 
Crudities, S. R. 26th Nov. 16 10, Crambe, S. R. 7th June 
161 1, and Banquet were published in 161 1, we may, I 
think, assume that to be the year of the first acting of the 
play. In Sc. 14 — 

" Speak but one word, and I am satisfied ! 
Or do but say but mum, and I am answered ! 
No sound, no accent 1 Is there no noise in women ? " 

palpably parodies Romeo and Juliet^ ii. 1,9; iii. 2, 85. 
Cowley, Abraham. (Latin and Univei^sity Plays.) 

{2. Naufragium Jocvlare, L. C, 
1638. 
I. Love's Jiiddle, P. C, 1638. 
3. ^e Ouardiany 1650. 
I. Love's Riddle was written ''at the time of his being 
Eang's Scholar at Westminster School," and therefore before 
1636, when he was elected at Cambridge a scholar of Trinity, 
cetatis 17, having been bom late in 161 8, and published 
his Poetic Mossoms (S. R. 24th Oct. 1632, for Henry Seile, 
who also published his early plays) when he was 1 3 years 
old. The statement of his older biographers is correct in 
this matter of age ; the portrait issued with the poems was 
taken evidently for this publication, " anno a^tatis 13"; and 



74 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

if his birthday was later in the year than 24th Oct he would 
not have attained his 14th year at the time of the S. B. 
entry. Loves Biddle was probably written 1635. 

2. Navfragium Joculare, Comcedia acta in Collegia S. et 
individtuB Trinitatis quarto iVcwkw, Feb, [Candlemas, Feb. 2], 
An. Bom. 1638. [Not 1638-9.] Cowley must have, I 
think, taken his B.A. degree at this time, and commenced 
residence in 1635. 

3. The Chiai'dian was acted before Prince Charles at 
Trinity 12th Mar. 1 641. At this time Cowley, I think, 
took his M.A. degree. The 1650 edition was printed im- 
perfectly during his absence in the country, it having 
been neither made nor acted, but rough-drawn by him and 
repeated by the scholars. Accordingly a revised version 
was acted at the Duke of York's theatre 1 6th Dec. 1 66 1 , 
which was published in 1663 as The Cutter of Coleman 
Street. 

The rest of Cowley's career does not concern us. 

Crouse, . (Latin.) 

Of Caius College, Cambridge 

I . Huribates, 1 7th century. MS. in Emanuel Library. 

D., J. (Play.) 

I. 1639, June 18, for J. Okes. The knave in grain, 
or Jack Cottinyton, 

1639, Oct. 22, assigned from J. Okes to J. Nicholson, 
A knave in grain, new vampt; 1640, written "by J. D." 
Halliwell, following Biog. Bram., makes two plays out of this 
one. It was " acted at the Fortune many days " in its new 
shape. J. D. was the vamper, not the original writer. 
The scene was then laid in Venice ; originally it seems to 
have been in England. Compare for title The Whore " new 
vampt " most likely for the same reason : viz., personal 
satire in the original play. 



DABORNK 75 

Daborne, Robert. (Plays.) 

I. 1612, Feb. I, forW. Barrenger. A Christian turned 
Turk, or T/ie tragical lives and deaths of the two famous 
pirates J Ward and Dansiker, T., 161 2. 

9. The Poor Man's Comfort, T. C, 1655. 

The earliest notice I can find of Robert Daborne, M.A., 
Grentleman, is in the patent granted to him in conjunction 
with Rossiter, Tarbrooke, Jones, and Brown appointing 
them Masters of the (Second) company of the Queen's 
Revels children. The date of this patent is 4th Jan. 
1609—10. The next notice of Daborne is the entry in 
the Stationers' Registers, ist Feb. 161 1— 12, of his play, 
(i) " -4 Christian turned Turk, or the tragical lives and deaths 
of the tivo famous pirates, Ward and Dansiker, as it hath been 
publicly acted. Written by Robert Daborne, Gent." This 
was probably acted early in 1 6 1 o (by the Revels children), 
being founded on a prose account of the same matter (S. R. 
24th Oct. 1609) "by Andrew Barker," master of a ship, 
who was taken by the confederates of Ward, and by them 
some time detained prisoner. I next meet with Daborne in 
the correspondence with Henslow preserved among Alleyn's 
papers at Dulwich, and published in the Variorum Shake- 
speare, vol. xxi., by Malone, and afterwards by Collier in 
a perplexingly confused muddle, without regard to chrono- 
logical arrangement. As these letters are interesting, and 
give a unique narrative of the life of a third-rate dramatist 
in the pay of an extortionate stage-manager of the time of 
James I., I give here an abstract of them in chronological 
arrangement. 

Document i, p. 396. Daborne, on 17th April 161 3, 
agrees to deliver to Henslow before the end of this Easter 
Term (8th May) his tragedy of (2) Machiavd and the Devil 
for ;^20. He has already received £6, is to have £^ on 



76 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

completion of 3 acts, and ;^io on completion of the play. 
We see from this that for a play by an inferior writer, on 
which he spent about two months' labour, he got a sum of 
;^20, which was accounted *'a vain thing" to expect when 
Jonson wrote his play of The Case is altered in 1 598. At 
that time £6 was Henslow's usual payment. 

2> p. 397. On 28th April Dabome borrows £1 oi 
Henslow to bail his man '* committed to Newgate upon 
taking a possession " for him. 

3» P* 398- On 3rd May Dabome gets another £1 from 
Henslow, and promises to deliver the 3 acts fairly written 
on Friday (7th May). 

4> P* 399* ^^7 8- ^dt another £1 from Henslow. 
Machiavel not ready this term, but shall come '' on the neck 
of the new play they are now studying." Dabome asks for 
appointment of "any hour to read to Mr. Allen." This 
Alleyn, it seems, was stage-manager ; Henslow looked after 
the finances. 

5> P* 399* Dabome on May 16 has taken his wife 
home again, as " thank God, most of my troubles are 
ended ; will meet Mr. Allen with you and read some. The 
play shall be ready next term with the first." Asks for 
another pound, and gets it. 

6, p. 400. He gives on May 19 receipt for the ;f 16 
received to this date, and Mr. John Alleyn the actor (not 
the Alleyn, famous Ned) notes that the play is to be delivered 
with all speed. Edward Alleyn was concerned at this time 
with the Palsgrave's men at the Fortune ; the Henslow- 
Bossiter company, for which Dabome was writing, was the 
Lady Elizabeth's. 

7> P* 397« ^® company were expecting Henslow to 
decide (on June 4) whether they should come over or go to 
Oxford. Dabome sends 2 sheets more (of Machiavel) and 



DABORNE. 77 

has given one Act of (3) ITu Arraignment of London to 
Cyril Turner to write, that that play may also be ready for 
them. Asks for another £1, and gets it 5 th June. This 
<< oomming over " refers, I think, to the project of leaving 
the theatre in Whitefriars for Paris Garden, rebuilt and 
rechristened The Hope in 16 14. Henslow's company 
(Lady Elizabeth's) was most likely still performing at 
Whitefriars. 

8, p. 398. June 10 (Thursday). Dabome expected 
Henslow on Monday (7th June) ; will deliver in the last 
word this week : wants another £1 : Ib troubled by ^' neces- 
sity of term business." Trinity Term ended on 12th 
June. 

9, p. 403. June 1 8. Dabome sat up till past twelve the 
night before writing, and had to attend the Common Pleas 
this morning to acknowledge formal recovery : asks for £2 
in earnest of The Arraignment, and will meet Henslow at 
the new play on Monday and conclude further. 

10, p. 404. June 25. Has altered a scene in Act 3 
of Machiavel: if Henslow will be paymaster for T?ie Arraign^ 
ment they shall have it ; if not, '* I must use other means to 
be furnished upon it " (in other words, he means to offer it 
to the King's men). "Before God I can have £2$ for it, 
as some of your company know." Will Henslow advance 
£2 " till we settle " ? 

I do not find any evidence that Henslow did advance any 
money on ITu Arraignment, or that this play was acted by 
his company. On the other hand, he certainly did advance 
;f 10 on a play written by Field, Dabome, Massinger, and 
Fletcher, which play I have identified with (4) The Honest 
Man's Fortune (see Fletcher). In an undated letter (No. 
1 1, p. 395) Field says, "Mr. Dabome and I have spent a 
great deal of time in conference about this plot." He asks 



78 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

for ;^io on condition that it be brought in finished on 
Angfast I. ''On my knowledge Mr. Dabome may have his 
request of another company." In another undated letter 
(p. 404) Field says he is " taken on an execution of £$0. 
I can be discharged for ;£^20. ;^I0 I have from a friend ; 
if now in my extremity you will venture ;f 10 more for my 
liberty I will never share penny till you have it again." 
This advance is asked for as on Field's private account, and 
has nothing in common with Dabome ; but in a third letter 
it appears that Dabome and Massinger were in prison as 
well as Field (Variorum, iiL 337). Herein Field says, 
"You know there is ;£^io more at least to be received of 
you for the play. We desire you to lend us £$ ot that, 
without which we cannot be bailed, nor I play any more 
till that be dispatched." Dabome adds, " The money shall 
be abated out of the money remains for the play of Mr. 
Fletcher and ours." Massinger also adds a line. They got 
the ;^5. Henslow had evidently advanced ;^io before, 
and the full payment was to be ;£^20 at least All this 
must have occurred in the early part of July. 

1 2, p. 402. On July 16 Dabome begs for one more £1, 
the very last " till the play be fully by us ended," and gets it. 

13, p. 403. July 30. Dabome, anxious for " an answer 
and end to these businesses and debts betwixt us," requests 
Henslow either to be his " paymaster for another play or 
take ;£'io of your money we have had into your hands 
again and security for the rest." Dabome '' had good cer- 
tainty of means before I wrote unto you, which upon hopes 
of your love I forsook, and must now, if you and I had 
ended, return to them again." His occasions are urgent ; 
he must sell what estate he has. Will Henslow lend him 
£1 "till we deliver in our play on Thursday" (Aug. 5)? 
The " we " and " our" in this letter, with the coincidence of 



DABORNE 79 

month dates, fix the year of Field's undated letters, which 
evidently refer to the same transaction. 

14, undated, p. 401. ''I did think I deserved as mnch 
money as Mr. Messinger. ... I pay you half my earnings 
in the play, beside my continual labour and charge employed 
only for you. ... I beseech you ... let me have 10/— 
more." And in a postscript, " I pray, sir, let your boy give 
order this night to the stagekeeper to set up bills against 
Monday [Aug. 9] for Eastward Ho, and on Wednesday the 
new play." 

1 5, August 23 (wrongly dated Aug. 3, compare Henslow's 
note), p. 405. Dabome has kept his bed, lame. Has 
come down from ;£'20 to ;f 12 a play ; begs Henslow to go 
forwai-d with the bargain about (5) Tfu Bellman. We 
[Query Dabome and Turner ; certainly not Fletcher or 
Massinger] will have but ;f 1 2 and the overplus of the second 
day, whereof I hare had lo/— , and desire but 20/— more 
till you have 3 sheets of my papers." Henslow lends him 
the 20/—. Dabome sent his wife with this letter. 

16, October 14, p. 408. Will bring in the whole play 
next week ; begs for £2 and acknowledges debt, '* with my 
quarter's rent, £S ; for which you shall either have the whole 
company's bonds to pay you the first day of my play being 
played, or the Sling's Marshal pay it and take my papers." 

17, October 29, p. 406. Dabome wants Henslow s 
decision whether the company shall have the play or not. 
** They rate upon me, I hear, because the Eang's men have 
given out they shall have it." He sends 2 sheets besides 
one sent previously ; asks for 30/—, making just £S, besides 
his rent, " which I will fully satisfy you either by them or 
the King's men as you please ;" t.e., according as Henslow 
determines to take the play or let the King's men have it. 
Henslow lends him 20/-. 



8o THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1 8, November 7, p. 410. Dabome asks for 2o/~| and 
" the Book you promised ; " 10/- " will not do." 

19, November 1 3, p. 407. Henslow's man finds Dabome 
writing the last scene. Being Saturday night, he wants 
I o/— more : " for your money if you please not to stay 
till Johnson's play [Bartholomew FaiVj not acted till 31st 
Oct. 1 8 14] be played. The King's men have been very 
earnest with me to pay you in your money for your courtesy, 
wherein you shall have 30/— profit, with many thanks." 
That is, 30/— interest on an advance of ;CiO " besides 
my rent" — no small interest. He will finish the play 
to-morrow. 

20, the same day, p. 409. Henslow's answer to No. 19 
was an accusation of '^ breach of promise." Daborne sends 
'' the foul sheet " and the partly finished fair one which he 
was writing when the man came, and gets a loan of 8/—. 
He will perfect the book, '' which shall not lie on your 
hands." Was it then to be sold to the King's men ? This 
does not read as if Henslow's company were to act it. And 
was this Bdlmany which appears from Henslow's note on the 
23 rd August letter to have been called I%e BeUman of 
LondoUj anything else than The ArraignmerU of London, 
the negotiation for which had fallen through ? Compare the 
Act 3 written by Turner (25th June) in the one, with the 
" us " ( 1 6th July) in the other. 

21, November 27, p. 409. Asks for and gets 20/—; 
will settle on Tuesday (Nov. 30). 

22, December 9, p. 411. Daborne asks for 20/— ''on 
the play you have " {The Bellman), or on " my other out of 
your book " (6) The Owl, borrowed on 7th Nov. He only 
wants ;^io for "as good a play for your public house as 
ever was played." This " public " house was Paris Garden, 
where the bears were baited. Henslow's other house, then. 



DABOBNE. 8z 

must have been a private one ; i.e., that at Whitefriarsi and 
not the Swan, as we might otherwise hare supposed. 

23, December 24. Dabome enters into a bond acknow- 
ledging receipt of £y out of ;f 10 for The Owl; the balance 
to be paid on delivery of the play, fully perfected, on loth 
Feb. next ensuing. 

24, undated. Begs for 10/- more on The Owl, and 
gets it. 

25, December 31. Yet one more io/~. Has been ill 
" of an extreme cold." Granted. Will come on Monday 
(Jan. 3) to '^ appoint for the reading the old Book" (The 
Bellman), and " bring in the new " (ITie Owl). So Hens- 
low's company, after all, act The Bellman. 

26 y undated. Borrows through Mr. 6ri£Sn 40/— on a 
Patent "worth ;f 1 00." 

27, Mar. II, 161 3-14. "Sir, if you do not like this 
play when it is read you shall have the other, which shall be 
finished with all expedition. ... I pray send me lo/— , and 
take these papers, which wants [sie'] but one short scene of 
the whole play." What plays are these ? The second one is 
no doubt (8) The She Saint, hereafter mentioned ; but the 
first is not The Owl. For in the next letter Dabome asks 
;f 12 for it, and he had already sold The Owl for ;£^io. I 
conjecture that it was (7) The Faithful Friends^ a play 
written in the early part of 161 4 (as is manifest from the 
allusions in it to the Masques, &c., at the marriage of Carr, 
Earl of Somerset), and very like in metre and style to the 
part of The Honest MatCs Fortune assigned by me to Dabome, 
If this conjecture be correct, Henslow accepted the play. He 
sent the 10/— asked for by Dabome's daughter, now first 
mentioned. 

28, March 28 (wrongly dated 161 3 ; compare Henslow's 
note). Dabome sends the play complete; offers Henslow 

VOL. I. P 



82 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

the choice of this one (Tht Faithful Friendsl) now, or 
another (The She Saint) to come ; asks ;Ci 2 each for them ; 
wants an advance of 20/—. Mr. Pallant is much discon- 
tented with Henslow's neglect of him. Henslow lets him 
have I o/— " in fnll payment of his new play last written," 
and on 2nd April pays him 8/— ''in earnest of The She 
Saint at his own honse.** 

29, Ang. I, p. 408. Dabome asks for a loan of 10/—. 
Being Sunday, he is pressed for money, because Lord Wil- 
loughby has sent for him to go to him on Monday morning 
by 6 A.M., " and I know not how profitable it may be to me, 
and without your kindness herein I cannot go; he goes 
away with the King to-morrow morning." This is evidently 
a private transaction. Dabome left writing for the stage 
about June 16 14, when " Mr. Pallant was brought in," i.e., 
when Prince Charles' men joined the Lady Elizabeth's, and 
writes in August like a man freed from care and compara- 
tively cheerful. Henslow, of course, lent the money. This 
letter is undated by Dabome, but Henslow has added the 
date 2nd Aug. 1 6 14 either from ignorance (his Diary is 
crowded with similar mistakes) or to avoid dating a loan 
on a Sunday. The King set out on his progress early on 
Monday morning, and we may trust that Lord Willoughby 
was profitable to Dabome, for the next we hear of him — 
unless the bond of 161 5, July 4, noted under Massinger, 
be genuine — is as a preacher at Waterford in 1 61 8, where 
a sermon of his on Zechariah ii. 7 was published. 

The only other detail I know of his career is, that he 
wrote a play (which I have not seen) called (9) The Poor 
Man's Comfort y published in 1655. 

Daborne as a writer is insignificant apart from his con- 
nexion with greater poets; but the year of Dabome's life 
here epitomized is very interesting, being a unique example 



DABORNE. 83 

of the dealings between the harpy managers and poor stage 
poets in the Jacobean time. Yarioas points carrying with 
them inferences of some import for dramatic history are also 
here newly set forth, as will be evident to the careful reader. 
It may be usefal, in order to show the special bearings of 
the different parts of this one year's correspondence, to 
summarize it thus : — 

2. 161 3, April 17-June 25. Machiavd and the Devil j i. 

3. 161 3, June 18— June 25. The Arraignment of Lon^ 
don, ii. 

4. 16 1 3, July. The Honest Man's Fortune, iii. 

5 . 1 6 1 3 , Aug. 2 3~Nov. 1 3 . The Bellman of London, iv. 

6. 1 61 3, Dec. 9-Dec. 31. The Owl, v. 

7.1 ^ ,, , -.r , « {The Faithful Frimd8,yi. 

o }-loi4, March 1 1 -March 28.i-«^ en. o - ^ •• 
8. J ^' yThe She Saxnt, yvl 

Dabome must have quitted play-writing at or before 
Henslow's death, 16 16, Jan. 8. 

I . The Christian turned Turk^ T., was founded on Andrew 
Barker's book on them, S. E., for John Busby, junior, 1 609, 
Oct. 24. He was a master of a ship taken by Ward's 
confederates, and "some time detained prisoner." John 
Busby, senior, had on July 3 published two ballads on 
them, and on June 2 entered a prose account of their 
piracies, called News from the Sea^ which was forbidden on 
June 12. The play was no doubt performed early in 16 10 
by the Queen's Eevels children at Whitefriars. 

9. The Poor Man*s Comfort^ acted at Drury Lane [by 
Queen Henrietta's men], was no doubt originally acted by 
the Queen's Bevels boys about the same time as the pre- 
ceding; certainly before 161 3. 

Of Daborne's other plays enough has been said. See 
also, under Fletcher, for 

4. The Honed Man's Fortune, 



84 THE ENGL'ISH DBAMA. 

6. The Owl, entered S. B. 1624, June 29, is Drayton's 
poem, not Daborne's play. 

Daniel, Samuel. (Plays, masks.) 

!• 1 593i Oct. 1 1, for S. Waterson. Cleopatra, T., 1 594, 
hie {Deliaj with separate title), 1595,1598; 15 99 (Poetical 
Eeeays, with separate title); 1605 (<^aU poeme); 1607 
{small worke)^ 161 1 ; 1601 (worke\ 1602, 1623 (altered), 
1635 (1623 copies with new title-page). 

2. The Vision, of the Twdve Goddesses^ mask, 1604, by 
T. C[reede], for S. Waterson; 1623 (works), 1635. Called 
Hu Wisdom of the 12 ff. in some copies by mistake. 

3. 1604, Nov. 29, for S. Waterson and E. Blunt 
PhilotaSf 1605 (^n^f^l poems, with separate title), 1607 
(by M. Bradwood for E. Blunt), 1 607 (by J. W. for S. 
Waterson), 161 1, 1623 (works), 1635. 

4. 1605, Nov. 26, for S. Waterson. The QtteerCs Arcadia, 
1606 (by G. Elde), 1607 (sm^zll works), 161 1; 1623 
(works), 1635. 

50. Tethyi Festival, or The QtuerCs Wake, 16 10 (for 
John Budge) ; called '* The Boyal Mask " in the main title. 

56. The Creation of Prince Henry ^ 1 6 1 o (for John Budge, 
with the preceding, but with separatei title). 

6. 161 5, Jan. 13, for F. Constable. Hym£n*s Triumph, 
P. T. C, 161 5. 

As the following notice of Daniel, which appeared in 
Anglia in 1889, was the last of my writings presented to 
and approved by Bobert Browning, the reader will perhaps 
excuse my dislike to remodel it into accordance with the 
usual form of those of other dramatic writers, or indeed to 
alter it at all. As the order of publication in Daniel's case 
coincides with that of production, I need not add a separate 
account of the plays and masks. Nor do I desire to enlarge 
the notice, except by the statement that " a very worthy 



DANIEL. 8s 

man, worthy* to be one of your privy chamber or poet 
laureat," in Northward Ho, iv. i, certainly is meant to indi- 
cate Bellamont (Chapman) as a fitting successor to Daniel 
in those appointments. That play was acted by the Paul's 
boys early in 1605, just after Daniel's disgrace caused by 
his PhUotas : — 

Samuel Daniel, son of John Daniel, a music-master, 
was bom not far from Taunton, in Somersetshire, in 1 562-3 
(Fuller). He was entered as a commoner at Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, in 1579, abatis 16. In 1582 he left Oxford 
without taking a degree (Wood), and was received under 
the patronage of Mary, the Countess of Pembroke, who 
"first encouraged and framed" him to rhyming measures 
at Wilton, "his best school.*' He was "drawn further 
on " by the approbation of her son, the Earl, to " bestow 
all his powers therein." On 26th Nov. 1584 a translation 
of Paulus Jovius' Imprese was entered on the Stationers' 
Registers for Simon Waterson. To this " discourse of Mili- 
tary and Amorous Inventions " Daniel, the translator, pre- 
fixed a preface on the art of composing them, dedicating 
the work to the Queen's Champion, Sir Edward Dimmock. 
An epistle by N. W., dated from Oxford, accompanied this 
dedication. I venture the conjecture that N. W. was a 
Waterson, and that he introduced Daniel to the publisher, 
who remained a fast friend to him through life, and was 
one of the overseers appointed in his will. In this epistle 
a certain M. P. is mentioned, who, " climbing for an eagle's 
nest," was defeated by the malevolence of Fortune. That 
this person's name was M[aster] P[yne] is evident from 
the " devices " or " imprese " which he " limned " concern- 
ing himself, viz., " a Pine tree stricken with lightning," and 
"a Pin-nace" tossed with tempestuous storms. He was 
probably the John Pyne, parson of Bear Ferres, who pub- 



86 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

lished Zatin Epigrams and Anagrams in 1626, many of 
which are of much earlier date. I see .that Doctor Grosart 
says that " it is vain to conjecture " who M. P. was ; but, 
as he had not seen this conjecture when he wrote, and was 
thinking of the interpretation of M. P. as Mary Pembroke, 
I hope he may yet see reason to change his opinion. 

In 1 591 Nash's edition of Sidney's Astrophel and Stella 
was printed, containing twenty-seven Sonnets to Delia ; ^ 
three of these were never acknowledged by Daniel. Delia 
has never been identified ; Doctor Grosart does " not sup- 
I>ose it is likely now that we shall ever know who Delia 
was." And yet in Doctor Grosart's edition of Nash's works, 
iii. 2 14, in the dedication of The Terrors of the Night, 1 594, 
to Elizabeth Carey, daughter and heir of Sir George Carey, 
we read that " the wittiest poets of our age have vowed to 
enshrine you as their second Delia." The first Delia was 
Queen Elizabeth. The second "dear lamp of Virginity" 
married Lord Berkeley, whose seat was Barkley Castle, on 
the Little Avon, in Gloucestershire ; which is, notwithstand- 
ing this fact, not the Avon of Daniel's Sonnet 55, "Avon 
poor in fame and poor in waters ; " though what " seat " 
Delia had on any Avon in 1592 is as yet unknown. But 
I do not think it vain or hopeless to attempt to discover it. 
It is very noticeable that in 1594, while Delia was still 
"a lamp of Virginity," Daniel retained his first version, 
'*rich in fame," but in 160 1 introduced the alteration. In 
like manner he altered 

" I'll sound her name the river all along" 
to 

" No other prouder Brookes shall hear my wrong." 



(( 



My wrong," taken with many similar expressions in these 



^ "The only bird " Sonnet is a variant of Sonnet 13 of the collected edition. 
Groiart ii wrong in saying that it was not reprinted by Daniel. 



DANIEL. 87 

Sanruts, surely alludes to something more serious in this 
connexion than mere poetical Platonics. Was there at one 
time ground of hope for Daniel's marrying this heiress ? 

At the time of the surreptitious issue of these Delia 
Sonnets Daniel was probably in Italy (see Sonnets 49, 50), 
where he met Guarini, the author of H Pxutor Fido. He 
was then in the company of Sir E. Dymmock (see Daniel's 
Sonnet prefixed to The Faithful ShepJierd). This fact, 
coupled with the dedication in November 1584 noted 
above, seems to point to Daniel's having attached himself 
to this patron on leaving Wilton, probably about that time 
(1584). On his return from Italy (and immediately so, 
in my opinion) Daniel hastened to publish a complete and 
more accurate issue of the Delia Soimets, which were en- 
tered with The Complaint of Rosamond on the Stationers' 
Eegisters (for S. Waterson) 4th Eeb. 1592.^ There was a 
second edition printed before 25 th March, and a third in 
1594. Along with this third edition was printed The 
Tragedy of Cleopatraj which had been entered for Waterson 
19th Oct. 1 593. This tragedy was written at the command 
of the Countess of Pembroke, to whom it is dedicated. It 
is in the Seneca manner, with chorus presentation, and in 
rhymes ; but I cancel my weaker observations on this point 
in favour of Mr. Saintsbury's excellent essay printed in 
Grosart's edition. 

On nth Oct. 1594 the dissension betwixt the Houses 
of York and Lancaster *was entered (for Waterson). This 
contained Four Books of The History of the CivU Wars. 
The original title shows that this poem was meant to be 
a poetical rival to the theatrical '^ contention of the two 
famous houses of York and Lancaster" by Marlowe, &c. 

I The Ode and Pattoral (Tery like Shelley in lentiment) were indnded in 
this iune. 



88 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

(then on the stage), by one "whose verse respects not 
Thames nor Theatres " (Sonnet 55). The volome was issued 
in 1595 ; and in this same year, 27th Sept. 1595, William 
Jones his Nennio was entered on the Stationers' Registers. 
This book had verses by Daniel to the author prefixed, and 
was dedicated to the Earl of Essex. Daniel was now at 
the zenith of his reputation. 

I pass over the ludicrous attribution of the verses on 
WiUoby's Avisa to Daniel (in which S. D., I take it, means 
not S[amuel] D[aniel], but S[alutem] D[at]) with the 
remark that they fally bear out my assertion in my Life of 
Shakespeare that Avisa was an innkeeper's daughter, not a 
lady of generous birth, as Dr. Ingleby supposed. 

In Every man in his humor (1598), v. i, and Every 
man out of his hum^or (i 599), iii. i, passages from Daniel's 
Sonnets and Sosamond were ridiculed by Jonson for their 
absurdities. This was the beginning of the "jealousies " be- 
tween Jonson and Daniel mentioned in Drummond's Con- 
versations, which form one of the most important grounds 
for explanation of Daniel's career, but have hitherto been 
neglected by his biographers. 

On 9th Jan. 1598-9 the Poetical Essays, induding The 
Civil Wars, Book v., and A letter from Octama to Marcus 
Antonius in Egypt, were entered on the Stationers' Registers 
for WatersoD. This book was dedicated to Mary Countess 
of Cumberland, the mother of Anne, the wife of Philip Earl 
of Pembroke. In my opinion she is the Octavia of the 
poem. It also contained a Sonnet to Charles Blunt, Lord 
Montjoy, who succeeded Sir E. Dimmock in the patronage 
of DanieL In 1600 Daniel became tutor to Lady Anne 
Clifford, then eleven years of age, at Skipton, in Craven. 
This lady never lost her grateful memory of her tutor's in- 
structions ; Daniel's portrait still is extant in a large family 



DANIEL 89 

picture along with hers, and his whole works in verse in 
this painting stand on the same shelf as Spenser's. This is 
a very delicate compliment. The preparation of the edition 
of his works, known as the 1601 Folio, did not suffice to 
keep him in content during the three years he spent at 
Skipton. In 1603 he wrote to Egerton, the Lord Chan- 
cellor, of his " misery, that, whilst I should have written 
the actions of men, I have been constrained to live with 
children." His biographers regard this as ingratitude. Did 
they know the self-conceit, the intolerance of strangers, the 
rude ignorance, that have always characterized the inhabi- 
tants of the Craven Valley, they would be more forbearing 
to Daniel's natural weariness of his three years' residence 
there. During this time, on i6th Sept. 1601, a transla- 
tion of H Pastor Fido, to his old patron Dimmock and 
another, was entered on the Stationers' Eegisters. It is 
from Daniel's verses to this book that we learn the de- 
tails of his stay in Italy already noticed. The only other 
poetic work during this tutorship was a sixth book (Book 
vii of the final edition) of ITie Civil WarSj dated 1602 in 
the Folio edition, and The Fassion of a distressed man, with 
the accompanying Epistle to the Earl of Hertford. 

In March 1603 King James I. succeeded to the throne, 
and then came a great change in Daniel's position. He 
left Skipton and Lady Anne, and distributed copies of his 
1 60 1 -2 Folio broadcast to every one whose patronage was 
likely to be useful to him. One copy he dedicated in 
1604 (with specially printed verses) to the Bodleian Library 
at Oxford; another (with dedicatory MS. letter) to Lord 
Keeper Egerton. Of these more hereafter. To this same 
nobleman, in 1603, a year earlier, he printed an Epistle; as 
also to Lord Heniy Howard, Margaret Countess of Cumber- 
land, Lucy Countess of Bedford, Lady Anne Clifford, and 



90 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

(to his praise be it spoken) to Henry Wriothesley, Earl of 
Southampton. All these Epiatles date c. April 1603 ; the 
specially printed dedications to the Queen, &c., a little later, 
c. May 1603—4, after the publication by £. Blount of his 
Folio volume (entered 30th May 1603), containing the 
Panegyrick delivered to the King at Burley HaringtoUi in 
Butlandshire, in April ; the Six EpistUSy and MusophUvLSy 
called in this first edition A Defense of JRhyme. This last- 
named poem, in answer to Campion's Observations (1602), 
was dedicated to Fulke Greville. Doctor Grosart is mis- 
taken in assigning any of these to 160 1 or 1602. At this 
same time he also addressed verse to *'my dear friend" 
Florio on his translation of Montaigne, printed in 1603. 
Many of Jonson's sneers against Italianate authors who 
borrowed from Montaigne are directed against Daniel rather 
than Shakespeare. This has not been sufficiently considered 
by Mr. Jacob Feis in his useful but misleading book on the 
subject. The result of all these panegyrics was, that Lucy 
Countess of Bedford recommended hitn to the Queen to 
write the Court Masque (his first one) for Christmas. This 
was The Vision of the Twelve Goddesses^ presented at Hamp- 
ton Court 8th Jan. 1603—4 by the Queen and her ladies, 
and published the same year by Waterson, with a dedica- 
tion to the afore-named Countess. Immediately afterwards, 
30th Jan. 1303-4, the children of the Chapel were taken 
under the Queen's protection, and a patent for them was 
issued to Kirkham and others under the title of Children 
of the Queen's Bevels. They were not to act any play 
which had not been allowed by Samuel Daniel. His 
gratitude for this appointment is shown in his verses to 
the Queen already mentioned. The selection of Daniel 
as masque-writer and licenser aroused Jonson's "envy;" 
and naturally so, for Jonson's superiority was even then 



DANIEL. 91 

sufficiently patent; and in his Epistle to the CourUess of 
BiUlandy which, though undated by his editors, is certainly 
of the year 1 604, he mentions " Lucy the bright : *' — 

" Who, though she have a better veraer got 
(Or Poetf in the Court account,) than I, 
And who doth me, though I not hiiu, envy." 

One of the first plays allowed by Daniel was his own 
tragedy of FhUotas. The analogy between the careers of 
Philotas and the late Earl of Essex was so evident that 
indignation was at once excited, ^nd in self-defence Daniel 
published the play, together with his Ulysses and tlie Siren, 
and reprints of his Ode and Pastoral under the title of 
Certain Small Works, These were accompanied by a letter 
to Prince Henry, and an apology — one of the weakest con- 
ceivable — to the effect that he had written Acts i. to iii. a 
few months before Essex' execution ; as if that excused his 
licensing Acts iv., v. three years after. This volume was 
licensed for Waterson and Blunt 29th Nov. 1604. It is 
clear that Daniel had been summoned before the Council 
on account of this play. In his letter to the Earl of Devon- 
shire lie says : " I told the Lords ... I had read some part 
of it to your house. ... I beseech you let not an Earl of 
Devonshire overthrow what a Lord Montjoy hath done, 
who hath done me good and I have done him honor : the 
Avorld must or shall know mine innocency," &c. This is 
simply insolent; evidently written before the publication, 
which did not mend matters. In the Eevels accounts at 
Court we find tliat the children who acted Philotas pre- 
sented one play 20th Feb. 1603-4, ^or which payment 
was made to E. Kirkham; and two plays, ist, 3rd Jan. 
1604-5, for which payment was made to H. Evans and 
S. Daniel; but in 1606 Eirkham had gone to the Paul's 



92 THE ENGLISH DEAMA. 

children, and Daniel's ntfrne occurs there no more. Neither 
do we hear of any children of the Queen's Revels again till 
the new company under Bossiter 1609-10, although a 
company of children of the King's Hevels did act from 
1607 to 1609. The inference is plain: Daniel was 
deprived of his licensing office, and the company recon- 
stituted. But he did not lose the Queen's patronage ; he 
was appointed some time before 1 6 1 1 a Gentleman of her 
Privy Chamber. 

In 1605 Grosart tells us Daniel prefixed verses to the 
translation of Du Bartas by J. Sylvester, " my good friend ; " 
and Hazlitt's Dictionary mentions similar verses to Evon- 
dale's French Garden. But the event of this year was the 
acting of The Queen's Arcadia at Christ Church, Oxford, 
before the Queen in August. This fact proves that Daniel 
was still in favour with her, although he had been displaced 
as Court poet by Jonson, whose Masque of Blackness had 
been acted at Whitehall at the usual Christmas festivities 
on Twelfth Night 1604-5. Daniel's "Pastoral Tragi- 
comedy" was entered for publication by S. Waterson 26th 
Nov. 1605. On 3rd April 1606 the Duke of Devonshire 
died, and Daniel published his Funeral poem on him soon 
after. In tlie margin of the 1 607 edition occurs a mention 
of Sir William Godolphin, " his faithful friend." This poem 
was incorporated in the 1607 edition of the Small Works. 

In 1609 another book was added to the Civil Wars 
(Book viii. of the final edition) ; and in the same year, 
January 1609-10, Jonson, in his Fpicene, ii. i, speaks 
disparagingly of comparisons between Daniel and Spenser, 
Jonson " and t'other youth " (Daniel), and so forth. Jonson 
also wrote, but did not publish, " A Discourse of Poesy both 
against Campion and Daniel, especially this last, where he 
proves couplets to be the bravest sort of verses, especially 



DANIEL. 93 

when they are broken like Hexameters, and that cross 
rhymes and stanzas (because the purpose would lead him 
beyond eight lines to conclude) were all forced " (Drum- 
mond's Conversations). The date of writing this discourse 
is unknown \ but I would place it after the production of 
Daniel's and Campion's Masqties in February i6|l2~i3. 

In 1610, June 5, Daniel's Queens Wake, or Teihys* Fes-- 
tivaly was performed at Whitehall by the Que6n and her 
ladies at the creation of Henry/ Prince of Wales. This 
was published by Budge. In 1 6 1 1 Daniel addresses John 
Florio, in verses prefixed to his QtLeen Ann/i*s New World 
of WordSj as his " dear friend and brother." As he does 
not use this form of address to any other author on similar 
occasions, I think that the old tradition of a connexion 
between Florio and Daniel by marriage has a basis of truth. 
But, on account of the foreign name Justina, I prefer the 
form of tradition which gives Florio's sister to Daniel for 
wife to that which makes a sister of Daniel married to 
Florio. It occurred to me that the term " brother " might 
mean fellow Gentleman of the Queen's Privy Chamber ; but 
Daniel in these verses, while expressly mentioning Florio 
as occupying this position, does not claim this title himself, 
as he was careful to do in 161 3. It is singular that 
Doctor Grosart, in discussing this matter, should say of 
Daniel, " But he had no sister, so far as appears," and on 
the next page should quote (in his will), "I bequeath to 
my sister Susan Bowre." 

On 27th June 161 2 Daniel's History of England, was 
entered on the Stationers' Begisters for Waterson, and 
about the same time, I think, he was appointed Gentleman 
Extraordinary of Her Majesty's most royal Privy Chamber ; 
under which title he signs in 1 6 1 3 the verses to Florio in 
his Montaigm, altered from the 1603 edition. On 3rd 



94 THE ENGLISH DRAMA, 

Feb. 1613-14 Daniel's Pastoral, Hymen* s Triumph, was 
performed at Somerset House at the marriage of Sir Bobert 
Eer of Cessford, Lord Roxburgh, to Mrs. Jane Drummond ; 
"solemn and dull," writes Mr. Chamberlain. It was pub- 
lished by F. Constable 13th Jan. 16 14-15. Between the 
performance and publication Jonson's Bartholomew Fair was 
acted publicly and at Court in the early winter (Oct. 31, 
Nov. I ). In this play Daniel is satirized as Littlewit. The 
grounds for this bold assertion of mine are the following : — 
Littlewit is the author of the interlude performed by 
the puppets. These puppets are described as ''pretty 
youths ; all children, both old and young ; " they are ** as 
good as any for dumb shows." Cokes pays not two but 
twelve pence for admission. All this and more, too long 
to extract here, shows that the Queen's Revels children, to 
which Daniel had been manager and licenser, are the com- 
pany ridiculed. But there are allusions still more personal. 
"Hang the author's wife! Here be ladies will stay for 
ne'er a Delia of them all." There is no possibility of mis- 
taking that Again, Cokes inquires at the puppet-show 
booth for " the master of the monuments." This brings us 
to the Epigrams of Sir John Davis on Dacus. Epigram 45 
identifies Dacus and Daniel. It ridicules the " silent elo- 
quence " of Daniel's Rosamond, which was, in like manner, 
jeered at in Jonson's Every m^n out of his humor, iii. i. 
And Epigram 30 on this same Dacus runs thus : — 

'^ Among the poetB Dacus numbered is, 

Yet could he never make an English rhyme ; 
But some prose speeches I have heard of his, 

Which have been spoken many a hundred time. 
The man that keeps the elephant hath one, 

Wherein lie tells the wonders of the beast ; 
Another Banks pronounced long agone, 

When he his curtal's qualities ezprest ; 



DANIEL 95 

He first taught him that keeps the monumenU 

At Westminster his formal tale to say ; 
And also him which puppets represents ; 

And also him which with the ape doth play. 
Though all his poetry he like to this, 
Amongst the poets Dacus numbered is." 

Dacus is Daniel ; Littlewit is Dacus : the Euclidian reader 
will draw the inference. After all, it comes to much the 
same as Jonson's prose statement — "Daniel was a good 
honest man : had no children, but no poet" Another direct 
allusion to Daniel occurs iv. 2, where Quarlous takes his 
word Argalus from Sidney's Arcadia, Win wife his Palemon^ 
from Daniel's HymerCs Triumph. Notice also the numerous 
allusions to masques in iii. i. 

From a letter of Sir George Buck, the Master of the 
Bevels, it appears that, on the mediation of the Queen on 
behalf of Samuel Daniel, the King appointed a company of 
youths to perform plays at Bristol under the name of the 
Youths of Her Majesty's Boyal Chamber of Bristol Buck 
consented, " as being without prejudice to the rights of his 
ofiGice." This letter is dated loth July 161 5. A week 
afterwards the patent was issued (17th July), not for 
Samuel, but John Daniel, his brother. This John was not a 
player (as Mr. Collier tells us), but a Bachelor of Music in 
the Prince's service who had published (6th April 1606, 
S. R) Songs for the ImU, &c. The authority of this patent 
was resisted, and in April 1 6 1 8 ** letters of assistance " were 
granted to John Daniel authorizing him to assign by letters 
to these players (Martin Slaughter and others) power to act 
anywhere in His Majesty's dominions. The attempt to 
establish a permanent stage at Bristol was clearly a failure. 
Dr. Grosart has omitted notice of these documents (given 

^ This PalSmon has nothing in common with the Palftmon of Palamon and 
Areite, as supposed by the commentators. 



96 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

in Collier's Stage ' AnndUy L 411), on the ground of that 
gentleman's well-known propensity to forgery : he did not 
notice that it was also given us earlier by Chalmers. 

At the time of this appointment of Bristol players, July 
1615, we must, I think, place Daniel's retirement from 
London, where he had resided in Old Street, to Bidge 
Farm, Beckington, in Somersetshire, where we know nothing 
of his proceedings until 4th Sept 1 6 1 9, when he made his 
will. He died in October. 

In his will Daniel left a legacy to his sister Susan 
Bowre, and appointed Simon Waterson (who had published 
the majority of his works) and John Phillips, his brother- 
in-law, overseers. As there is no mention of his wife, she 
probably died before him. He was buried at Beckington, 
and his former pupil, Lady Anne Clifford, erected a monu- 
ment to his memory in that church. She was then Countess- 
Dowager of Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomery. 

I have reserved for this place the most important dis- 
covery contained in this paper. Daniel was not merely 
'' at jealousies " with Jonson, but was actually represented 
by him on the stage as Hedon in CyrUhia^s Bevels as early 
as 1600. In iv. i Philautia (Hedon's mistress, and there- 
fore Mrs. Elizabeth Carey) says, '' I should be some Laura 
or some Delia, methinks." In Sonnet 40 to Delia, Daniel 
expressly calls her Laura : — 

"Though thou, a Laura, hast no Petrarch found ;'* 

and again : — 

''For though that Laura better limn^ he.** 

No other Laura-Delia is known in English literature. In 
ii. I Mercury describes Hedon as ''a rhymer, and that's 
thought better than a poet." So in Drummond's Conversa- 



SUUmEL 97 

tions Jonson says Daniel was " no poet ; " and in his lines to 
the Countess of Bedford he calls him " a verser or poet in 
the Court account." But the conclusive passage is in v. 2. 
Crites says to Hedon: "You that tell your mistress her 
beauty is all composed of theft ; her hair, stole from 
Apollo's goldy locks; her white and red, lilies stolen out 
of Paradise ; her eyes, two stars plucked from the sky/' &c. 
Compare the lines in Sonnet 19 : — 

*' Restore thy tresses to the golden ore, 
Yield Qrtherea's son those arcs of love, 

Bequeath the heaveus the stars that I adore, 
And to the Orient do thy pearls remove. . . . 

Restore thy blush unto Aurora bright** 

This identification of Hedon with Daniel will be found to be 
the key to many other personal allusions in Jonson's plays, 
and gets rid at once of the foolish conjectures which have 
been set forth that Hedon is Dekker, Marston, or Shake- 
speare, to none of whom does he bear the faintest resem- 
blance. It seems probable, on comparing Jonson's three 
comical satires, that Hedon and Anaides are the same per- 
sonages as Fastidious Brisk and Carlo Buffone in JEvery man 
out of his humour, and Hermogenes Tigellius and Crispinus 
in The Poetaster} I thought that, if anything was settled in 
criticism, it was the identity of Crispinus and Carlo Buffone 
with Marston ; yet recently one ignorant critic has identified 
Crispinus with Shakespeare, and has been praised by a still 
more ignorant criticaster for his " research " in so doing. It 
is clear that the beginning ' of the turmoil among the three 
theatrical houses arose from Marston's abuse of Jonson and 

^ As FftBtidlous Brisk is palpably the same personage with Emolo in 
PcUierU Grittd, this identification also gets rid of a fooliih assertion put forth 
by a Demi-Doctor some years since, that Emulo meant Jonson. 

'"Beginning." That is, on the stage. The true beginning of the quarrel lay 
in the rivalry of the poets patronized by Mary Countess of Pembroke : Jonsoa 
and Donne, Daniel and Drayton. 

VOL. I. G 



98 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

praise of Daniel and Drayton in his Satires (entered S. R 
27th May 1598). Hence Jonson's coupling of Marston 
and Daniel (Hedon and Anaides) ; hence also, which is of 
more importance, Daniel's retirement from Court in 1600 
to the Scythian barbarism of the Craven Valley. Othor 
resulting conclusions from this Old Comedy passage-at- 
arms must be deferred for consideration to a more suit- 
able occasion. 

I have only to add that, in my judgment, Jonson's 
estimate of Daniel, in spite of a few splendid purple patches, 
such as the Sonnet to Carecharmer Sleep, and the recognition 
of Thyrsis and Sylvia in v. i of Hymen's Triumph, was in 
the main a just one. He was an honest man, but a verser, 
and no poet. 

P,S, — I have thought it best not to disturb the text as 
first written; but since p. 86 was penned my anticipation that 
the Avon on which Delia had her seat might be discovered 
has been fulfilled. It was not the Stratford-on-Avon 
river (so that all Mr. Collier's inferences as to Shakespeare's 
want of fame in 1592, when we know that his Talbot 
scenes in i . Henry 6 were exciting a furore in London, are 
altogether dismissed to the limbo so well deserved by his 
numberless forgeries), but the Avon on which Bath and 
Bristol stand, the Lower Avon. It appears from a letter of 
Mr. Chamberlain's, 8th July 1602 (Nichols' Progresses of 
James i, iii. 573), that Sir George Carey, Delia's father, had 
a residence at Bath sufficiently important to receive a visit 
there from Queen Elizabeth. The visit, however, did not 
take place. 

I ought also to have noted, for the clearer explanation of 
the allusions in the words "Second Lamp of Virginity," 
that this was the title under which the Queen's own trans- 



DAVENANT. 99 

lations of Queen Margaret's prayers were published. See 
Nichols, ii. 396 ; he adds that the book was entered S. B. 
1582. It contained 7 Lamps; the Queen's translations 
are in the second. Each Lamp has a separate title-page. 
This Lamp of Virginity, by T. Bentley, was entered S. R. 
7th November 1581, for H. Denham, and published 1582 
as The Monument of Matrons. Nash's use of the words 
"Second Lamp of Virginity" was a direct insult to the 
Queen. Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke, had also been 
called Delia, but Nash could not reckon her as his first 
lamp of Virginity ; she was a married woman. 
Davenant, William. (Plays and Masks.) 

I. Albovine, T., for B. M[eighen], 1629. 

1630, Jan. I, for Ephraim Dawson. 3. The Colonel, 
T.C. 

[ 2. The Cruel Brother, T., 



1630, Jan. 10, for John 
Waterson. 



1630. 
4. The Just Italian^ T. C, 
1630. 
7. The Temple of Love, 1634. 

^^■cii. 1- -n-i-jr9' ^^ Platonic Lovers, 
1636, Feb. 4, for Richard _ ' 

Meighen. T. C, 1636. 

[5. The Wits, C, 1636. 
1636, Feb. 19. 10. Prince cTAmour, msi&k, 1635. 

1 1. Britannia triumphans, mask, 1637. 
15. Salmacida Spolia, mask, 1639. 

12. The UnforturuUe Lovers, T., 1643. 
6. Love and Horuyr, T. C, 1 649. 

Works, 167 3 J containing 8. News from Plymouth, C. ; 
13. Fair Favorite, T. C. ; 14. Spanish Lovers^ T. C, &c., in 
Folio. 

William, second son of John Davenant, vintner, who 
owned the Crown Tavern at Oxford, was born in Feb., and 



V 



/ 



loo THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

christened 3rd Mar. 1606; was educated at All Saints' 
School, and wrote an ode on Shakespeare's death in 16 16. 
In 1 62 1 John Davenant was elected Mayor of Oxford, and 
died in the same year,^ a fortnight after his wife. That 
same year William had been entered at Lincoln College. 
John's ^ill was proved 21st Oct 1622. He left three 
daughters and four sons. WiUiam, being 16, was to be 
apprenticed to a merchant in London. He did go to London 
in 1622, but became not an apprentice, but first page to 
Frances Duchess of Bichmond. Somewhere about 1626 he 
left her service for that of Fulk Oreville, Lord Brook, who 
died 30th Sept. 1628. Davenant had then begun to write 
pi ays. Between 1630 and 1 6 3 3 he had a long illness, which 
interrupted his play-writing (see Prologue to TTu Wits). 
In 1637 Jonson died, on 6th August. May and Davenant 
sought the Laureateship ; Davenant got the patent 1 3th Dec. 
1638. He had written a tract against Socinianism in 1637, 
but his first laureate production was Madagascar^ and oOier 
poems, S. E. 13th Mar. 1638, for T. Walkley, by W. Dave- 
nant, *' her Majesty's servant." Madagascar was addressed 
to Prince Bupert. Habington, in his verses commendatory, 
assumes that Davenant had the *' laurel," thus anticipat- 
ing the patent by nine months. On i6th Mar.^ 1639 he 
obtained a patent to build a playhouse in Fleet Street ; and 
on 27th June he was made Governor of the King and 
Queen's players at the Cockpit (vice W. Beeston), ** for the 
remainder of Mrs. Beeston's lease," on account of their 
'' disorder ; " but in May 1 64 1 Davenant was accused of 
subverting the army. He fled, was apprehended, brought 
to London, imprisoned for two months; was bailed, again 

1 So the biographen say ; but compare WiUiam*B age and the date of proying 
the will. Surely it must have been in 1622. 

' Malone has 1640, but he also says " in the following year " to Dec. 1638 
( Variorum, iii 242). 



DAVENANT. loi 

seized, but escaped to the Queen in France. His subse- 
quent career is most interesting as the principal link between 
the ante- and post-Bestoration drama, especially in connexion 
with alterations in Shakespeare's plays, but is, unfortu- 
nately, beyond my limits. The Cockpit in 1641 seems to 
have relapsed to W. Beeston. See under Brome, Richard. 

1. The Tragedy of Albomiu, King of the Lombards, was 
not acted ; it could not be personated by '' copper-laced 
Christians." See Howard's Commendatory Verses. It was 
probably written in 1626, but touched up before publication 
in 1629. The plot is from Bandello's Histoires Tragiq^ies, 
iv. 19, and the play is dedicated to the Earl of Somerset. 

2. The Cruel Brother, licensed 12th Jan, 1627, was 
acted at Blackfriars by the King's men. It is dedicated to 
Lord Weston. Wither's Abuses stript and whipt is alhided 
to in iL 2. Wither is the Castruccio of the play. 

3. The Colonel, licensed 22nd July 1629, is evidently the 
same play as The Siege, T. C, of the 1673 Folio, in which 
the Colonel is a prominent character. Not one of Dave- 
nant's plays was left unpublished, and he was continually 
altering their names before publication. 

4* The Just Italian was licensed 2nd Oct 1629, and 
acted by the King's men at Blackfriars. Dedicated to the 
Earl of Dorset. In iv. i — 

" D'ye walk like Neptune in a mask, 
Attended on by two of the calm winds 7 " 

alludes to Jonson's Fortunate Isles, Jan. 1625. Note that 
the character-names MervoUe and Florello are repeated 
from The Siege, 

5. The Wits, licensed 19th Jan. 1634, acted at Black- 
friars by the King's men, was dedicated to Endymion Porter. 
In the Prologue we hear of Davenant's long sickness, 1630- 



I02 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1633. ^^6 whale in the pageant, iii. i, must have been in 
Hey wood's London* s Mercatura^ i633> which I have not 
seen. The plot should be compared with Fletcher's Wit 
withovi money. There are verses commendatory by Carew. 

6. Zove and Honour was licensed 24th Kov. 1634. 
Acted by the King's men at Blackfriars. Mild may saw it 
in December. This play was called at first The Courage of 
Zove ; then The Nbnpareilles, or The Matchless Maids ; finally 
Love and Honour, 

7. The Temple of Love, " by Inigo Jones, Surveyor of 
His Majesty's works, and William Davenant, Her Majesty's 
servant," was presented by the Queen and the Ladies at 
Whitehall, Shrove Tuesday, i8th Feb. 1635. See my His- 
tory of the Stage, p. 319, 320. The dates in Maidment's 
edition are quite wrong, and seem to be made out on the 
hypothesis that Shrove Tuesday always fell on the same 
day of the month. 

8. News from Plymouth, licensed ist Aug. 1635, was 
acted by the King's men at the Globe, which at this time, 
according to the Prologue, was rather used for " shows, 
dancing, and buckler fights than art or wit." This play is 
evidently an alteration by Davenant from one by a superior 
author, who had laid the scene at Portsmouth, i. 2. Dave- 
nant did not publish it; it first appeared in the 1673 
Folio. 

9. T?ie Platonic Lovers, licensed i6th Nov. 1635, was 
acted by the King's men at Blackfriars. It appears from 
the Prologue, spoken by an actor who had been of the com- 
pany " in socks and buskins " thirty years (i.e., by Lowin), 
that this play was written, at the Queen's command, on the 
same subject as her mask of The Templi of Love. This 
Platonic nonsense came up in 1634. 

10. The Triumphs of the Prince d* Amour was presented 



DAVENANT. 103 

in the Middle Temple, Wednesday, 24tli Feb. 1636, to the 
Elector . Palatine by the members of the Middle Temple. 
Written in three days. 

1 1. Britannia triumphans, by Jones and Davenant, was 
presented at Whitehall by the King and his Lords, Sunday, 
7th Jan. 1638. Omitted in the 1673 Folio. See my 
History of the Stage, p. 352. 

12. The Unfortunate Lovers^ licensed 1 6th April 1638, 
was acted by the King's men at Blackfriars. Dedicated to 
the Earl of Pembroke. Altered when revived after the 
Kestoration. All Davenant^s plays printed before 1639 
were published by himself. 

13. The Fair Favorite, licensed 17th Nov. 1638, appears 
only in the 1673 Folio. No company is mentioned. It 
may have been acted by the King's men or by Beeston's 
boys, of whom Davenant became manager in June 1639. 

1 4. The Spanish Lovers (only in Folio 1 67 3), undoubtedly 
the same play as J%e Distresses, licensed 30th Nov. 1639, 
is open to the same doubt as the preceding as to the com- 
pany who acted it. The stage directions in the play prove 
that it (and doubtless the other abridged Folio plays) was 
printed from a stage copy. In v. 2 — 

*' Some tale in Dieava [Diana] de Monte Major 
Taught you this trick of wandring after your lover," 

refers to The Two Gentlemen of Verona, not to the Lovers 
Progress. 

15. Salmacida Spolia was presented by the King and 
Queen at Whitehall on Tuesday, 21st Jan. 1640. In this, 
as in all the masks, the week-day being given, I am enabled 
to correct the erroneous year dates hitherto assigned to them. 
The reckoning is throughout in the old way, with the year end- 
ing 25 th March, and not, as in Jonson, on 31st December. 



104 THE ENGLISH DRAMA, 

Davenport, Robebt. (Plays.) 

3. 1639, Mar. 28, for Humphrey Blundon. A New 

Trick to cheat the DevU, C, 1639. 
5. King John and Matilda, T., 1655, 1662. 
2. The City Night Cap, or Crede quod hales et hahes, 
T. C, 1661. 

1. 1624, April 10. The History of Henry i was licensed 
by Herbert (Reed). It is not, however, included in Chalmers* 
extracts from Herbert under that date. This play was 
entered S. R. 1653, Sept 9, as Henry i and Henry 2, ^' by 
William Shakespeare and Robert Davenport,'* and was pro- 
bably a prentice work of Davenport's refashioned from an 
older play, perhaps The Famous Wars of Henry i and the 
Prince of Wales, by Drayton, Dekker, and Chettle, March 
1 598. The MS. of this play was destroyed by Warburton's 
cook. 

2. 1624, Oct. 14. The City Nightcap was licensed by 
Herbert [for the Lady Elizabeth's men] at the Cockpit. It 
is founded on The Curious Impertinent in Don Quixote and 
Boccaccio's Decameron, vii. /. I think the passage in iiL 
I, '^ I intend to compose a pamphlet of all my wife's virtues, 
put them in print, and dedicate them to the Duke as ortho- 
dozal instructions against he marries," is a palpable allusion 
to Sir T. Overbury's A Wife^ which had reached its eleventh 
impression in 1622. Yellow starch is alluded to as objec- 
tionable in iii. 3. The clown's rhymes and disclaimers in 
iv. 2 plainly show the play to have been a personal satire. 
In ii. 2 is a couplet adapted from Venus and Adonis ; iv. i 
should be compared with Pericles, iv. 2, 6. This play is 
included in Beeston's 1639 list. 

3. A New Trick to cheat the Devil was, like the preceding 
plays, acted at the Cockpit by Queen Henrietta's men ; 
being also included in Beeston's 1639 list. 



DAY. I OS 

4. A Fool and her maidenhead soon parted, S. R 1663, 
Nov. 29, is included in the same list. 

5. King John and Matilda was also acted at the Cock- 
pit by Queen Henrietta's men, as we learn from the title- 
page and from the same list. For the characters see my 
History of the Stage, p. 311. This was published by A. 
Pennycuicke, who acted Matilda. As the Beeston list con- 
tains only plays acted before the plague broke out in May 
1636, all these plays date between 1625 and 1636. 

6. The Fatal Brothers was entered S. R 1660, June 29, 
as Davenport's. 

7. The Politic Queen^ or Mtirther mil out, was entered as 
his at the same date. 

Besides these plays entirely from his hand — 

8. The Wo)nans Mistaken was entered S. R. 1653, 
Sept. 9, by T. Drue and E. Davenport It was probably 
an early work, c. 1622, before he had learned to run 
alone. 

9. The Bloody Banqtut. See Drue. Davenport also wrote 
poems, &c., for which see Hazlitt's Handbook. 

10. " The Pedler, a comedy by Robert Davenport," was 
entered S. R. for [Robert] Allott 1630, April 8. But 
this was no doubt The Conceited Pedlar, by T. Bandolph, 
which was in 1630 published by Allott, although it had 
been entered with Arislippus 26th Mar. 1630 for John 
Marriott. 

Day, John. (Plays.) 

23. The Isle of Oulls, C, 1606 (for John Hodgets), 

1633. 

25. 1607, June 29, for John Wright. The Travels of 

the Three English Brothers, H., 1607. 

24. 1608, Mar. 28, for Richard Moore. Who vHmld 
have thought it f C, 1 608. 



io6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

26. 1608, April 12, for John Helme. Humour out of 
Breath, C, 1608. 

29.) 1 63 1, May 1 6, for (The Wonder of a Kingdom, T. C. 

30.) John Jackman. [The Noble Spanish Soldier, T. 

32. The Parliament of Bees, mask, 1641, for William 
Lee. 

5. Lust's Dominion, T., 1657, for F[rancis] K[irkman]; 
sold by R Pollard. 

8. The Blind Beggar of Bethrud Green, C, 1659, for R. 
Pollard and T. Dring. 

— . Peregrinatio Scholastica, MS. (prose tract). 

Day was a student at Caius College, Cambridge. 

1. 1598, July 30, The Conquest of Brute with the first 
finding of the Baih was purchased by Henslow for £2, It 
was therefore an old play. Chettle rewrote it in two parts, 
Sept.— Oct. 

2. 1599, Nov. I— 14. John Cox of Collumpton, T, (with 
Haughton). 

3. 1599, Nov. 21, 27; Dec. 5, 6. The Tragedy of 
Thomas Merry (with Haughton). This play was licensed 
as Beech's Tragedy Jan, 1 600. See Yarington. 

4. 1600, Jan. 10. Henslow paid Day £2 in earnest of 
The Italian Tragedy, which may be the same as The (h-pJuins* 
Tragedy. See Chettle and Yarington. On 4th Jan. Day 
had borrowed 5 s. (Diary, p. 95). 

5. Tfie Spanish Moor's Tragedy of 13th Feb. 1600 (with 
Dekker and Haughton) is evidently the play published in 
1657 as Lust's Dominion, or Th^ Lascivimcs Queen. Collier 
pointed this out. See Haughton. 

6. i6cx), Mar. i, 2, 8. The Seven Wise Masters (with 
Chettle, Dekker, Haughton). 

7. 1600 [April 26], May 10, 14. The Golden Ass, 
Cupid and Psyche (with Dekker, Chettle). 



DAY. 107 

8. The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green (with the Merry 
Humour of Tom Stroud, the Norfolk Yeomau) was paid for 
26th May 1600 (written with Chettle). This play was 
published for R Pollard ; cf . Lttst's Dominion. Chettle, I 
think, wiote i. i, iL i, 3, iii. 2, iv. 2 ; aud Day i. 2, 3, ii. 2, 4, 5, 
iii. I, iv. I ; the denouement being, as usual, of joint composi- 
tion. Day spells Villiers, iii. i ; Chettle, Veleires, i. i, v. i. 
SilL Clark acted Westford, iv. 3, but probably not in 1600; 
perhaps when performed by Prince Henry's men. In iv. i 
Stroud says, ** Tully's Offices says that the capitol that Caesar 
was stabbed in was Some." Canbee answers, " Impute the 
gross mistake to the fault of the author." This unques- 
tionably applies to Shakespeare's play, which therefore dates 
before May 1600. 

9. 1 600, June 19. "A book " was partly paid for (los.) 
to Day (with Chettle). Thus far the payments were for 
the Admiral's men at the Hose. The following were for 
the same company at the Fortune. The book was possibly 
2. Fair Constance of Home ; cf. entry June 20. 

10. 1 60 1, Jan. 29, Feb. 10, Mar. 10 [April], May 5. 
The Second part of The Blind Beggar of Bethnal Oreen (with 
the end of Thomas Stroud), also called ^%e Second part of 
Thomas Strovd (with Haughton). They received £6 in 
full payment, but no '' honorarium," as Mr. Sullen alleges, 
beyond this the usual amount. 

1 1. 1601, May 21 ; July 18, 25, 30. The Third part 
of Thomas Strovd (with Haughton). 

12. 1 601, April 4, 1 1 ; May 2, 21; Aug. 5, 11, 26; 
Sept. I. The Conquest of the West Indies (with Haughton, 
Smith). 

13. 1 601, May 20; June 4, 6, 8. Six Yeomen of the 
West (with Haughton). As only £$ was paid, this was 
possibly the "book" of 1600, June 19. 



io8 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

14. 1601, July 4, 14. Friar Rush. I think The 
Proud Woman of Antwerp was a separate play by Chettle 
alone. 

15. i6oi,July30; Sept. 3, 11. The Second part of 
Thomas Dough (with Haughton). The First part was pro- 
bably the same as The Six Yeomen of the West, Only £^ 
paid. But Day was hardly pressed ; he had borrowed petty 
sums of 2s. in July. 

16. i6o2, May 4, 23, 28. The Bristol Tragedy. Not 
Hie Fair Maid of Bristol, C, which belonged to the King's 
men. 

17. 1602, Nov. 8, 17- As Merry as may he (with 
Haughton, Smith). "For the Court," and therefore paid 
£i^ an unusually large amount 

18. 1603, Mar. I, 7, 12. The Boss [not Boast] of Bil- 
lingsgate (with Hath way and perhaps Smith ; his " fellow- 
poets " are mentioned). 

At the same time, 1602-3, Day was writing for Wor- 
cester's men at the Hose, also under Henslow. 

19. 1602, Nov. 24, 25; Dec. 20. The Black Dog of 
Newgaie (with Hathway, Smith, and " the other poet^" pro- 
bably Haughton). 

20. 1603, Jan. 7, 10, 16, 19. The Unfortunate General, 
a French history (with the same three poets). 

21. 1603, Jan. 29; Feb. 3. 2. Bkuik Dog of Newgate 
(with the same three poets). 

1603, Feb. 21, 24, 26. "The four poets" get £2 more 
for " additions " to the same : £g in all ! 

22. 1603, May 9. A Play " wherein Shore's wife is 
written " (with Chettle). 

We next meet with Day as a writer for the children of 
the Bevels. 

23. The IsLe of Chdls was acted at Blackfriars by the 



DAY. 109 

cliildren of the Bevels. As thej are not called "of the 
Queen's Bevels/' this most be after the Eastward Ho affair. 
It was, in fact, as we learn from the Induction, of later date 
than Westward Eo, Eastward Ho^ and Northward Ho, which 
last was produced early in 1605. The exact date was 
Spring 1605. The Induction mentions "against Summer." 
This play was produced, then, at the time when the King 
had been brought upon the stage, and his wife had attended 
the public "representations in order to enjoy the laugh 
against her husband" (RaumeTy ii. 207), and was almost 
certainly one of the series in which royalty was thus 
satirized ; for, firstly, it was published surreptitiously ; and, 
secondly, Basilius and Oynetia, who in the extant version 
are called Duke and Duchess, had in the original version 
been called King and Queeu. " Queen " still remains in one 
l)lace, i. I, and once in iv. i ; and in v. i we find " Duchess " 
rliyming to "spleen" and "Duke" rhyming to "spring." 
The "Lacedemonians" in ii. 5, who complain of grievances 
"since your Majesty left the land," are, of course, the 
Scotch. The entertainment of the last ambassador, when 
Dametas loses his chain and purse in the great chamber at 
the Bevels, iii. i, is the mask at the marriage of Sir Philip 
Herbert, 1604, Dec, when the Ambassador of Venice w^ 
the only stranger bidden. " There was no small loss that 
night of chains and jewels," says Sir Dudley Carleton 
(Nichols, James, i. 471). On 28th Mar. 1605 (Nichols, 
i. 500) Calvert writes, "The players do not forbear to 
represent upon their stage the whole course of this present 
lime, not sparing either King, State, or Beligion, in so great 
absurdity and with such liberty that any would be afraid 
to hear them." This is too late for Eastward Ho, and 
refers, I believe, to the present play. Other allusions 
therein are to the executions of 29th Nov. 1603, " Shall 's 



no THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

quarter ourselves ? " &c, (Induction), and to the peace of 
1 604 : ** Men and war were worn out of fashion both in a 
summer," iii. i. Dametas, who is acknowledged in the 
Induction to be a satirical character^ is, I think, DanieL 
In iv. 4 he makes a rhyming speech, of which the i Captain 
says, " Sure he had some reason to make this rhyme an a 
man could pick it out." 2 Captain, rather than be counted 
inquisitive, contents himself with the rhymes, and leaves the 
reason to the scanning of poets whom it more nearly con- 
cerns. These poets are Marston, Chapman, and Jonson, in 
prison for Eastward Ho. Daniel had written his Defense 
of Rhyme against Campion. That Marston is the poet 
specially referred to is evident from the unmistakable 
allusion to him as the Poetaster, and from the Induction, 
where i. the Critic is Jonson (who, by the bye, alludes to 
Rowland's Letting of Hwmours blood in the Head Vein, as 
Jonson had in his early version of the The Tale of a Tub), 
2. the Bawdy writer id Chapman, and 3. the Fustian 
tragedian Marston (Jonson had given him his cognomen in 
JEyery Man out of his Humour). The whole story of the 
Eastward Ho affair is told in the two passages referred 
to. Moreover, Dametas acts a Comical-Historical-Tragical- 
Musical-Pastoral, iv. 4 (compare the Comical- Pastoral- 
Tragical - Musical - History of Apollo's Vicar in iii. i). 
Daniel published his Hymen*8 Triumph and Queen's Arcadia 
as Pastoral Tragi-Comedies ; and The Queen's Arcadia, 
although it is not known to have been acted till 1605, Aug. 
30, had been prepared earlier (and perhaps acted at Her- 
bert's marriage, 1604, Dec. 27), for it is called "Arcadia, 
reformed" (Nichols, i. 553). Again, in i. 3, Dametas is 
applying for a patent, "if it were granted once," to take 
up men for the King's service. Julio doeb not think the 
Duke [King] will ever grant it; so Daniel, who had lost 



DAY. 1 1 1 

his patent. on account of JSastward Ho, was trying, through 
the Queen's influence, to get another, and did get it, though 
not till 1615. Once more, in iv. 2, Julio and Aminter 
have received only 50 crowns out of the 200 allowed for 
them by the Duke [King], and therefore they "acquaint 
the world with his coward business." Daniel, 24th Feb. 
1605, had received ;£'20 for two plays acted before the 
Court. He had, if my interpretation be right, only handed 
over £^ of this sum to the players by May, when this play 
was acted. I have no space to dwell on the allusions to 
Harrington's A-jax, Middleton's Trick to catch the old one, 
Jonson's Fox, the '* Dargison " ballad, &c., but must notice 
that in the Induction the time of performance is indicated 
as about 3.30 to 5.30 P.M., and that the custom of leaving 
before the end of the play is deprecated. 

24. Law tricks, or Who would have thought it ? was also 
acted by the children of the Eevels (at Blackfriars, of course). 
The date is probably 1606, "Justice Slender" is men- 
tioned, i. I . ; and in iii. i it appears that ( ) was an indi- 
cation of " horns," just as V is known to be. 

25. The travels of the three JEnglish Brothers (with W. 
Rowley and Wilkins) was acted by the Queen's men June 
1607. See Wilkins. 

26. HuTnour out of Breath was acted by the children of 
the King's Revels. It was written in conjunction with 
another author. "Had it been all of one man's getting," 
says the Address to Signior Nobody, which was written by 
Day. Nobody arid Somebody (Heywood's version) was pub- 
lished in March 1 606. I think Day wrote the Anthonio, 
Hermia, and Lucida scenes, i. 2, iii. 2, iv. i, v. 2 (part). 
The date is c. 1607--8, Christmas, but the indications are 
very slight. The main one is the fact that it must be 
a Christmas, ii. i ; and the " last great frost," iii. 4, must, 



112 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

for the joke' sake, have been existiug or recent. There was 
no great frost between 1598 and that from Dec. 1607 ^^ 
Feb. 1608. The King's Kevels children are only known in 
1607 and 1608. 

There is here a large gap in Day's theatrical career (com- 
pare Dekker), but he seems to have had other employment. 
On 7 th Aug. 1 6 10 The Mad Pranks of Merry Moll [Cut- 
purse] of the Barikside^ ** with her walks in man's apparel, 
and to what purpose" (a prose story, not a play), was 
entered S. B. for H. Gosson. The next four of his plays 
will be more conveniently treated under Dekker, q,v.; 
they are : — 

27. T/ie Life and Death of Gay Harl of Wantnck, S. R. 
15th Jan. 1620 (with Dekker). 

28. The Bellman of Paris, a French Tragedy, licensed for 
the Prince's men at the Red Bull 30th July 1623 (with 
Dekker). 

29. CoTne see a Wonder [The Wonder of a Kingdom], 
licensed for a company of strangers at the Bed Bull i8th 
Sept. 1623 (with Dekker). 

30. The Noble Spanish Soldier (with Dekker ?). See 
The Spanish Fig, 

31. Tlie Maiden's Holiday, the MS. of which was de- 
stroyed by Warburton's servant, was entered S. B. 8 th April 
1654 as by Mario w and Day. Compare LusCs Dominion, 
also attributed to Marlow. 

32. The Parliament of Bees, by John Day, " sometime 
student of Caius College, Cambridge," was published for 
William Lee, 1 64 1 . This was posthumous, for Tatham, in 
his Fancy's Theatre, S. B. 15 th Oct. 1640, had published 
an elegy on Day. Day, liowever, had prepared it for the 
})ress. We may, then, place his decease as c. Sept. 1640. 
This ''mask" has, in Mr. Bullen's edition, been so care- 



DAY. 113 

lessly arranged, and it is so important in relation to the 
authorship of the Dekker plays, that I must dwell on it more 
than I should otherwise think needful. It is arranged in 1 2 
characters. In i char. Prorex the speakers are : a. Prorex, 
h. CEconomicus, c. Aulicus, d. Martio, e. Dicastes, /. Villicus. 
In an earlier version, Lansdown MS. 725, which I will 
distinguish as containing 12 colloquies^ and note in paren- 
theses, these are (i coll., Master Bee : a. Master Bee, h. Steward, 
c: Controller, d. General, e. Attorney, /. Bailiff). In 2 char., 
Meemosynus, the speakers are : a. Eleemosynus, h.c. Cordato 
(2 coll., The Hospitable Bee : a. Busset Bee, h. Cordato, c. 
Fidetto) ; 2a is the same character as 1/ In The Wonder 
of a Kingdom, from which this character is taken, the 
speakers are : 2a. Gentili, 2b. Philippe, 2c. Martinelli. In 
3 char., Thraso or Polypragmus, we have : a. Polypragmus, h. 
Servant (3 coll.^ The Plush Bee : a. Plush Bee, b. Servant), 
lu Tfie Wonder of a Kingdom these are : 3a. Torrenti, 36, 
Gallant. In 4 char., a. is Don Cockadillio (in Mr. BuUen's 
xeprint " Donne. Cockadillio "), 6. Armiger, c. Prorex (4 coU. : 

a. Chamber Bee, b. Field Bee, c. Master Bee. These speakers 
appear in The Noble Spanish Soldier, from which this charac- 
ter is taken, as : 4a. Cockadillio, 46. Baltazar. In 5 char.j 
Poetaster: a. Gnatho, b. Illtriste, c. Poetaster (5 coK., The 
Poetical Bee : a. Servant, b, Stuprata, c Poetaster). In The 
Noble Soldier: 5 a. Cornego, 56. Noelia, Sc Poet. In 
6 char., Rivalis : a. Arethusa, b. Ulania (7 coll,, a, Stuprata 
disguised, b, Rivalis). In 7 cJiar., Parsimonious: a. Parsi- 
monious, b. Acolastes (6 coll.. The Thrifty Bee : a. Thrifty 
Bee, b. Prodigal). In The Noble Soldier : 7a. Nicoletti, 76. 
Torrenti In 8 char.^ Inamaraiho: a. Chariolus (Inama- 
ratho or Meletus), b. Arethusa (10 coll., a. Relictus, b. Stu- 
prata, as in 6 char.). In 9 char., Phamiacopolis : a. Senilis, 

b. Steward, c. Pharmacopolis (9 coll., The Qtuicksalving Bee : 
VOL. I. H 



114 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

a. Law Bee, b. Steward, c, Quacksalving Bee). In The 
Wonder of a Kingdom, go. is Gentili, gb. Servant, gc. Apo- 
thecary. In I o char., Fenerator : a. Dicastes, b. Servitor, 
c. Fenerator, d. Impotens (8 colLj The Umring Bee: a. 
Busset Bee, b. Servitor, c. Hornet, d. Lame Bee). In The 
Wonder of a Kingdom: loa. Gentili, loJ. Steward, loc. 
Broker, lod. Lame Soldier, ii char. {coll,)j Oberon in 
Progress: a. Oberon, 6. Agricola, c. Pastoralis, d, Flora, e. 
Vintager. 1 2 char, {coll.) : a. Oberon, b. Fairies, c. Master 
Bee or Prorex, d. Vespa, e. Hornet, /. Humble Bee, g. Fucus 
or Drone. The personages in i char, are evidently repro- 
duced later on ; Martio in Armiger, QBconomicus in Senilis, 
Aulicus in Parsimonious, Dicastes in the Busset Bee, Yillicus 
in Eleemosynus, the Hornet in Fcenerator. 

That this mask dates in 1 640, and not in 1 607 (although 
Mr. E. W. Gosse " remembers reading Tfie Bees in a quarto 
of early date, which he found, after a personal search, in 
the King's Library in the British Museum," where no earlier 
copy than that of 1641 ever was or could have been, is 
clear from the dedication to William Austin in the Lans- 
down MS., which refers to a previous dedication to him, 
viz., that of the Peregrinatio, in which Day mentions Austin's 
" serious endeavours," that is, his Meditations and Hccc Hoino, 
published in 1635 and 1637. Day's dedication to him was 
probably written c. 1639, and not being accepted, was trans- 
ferred to Mr. George Butler when The Bees was published. 
Moreover, in char. 4 there are allusions to The Whort " new 
vampt" (Sept. 1639), and Taylor's Praise of the Needle 
(1640). The mask was founded on two plays (for which 
see under Dekker), with the addition of the framework in 
I, II, 12 chxr., and an enlargement of the character of Stu- 
prata in 6, 8 char,, which was afterwards separated with 
a new name, Arethusa. This constitutes a distinct claim 



DEKKEE. IIS 

hj Day to part authorship in these plajs. Much of The 
Bees is evidently topical and political, and would repay 
research for the allusions contained in it. I have small 
doubt that the Fosnerator, or Usuring Broker, is sketched 
from Henslow as a model. 

The Feregrinatio Scholastica^ or Learning's Pilgrimage, was 
evidently written just before The Bees, which alludes to it 
in the ^^ Truth and Time " bit near the end. It contains an 
allegorical account of Day's early career, but is not definite 
enough to enable me to say more than that Day, who had 
been devoted to play-writing under Elizabeth and James, 
found a more congenial and higher calling in Charles' time. 
Did he " marry Latria," t.e., take orders ? 

Dekeer, Thomas. (Plays and Entertainments.) 

Plays. 

26. ? The Shoemaker's Holiday, 1600 printed and sold 
by Valentine Sims, 1610, 1618, 1631, 1657. 

32. 1600, Feb. 20, for William Aspley. Old Fortunatus 
in his new livery, C, 1 600. 

31. 1600, Mar. 28, for Cuthbert Burby. Patient 
Grisell, C, 1603. 

40. 1 600, Aug. II, for Thomas Pavier. Captain Thomas 
Stukely, H., 160 5. 

41. 1 60 1 , Nov. II, for John Barnes. The Untrussing 
of the Humorous Poets, 1602. 

56. 1604, Nov. 9, for Thomas Man, junr. The humours 
of the Patient Man, the Longing Wife, and the Honest Whore, 
C, 1604, 1605, 1615, 1616, 1635. 

59. 1607, April 20, for N. Butter and J. Trundell. 
The Whore of Babylon, H., 1 607. 

55. 1607, Aug, 6, for George Elde. Northward Ho^ C, 
1607. 



ii6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

54. Westward Ho, C, 1607, sold by J. Hodgets. 
51,52. Sir Thomas Wyatt, H., 1607, by E. Aplde], for 
T. Archer, 1 6 1 2. 

58. The Roaring Girl, C, 161 1, for Thomas Archer. 

60. If it he not good, <fec., 161 2, by J. Trundell for E. 
Marchant. 

62. 1 62 1, Dec. 7, for Thomas Jones. The Virgin 
MartyTj T., 1622, 165 1, 1661. 

57. 1630, June 29, for Nathaniel Butter. 2. Honest 
Whore, C, 1630; but also entered 1608, April 29, for T. 
Man, junr., as 2. Converted Courtesan^ or 2. Honest Whore, 

61. 1630, Nov. 8, for Henry Seile. Maich me in 
London, T. C, 163 1. 

67. 1631, May 16, for John Jackman. The Wonder 
of a Kingdom, C., 1636. 

42. 163 1, May 16, for John Jackman. The Noble 
Spanish Soldier, 1634. 

68. The Sun's Barling. A moral mask, 1656. By 
J. Bell for Jl Pennycuicke. 

65. The Witch of Edmonton, T. C, 1658. By J. 
Cottrell for E. Blackmore. 

Entertainments. 

Dekker's Device, 1603. See 53. 

53. 1604, April 2, for Thomas Man, junr. The Mag" 
nificent Entertainment on Jam^esl Passage through London, 
1 604 (three editions, one printed at Edinburgh). 

Pageants. 

63. 161 2, Oct. 21, for Nicholas Okes. Troia Nova 
Triumphans, 1 61 2. "To be printed when it is further 
authorized." 



DEEEER 117 

72. Britannia's Honor ^ by Nicholas Okes and John 
Norton, 1628. 

73. London's Tempe, n.d. [1629]. 

NON-DRABiATIC WORKS. 

1598, Jan. 5, for Thomas Porfoot, senr., and Thomas 
Purfoot, junr. The destruction of Jerusalem by TituSy son 
of Vespasian: in English metre. Published for Heniy 
Tomes as Canaan's Calamity^ Jerusalem's Misery^ and 
EnglaruCs Mirror, 1598, 1604, 1617, 1618, 1625. Dedi- 
cated to Bichard Kingsmill, Esq. 

Hie Wonderful Year, 1603, by T. Creede. Dedicated 
to M. Cuthbert Thoresby, Water-bailiff. On the plague in 
London, with addition of tales. 

The Bachelor's Banquet, 1603, by T. C[reede]; sold by 
T. Pavier; 1604; 1630; 1660. On the humours of 
Women. 

1603, Oct 29, for J. Boberts. Verses prefixed to The 
Fasting of a Maiden of Confolens, 1 604. 

1605, Dec. g, for J. Trundel and E. Edgar. Hie Duello. 
A Papist in arms . . . encountred hy the Protestant. . . . 
Published 1 606 by T. C[reede]. Sold by J. Hodgets with 
" The double P. P." instead of The Duello as title. 

1606, Jan. 15, for N. Butter. Thf Return of the 
Knight of the Post from Hell with the DeviPs answer to 
Piers Penniless' supplication. "Provided that he get 
further authority for it before it be printed." This was 
not got, and the book was apparently re-entered ; — 

1606, Jan. 25, for W. Ferbrand. The DeviTs let loose. 
Both entries were cancelled, Feb. 1 7, by order of the Court, 
but 

News from Hell brought by the DeviTs Carrier (which I 



xi8 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

take to be a third title to the same book) was printed by 
B. B. for W. Ferbrand 1606, and reprinted with a fourth 
title as 

A Knight's confurinff, by T. C[reede] for N. Barley, 
1607. 

1606, Oct. 6, for N. Butter. The 7 Deadly Sins of 
London, &c., 1606, n.d. 

1607, Oct 6, for N. Butter. Jests of Cock Wait to make 
you merry, Ac., 1607. Written by T. D[ekker] and 6. 
Wilkins. 

1607, Nov. 3, for J. TrundeL The Dead Term. 1608, 
for J. Hodgetts. A dialogue between London and West- 
minster. 

1608, Mar. 14, for N. Butter. Tfie Bellman of London, 
&c., 1608 (thrice). Founded on The Oroundwork of Coney- 
catching, 1592, by J. Danter for W. Barley; which I 
believe to have been written by Dekker. It is largely 
taken from Harman's Caveai for Cursitors, 1567. 

1608, July 7, for Laurence Lyle. The Haven's 
Almanac, Foretelling of a Plagtie, Famine, and Civil War 
in 1 609, " this present year " 1 609, by E. Aplde] for T. 
Archer. 

1608, Oct 25, for John Bushby. Lanthorn and Candle- 
lights, or the second part of The Bellman. 1 609, " The Bell- 
man's second Night walk" (twice); 161 2, with additions 
called " per se ; " \6i6, Villanies discovered, &c ; " 
1 620; 1632, ^^ English Villanies six several times pressed 
to death, &c. ; " 1638, " seven times pressed ; " 1 640, " seven 
times ; " 1 648, " eight times." In the dedication printed 
in 1638 Dekker mentions his "threescore years." I have 
no doubt that this dedication belongs to the 1632 edition, 
when the title was last changed. But I have not met with 
this edition. This would date Dekker's birth c. 1567-72. 



DEEEER. 119 

Aa answer to this book, Martin Markall his defevMy was 
entered S. R. 1610, Mar. 31. 

Work for Armourers^ &c., 1609, ^or N. Butter. 

Four birds of NoaJCs Ark: The Dove^ The £agU, The 
Pelican, The Phoenix^ 1 609, for N. Butter. 

The Ghiirs Hornbook, 1609, for R S. 

161 1, Oct 4, verses prefixed to Taylor's Sculler. 

The next four were written in prison, 161 3-19. 

161 3, Jan. 21, for Joseph Hunt. A strange Horse race 
(with the Catchpoirs mask, the Bankrout's Banquet, and the 
Devil's will, 161 3). Dedicated to T. Walthal, Esq. 

1615, Nov. 29, for John Trundle. The Artillery Garden, 
a poem, 1 6 1 6. 

161 8, Jan. 22, for Laurence Lisle. Dick XHver^Beqpes, 
or The OwVs Almanac, 161 8 (twice), with the second title 
only. 

1 6 1 9, Oct. 1 1 (inserted after July 8), for Nicholas Okes. 
Dekker, his Dream, 1620. In the Dedieation to Endymion 
Porter he speaks of having been in prison 7 years. 

A Rod for Runaways, for J. Trundle, 1625 [a June-Dec], 
on the players and others leaving London in the plague- 
time. Query plagiarized from The Whipping of Bunaways, 
by Henry Petowe 1603 ; S. R 1603, Nov. [Dec] 26. 

WarSy Wars, Wars, for J. 6., 1628. Dedicated to Sir 
Hugh Hammersley, Lord Mayor. 

1630, for Edward Blackmore. Penny wise. Pound 
foolish, by Thomas Decker. 

1632, Mar. 24. Verses prefixed to Brome's Northern 
Lass, This is the latest certain note of Dekker's being 
alive. 

A spurious edition of English Villanies was issued in 
1637. Dekker must have been then dead. 

Thomas Dekker was bom probably c. 1 567 ; wrote plays 



ISO THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

for the Admiral's company 1 5 8 8- 1 604 ; was imprisoned 
in the Counter, and released by the advance of £2 by 
Henslow 1598, Feb. 4; was arrested by the Chamberlain's 
men, and discharged on Henslow's advancing £3, los., 1 599, 
Jan. 30, to be repaid on Feb. 28. He and Chettle, April 
7, 1 6, wrote then Troilus and Cressida, which, I think, con- 
tained satire on the Chamberlain's men. The title was 
changed to Agamemnon, and it was licensed June 3 [for 
publication]. He borrowed £1 ot Henslow, 1599, Aug. i. 
During the 1603 plag^^e he wrote pamphlets and prepared 
his Entertainment In 1604, Nov., he left the Prince's 
men for the Queen's. From 1605, ^^c. 5, to 1609 he 
wrote pamphlets. In 16 10, after the plague, he again 
wrote plays for the Queen's men, and in 161 2 the Mayor's 
pageant. From 1613 to 1619 he wrote pamphlets in 
prison in the King's Bench ; and while there addressed 
Alleyn in verse ** in praise of charity," a eulogium of " Grod's 
gift" at Dulwich (Collier's Alleyn, p. 13 1). On his release 
he renewed his play- writing in 1620—24 for the Revels, 
Prince Charles', Lady Elizabeth's, a strange company, and the 
Palsgrave's — in fact, for any one that would employ him. 
In 1625, 1628, 1630 more pamphlets, varied by Mayors' 
pageants in 1627, 1628, 1629, during which time he was 
City poet. At last came the final resource, the publication 
of old plays not entirely his in 163 1 ; and before these could 
be issued he died, almost certainly in 1632. The saddest 
story in all this book. 

A Thomas Dekker, supposed to be the poet's father, was 
buried in St. Saviour's, Southwark, 1594; and his widow 
lived in Maid Lane, Southwark, 1596. At St. Giles, 
Cripplegate, Dorcas, daughter of Thomas Dycker, gent., 
was christened 1594, Oct. 27; Anne, daughter of Thomas 
Decker, yeoman, christened 1602, Oct. 14; Elizabeth, 



DEEEEB. 121 

daughter of Thomas Dekker, honed 1598; and at St. 
Botolph'S) Bishopsgate, a son of Thomas Dekker was buried 
1598, April 19. The name was too common for us to set 
much value on these extracts. It is doubtful still whether 
Dekker married or no. For his portrait see the rough 
woodcut prefixed to Dekker, his Dream. 

Old Plays Ebvivkd foe the Admiral's Men, 1594-1596, 
AT THE Rose. Written before i 592. 

Among the old plays of 1 588--1 592 revived by this com- 
pany, the following were, in my opinion, probably written 
by Dekker wholly or in part : — 

1. Philippo and ffypolito, revived 1594, July 9. See 
Massinger. 

2. Doctor Favstm, revived 1594, Sept. 30. See Marlow. 

3. The French Doctor, TeYived 1594, Oct. 18. Probably 
the same as Dekker's Jew of Venice, entered S. B. 1653, 
Sept. 9. In the German version of The RighieouB Judgment 
of a Girl Graduate, or The Jew of Venice, certainly, I think, 
a rough traduction of Dekker's play, the Prince disguises 
himself as a celebrated French Doctor. The Jew is called 
Joseph or Barabbas as in Marlow's Jew of Malta ; and the 
plot is, for the Shylock part only, that of Shakespeare's 
Merchant of Venice, also called The Jew of Venice. The 
objection that Silvayn's Orator was not published till 1 596 
is refuted by the S. R entry of 1590 (see Monday); the 
supposed allusion to the battle of 1605 may refer to the 
" victories by Gilan and Azerbijan over the Turks " in 1 590 
(Engl. Cyc, Ahha^ the Great) ; and as to the filth of this play 
making its ascription to Dekker disrespectful to his memory 
(see Furness, Merchant of Venice, p. 3 3 1), I would suggest that 
a reading of The Virgin Martyr will dispose of this objection. 



122 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

4. XHodesian, revived 1594, Nov. 16. See Massinger, 
Virgin Martyr ^ and 62 below. 

5. Antonio and Valea, revived 1595, June 20. See 
Massinger. 

6. The first part of FortunatuSy revived 1 5 96, Feb. 3 . 
See below. 

Four of these appear in the German plays derived from 
the English, as Doctor Faust, Fortunaius, The Jew of Venice, 
and The Martyr Dorothea. See my Life of Shakespeare^ 
p. 308. 

For The Set at Maw, 1 594, Dec. 14, and The. Mack, 1 595, 
Feb. 21 (both new plays), see further on, 61, 67. 

New Plays for the Admiral's Men at the Eose, 

1598-1600. 

1598, Jan. 8. Dekker sold them "a book/' i,e., an old 
play, for 20s. 

7. 1598, Jan. 15. Phaeton. See below, 1600, Dec; 
see also The Sun's Darling, 

8. 1598, Mar. i. The Triplicity (or Triangle) of 
Cuckolds. 

Dekker, hitherto a sole author (except in Faustus), now 
appears chiefly as a coadjutor. 

9. 1598, c. Mar. 20. The famous Wars of Henry i and 
the Prince of Wales. With Chettle and Drayton. On Mar. 
13 Chettle and Drayton had received £2 for a play, 
" wherein is the part of a Welshman written," and " pro- 
mised to deliver it on the xx day next following." Find- 
ing their work in arrear, they seem to have applied to 
Dekker for help. It was read at the Sun in New Fish 
Street, and the company spent 5 s. [for hire of the room, I 
suppose], and 5 s. in " good cheer." There was also a private 



D£KK£R 123 

performance in Fleet Street, when the carman had 3a " for 
carrying and bringing of the stuff back again, and then our 
stuff was lost." This play may be The Welshman's prize of 
Henslow's inventory. 

10. 1598, Mar. 25, 30. I Godwin and his thru sons. 
With Chettle, Drayton, Wilson. 

11. 1598, Mar. 28; April 7. PUrs of JExton. With 
Chettle, Drayton, Wilson. 

12. 1598, April [May] 6; June 6, 10. 2 Oodivin. 
With Chettle, Drayton, Wilson. 

1 3- 1 598, May ( ) 22. i Black Batman of the North. 
With Chettle, Drayton, Wilson. 

14. 1598, June 31 [30]; July 9, 10. The Madman's 
Morris. With Drayton, Wilson, 

15. 1598, July 17, 26, 27, 28. Hannibal and Herm^^ 
or [i] Worse af eared than hurt. With Drayton, Wilson. 

16. 1598, July 28; Aug. 8, 10. Piers of Winchester. 
With Drayton, Wilson. 

17. 1598, Aug. 19, 24. Chance Medley. Either Dekker 
or Chettle, with Drayton, Monday, Wilson. But as Dekker 
nowhere else appears as writing with Monday, the insertion 
of his name (replaced by Chettle in the latter part of the 
entry) seems to be a mistake. 

18. 1598, Aug. 30, [Sept.] 4. [2] Worse afeared than 
hurt. With Drayton. 

19. 1598, Sept. 29. I Civil Wars in France. With 
Drayton. 

20. 1598, Oct 16, 20. Connan Prince of Cornwall. 
With Drayton. 

21. 1598, Nov. 3. 2 Civil Wars in France. With 
Drayton. 

22. 1598, Nov. 18; Dec. 30. 3 Civil Wars in France, 
With Drayton. 



124 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

2 3* 1599) ^^^' 20. The first introduction of The Civil 
Wars in Finance, 

24. 1599, April 7, 16. TroUus and Cressida; May 
26, 30. Agamemnon (the same play : both titles are given 
in 26th May entry). With Chettle. The authors got 
£i, 15 s. for this play, an unusually large sum. It was 
licensed June 3 [for the press]. Was it published ? If so, 
its recovery would be of the greatest interest in connexion 
with Shakespeare. 

25. iS99i May 2. Orestes fures (furious). 

26. 1599, July 15. The Gentle Craft (The Slioem^aker's 
Holiday) was bought by Henslow for £l. This form of 
entry is only used in the Diary of old plays, and by no 
means implies authorship on the part of the seller. Slaughter, 
Button, and others have been repeatedly promoted from 
actors to authors through mistaken interpretation of such 
entries. This play was published in i6cx> anonymously 
(which is not the case with any play written by Dekker 
alone), in consequence of its having been selected for per- 
formance at Court i6cx), Jan. i. It was not entered S. B., 
but was doubtless one of the two books licensed by the 
Master of the Bevels 1599, Dec. 19 ; Look aiout you being 
the other. The arrangements for the Court plays this year 
were made before Dec. 12. I do not believe the play to 
be Dekker's. I think it much more likely that it had been 
entrusted to him by some other writer to sell it to Henslow. 
He certainly would not have accepted £s for a new play of 
his own at this time, nor have kept an old one longer than 
he could help. The Dutch in the play is remarkable, only 
to be paralleled by the German in Alphonms of Germany. 
There are reminiscences of other plays ; e.^., " We are all 
mortal " and " All flesh is grass," from The Merry Devil of 
Edmonton, and "Here sit thou down upon this flowery 



DEEKER 125 

l>ank," Sc. 2. Compare Midmmmer Night's Dream, iv. i. i. 
The latest reference I find is to plays of 1597, and this, I 
believe, is fbe original date of this comedy. Compare the 
references to the French, especially at the end, which suit 
this date. The humour of nicknaming from names of char- 
acters or plays adopted by Eyre is identical with that of 
Tucca in The Poetaster ; and had Dekker written the present 
play, he would, I think, have referred to Eyre, not to Cap- 
tain Hannam, as its originator. The actor list published by 
Dramaticus for the Shak. Soc. Papers^ iv. no, with Day, 
Flower, and Wilson as actors, is doubtless a forgery. 

27. 1599, July 24; Aug. 23, 25 ; Oct 14, The Step- 
mother's Tragedy. With Chettle. 

28. 1599, Aug. I. Bear a Brain, or Better Late than 
Never, Sold to Henslow for £2. Another case of an old 
play of doubtful authorship. Can it be that this title was 
discarded for Look dborU you, which I have attributed to 
Wadeson ? See Sc. 10, where " bear a brain " still remains, 
though apparently altered elsewhere. 

29. 1 599, Aug. 10 ; Sept. 2. Page of Plymovih, With 
Jonson. A murder play. £i. 

30. 1599, Sept. 3, 15, 16, 27. Eohert 2, King of Scots, 
T. With Chettle, Jonson, and '' other Gentleman " of name 
apparently then unknown to Henslow. Query Wadeson. 

31- IS99> Oct. [16]; Dec. 19, 26, 28, 29. Patient 
GriselL With Chettle, Haughton. The £6 entry, Dec. 26, 
is, I think, an inclusive one. If not, they received the 
unprecedented payment from Henslow of 10 guineas. The 
maximum elsewhere in the Diary is the £i, 15 s. for Troilus 
and Cressida. See Haughton. 

32. 1599, Nov. 9, 24, 30. The whole History of Fortvr- 
natus. £6. Nov. 31 (sic), alterations £1 ; and Dec. 12 
£2 "for the end for the Court," where it was acted at 



126 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Christmas. Published as The Pleasant Comedy of Old For- 
tunatus. This play is important as showing the estimation 
in which Dekker was then held. He was paid as if for a 
new play ; yet Sc. i-6 are manifestly the old play acted 
1596, only Sa 7-12 forming tlie "new addition" men- 
tioned in Sc. 6. The date of writing the first part is fixed 
as 1590 by Sc. i, in which Fortunatus speaks ''no language 
but An Almond for Parrot and Cra>ck me this Nut" The 
allusions to Lyly and his imitators are too minute and 
numerous to be worked out here. 

33. 1600, Jan. 18, 30. Truth's Supplication to Candle- 
light. See below, The Whore of Babylon^ 59. 

34. 1600, Feb. 13. The Spanish Moor's Tragedy. With 
Day, Haughton. See Haughton. 

35. 1600, Mar. I, 2, 8. The Seven Wise Masters. With 
Chettle, Day, Haughton. 

36. 1600 [April 27]; May 10, 14. The Golden Ass, 
Cupid and Psyche. With Chettle, Day. The subject is 
the same as that of Heywood's Love's Mistress. 

37. 1600, June 3, 14. I Fair Constance 0/ Borne. With 
Drayton, Hath way, Monday. £$, 9s. The i is. (to make 
up the usual £6) were retained for Wilson, who aided in 
this play. See Variorum, xxi. 395, where xls. is a mis- 
print for xis. Hence we learn that absence of authors' 
names in Henslow is not absolute proof of absence of 
co-operation. 

New PLA.YS FOR THE Admiral's Men at the Fortune, 

1600-1601. 

38. i6cx), Sept. 6. *' Forteion tenes," i.e. Fortune's Tennis ; 
certainly not Fortunatus : or possibly Horten^so's Tennis, cf. 
Lust's Dominion, v. 5. 



DEKKER. 127 

7, 1600, Dec. To Decker, "for his pains in Phaeton j' 
I OS., Dec. 14. "For altering of Phaeton for the Court," 
30s., Dec. 22. This was the play written originally 1598". 
Presented at Court; probably 1600, Dec. 28. 

39. 1601, April 18; May 16, 22. Kiv^ Sebastian of 
Portugal. With Chettle. Founded on Monday's Don 
Sebastian of Portugal, S. B. 1601, Mar. 30, translated from 
the French, and ballad of the same, S. E. 1601, April 12. 

Plays Acted at Paul's and the Globe, 1601. 

40. 1596, Dec. II. StewtUy. S. B. 1600, Aug. 11, 
The Famous History of 7%e Life and Death of Captain 
Thomas Slvkeky^ " with his marriage to Alderman Curteis' 
daughter, and valiant ending of his life at the Battle of 
Alcazar." As it hath been acted. This play is evidently 
by three authors. Act v. I think by Peele : the Alcazar 
part. It was meant to contain one act in London, one in 
Ireland, one in Portugal, one in Bome, and one in Africa, 
but the Bome part has been clumsily cut out, and there 
are further alterations in the play as published. Sc. 5, in 
which the buckler-maker appears as Thump instead of 
Blunt, and in which Curtis does not use his characteristic 
'' bones a dod," is an insertion ; so is Sc 7b, an alternative 
scene for 7a, put in for the sake of the Irish dialect ; while 
the varied spellings of Aphrick, Africa; Hemandes, Her- 
nando, Herando; Botellio, Botella; Danulo, Davila, show 
two hands concerned in the alteration. The altered play, 
dating probably 1600, was not made for the Admiral's men 
— their name would have appeared in the title — but more 
likely for the Paul's boys. 

All this is explained in Satiromastix, Sc. 4, where Horace 
(Jonson) says Fannius (Dekker, Crispinus', i.e. Marston's 



128 THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

play-dresser), "to make the Muses believe their subjects' 
ears were starved, and that there was a dearth of poesy, 
cut an innocent Moor i' th' middle to serve him in twice, 
and when he had done made Paul's work of it." Dekker 
had patched up the play with half of one by Peele on the 
Moor Mahomet, and then published it. Satiromastix must, 
then, date^ after Aug. 1 1. 

41. Satiromastix, or The urUrussing of the Humorous 
Pod, was acted 1601, c. Sept., publicly by the Chamber- 
lain's servants, privately by the Paul's boys. This is 
Dekker's answer to Jonson's Poetaster. It is too crowded 
with personal allusions, some of which are still unexplained, 
to bear analysis here. It must be studied as a whole. 
Compare Jonson and Marston. 

Plays for the Admiral's Mbn, 1602. 

42. 1602, Jan. 6. 7^ Spanish Fig. Certainly, I think, 
the same play as The Noble Spanish Soldier, entered S. B. 
163 1 for John Jackman, as by Thomas Decker, along with 
7%e Wonder of a Kingdom; re-entered 1633 for K Vavasor, 
and published 1634, after Dekker's death, as 7%e Spanish 
Soldier^ by S[amuel] R[owley]. In it the King is poisoned 
with a Spanish fig. It is partly by Day; i. 25; ii. i, 2; 
iii. 2 ; iv. I ; v. I, 2, 4 (part). This part includes Signer 
No (Roderigo in the rest of the play), Carlo, Alonzo (Alba), 
Comego, and Juanna. Cf. Day, The Parliament of Bees, 
The characters mentioned are omitted in the Dram. Pers. 
list. I think the play is allegorical, the King being 
Philip 2 ; the Queen, his Italian possessions ; and O Ncelia, 
Ireland. The allusion to Butter's Corantos would indicate 
for Day's share a date c. 1625. I think the original play 
was written by Dekker and (?) S. Bowley, and that after 



DEEKER 129 

Dekker's death Sowley reclaimed it. There are allusions 
in it to Eamlety Jvlius CoMaVy Look abatU you, &c. ; bat the 
most important is, as I thiuk, " of a new play ; if it ends 
well, All's well," v. 4. This, written in Jan. 1602, gives 
1 60 1 as the date of Shakespeare's AWs Well. Dekker 
certainly wrote iiL 3. 

43. 1602, Jan. 12. Prologue and Epilogue to " Pane^ 
sciones Fillet " (Pontius Pilate), i os. Probably an old play 
revived. 

44. 1602, Jan, 16; Nov. 3; Dec. 4. For altering 
Ta88o{^s Melancholy], £4. An old play of 1594, Aug. 1 1, 
perhaps originally by Dekker. 

45. 1602, Mays. JepfUha. With Monday. This was 
rehearsed at the Tavern c. May 16. 

46. 1602, May 22. Ccesar's Fall. By Drayton, Mid- 
dleton, Monday, Webster, and "the rest." I think "the 
rest " means Dekker. See the next entry. 

47. 1602, May 29. Ttoo "Iiarpes." By Drayton, 
Middleton, Monday, Webster, and Dekker. 

48. 1602, July 19, 31. A medicine for a curst wife. 
But see below. 

Plats for Worcester's Men at the Bose, 1602. 

49. 1602, Aug. 17, Sept. 7. Additions to [2. Sir John] 
Oldcasile. Dekker was not one of the original authors. 

50. 1602, Aug. 27, Sept. I, 2. A medicine for a curst 
wife. £6 in full. Sept. 27, los. "over above his price." 
The Admiral's men had paid £4, for this play " in earnest." 
Henslow has other double entries of this kind. One thing 
is certain, Dekker didn't get 10 guineas, if Henslow did. 

51., 1602, Oct. I S, 2 1. I. Lady Jan/t. With Hey wood, 
Siiiiih, Webster, £Z. 

VOL. I. I 



130 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

52. 1602, Oct. 27. 2. Lady Jane. The part of these 
two plays contributed by Dekker and Webster was pub- 
lished 1 607 as Tlu Famous History of Sir Thomas Wyatt, 
played by the Queen's men, who had been Worcester's. 
See Webster. 

52*. 1602, Nov. 2, 3, 26. Christmas comes but onu a 
year. With Chettle, Heywood, Webster. 

Entertainment, 1604. 

53. 1604, Mar. 15. W. C. Hazlitt, in his Dictionary, 
mentions as a separate work Dekker's Device (projected but 
not published), that should have served at His Majesty's 
first access to London, 1603; but this seems to be the 
same as The Magnificent Entertainm^ent " given to King 
James, Queen Anne, his wife, and Henry Frederick, the 
Prince, upon the day of his Majesty's Triumphant Passage 
(from the Tower) " through his Honorable City (and cham- 
ber) of London, being the 15 th of March 1603; ^^ 
second title of which is A Device, " projected down, but till 
now not published, that should have served at his Majesty's 
first access to the City." As this was not entered S. B. till 
1 604, April 2, it is hard to believe copies were printed in 
1603. Hazlitt does not say where such copies are to be 
found. There were seven pageants, the first and last by 
Jonson, q.v., the second and third by the Italians and Dutch, 
the three others by Dekker. Middleton wrote a speech in 
the sixth. Jonson's first pageant replaced one of Dekker's. 
Tiie speakers in Jonson's part were Alleyn, of the Prince's 
company (Thamesis), and a Queen's Bevels boy (Genius) ; 
in Dekker's and Middleton's, Paul's boys under Mulcaster. 
Jonson was the first to publish his part of The Entertainment 
by itself, S. B., Mar. 19. Evidently he and Dekker dis- 



DEKKER 131 

agreed on this matter. Dekker refers to Jonson's '' weapons, 
borrowed of all the old Masters of Poesy," &c. Stephen 
Harrison invented the architecture. 



Plays Acted by the Paul's Boys, 1604-5. 

54. 1604, Nov. Westward Ho, 

55. 1605, c. Feb. Northward Ho. These two plays 
were written in conjunction with Webster, q,v, Dekker's 
connexion with the Paul's boys, which began in 1601 with 
Satiromastix, ends here. 



Plays Acted by the Prince's Men (formerly 
THE Admiral's), 1604-5. 

56. 1604, c. April. The Honest Whore, "with the 
Humours of the Patient Man and the Longing Wife," was 
written by Dekker and Middleton (Henslow, Diary, p. 232) 
as The Patient Man and the Honest Whore. The siege of 
Ostend is alluded to in iv. i ; Leap-year, when " knaves 
wear smocks," iv. 2. Contrary to the general opinion, I 
believe that Middleton wrote much of this play, viz., Sc. 2, 
4-12; Dekker's share being Sc. i, 3, 1 3-1 5. It is the last 
of the Shrew or wife-taming series, which included Patient 
Orisell^ A medicine for a curst wife, The Woman Killed with 
Kindness, and The Taming of the Shrew. " Aloof oft^" Sc. 6, 
" subaudi," Sc. 9, &c., are Middletonian phrases. In Sc. 15 
Towne, one of the Prince's men, appears as an actor. In 
Sc. I there is a parody on Richard 3, ** Set down the body," 
&c., and a much more important allusion to Othello :— 

" Thou kill'tit her now again, 
And art more savage than a barbarous Moor." 

The Comedy of EiTors is mentioned Sc. 12, and many 



132 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

other plays are alluded to. In the 1635 edition this play 
is mentioned as acted by Queen Henrietta's players. 

57. 1604. Soon after the first part. The Second part 
of the Honest WTiore^ &c. (with ** the Comical Passages of 
an Italian Bridewell"). In Sc. 14, the " 1600 soldiers" 
who went aboard scarce a year since must, I think, be 
the 800 " vagabonds" seized in two nights in 1603, April, 
and sent aboard the Dutch fleet by Cecil (Pictorial Hietory 
of England, iii. 3) ; and the purging of the suburb houses, 
Sc. I o, is surely contemporaneous with Measure for Measure, 
There are allusions to Othello, As Tou Like it^ Satiromastix, 
&c., but to nothing of later date than 1604. The "fire- 
works on lines," Sc. 4, occur continually in Dekker. This 
play was entered 1608, April 29, but not printed till 1630, 
when it was again entered. 

58. c. 1604, Dec. The BoaiHng Oirly or Moll Cutpurse 
(witli Middleton), "lately acted on the Fortune stage," 
161 1. Middleton wrote, I think, ii. 2, iv. i, v. 2. In 
iv. 2 the "fireworks on lines" again appear. The original 
writing of this play must be after Westward Ho, 1604, 
Nov., and before St. Dunstan's Day, 19th May 1605 (see 
iv. i); but it was probably not acted till 16 10, when it 
was produced by Middleton, not by Dekker. It had been 
" expected long," as the Prologue (by Middleton) says. 
Day's prose account of Moll Cutpurse was entered S. R 
16 10, Aug. 7 (cf. S. E. 161 2, Feb. 18, for another narra- 
tion). In the Epilogue an appearance of Moll in another 
play a few days hence is promised. The only other play 
known to me in which she appears is Amends for Ladies, 
but this is of later date, and was not acted at the Fortune. 
In v. I the Swan is mentioned as open; query in 161 1, 
ul'ter August. 

59. 1605. The Whore of Babylon. In Sc. 2 JTu Isle 



DEKKEli. 133 

of Chills is alluded to, aud that play was produced 1605, 
after Northward So. Dekker had left the company. He 
says Lectori, "How true Fortune's dial hath gone, whose 
players, like so many clocks, have struck my lines and told 
the world, how I have spent my hours, I am not certain, 
because my ears stood not within the reach of their alarums." 
But the play as extant was altered from an earlier version 
produced in Elizabeth's reign. In Sc. 10 a passage begin- 
ning how " a jury of bright stars " found the Moon that 
borrowed light from Elizabeth, i.e., Mary of Scotland, " un- 
worthy to shine again," goes on in allusion to Essex quite 
beyond the scope of the original play. All the " he's " in 
this passage have been changed from "she's," but clumsily, 
and not by Dekker, who wrote the Address without seeing 
the proof-sheets. Again, Sc. 5, "For let me whisper — it 
may not be," is a manifest interpolation. I think the 
original, which should occur in Henslow's Diary, was 
33. Truth's supplication to Candlelight^ 1600, Jan. But 
the title was soon altered, for among the play-title epithets 
applied by Tucca to Miniver in Satiromastix, "Whore of 
Babylon" is one. Note the "fireworks on lines," Sc. 5. 
During 1606—9 Dekker was writing prose pamphlets. 

When the theatres reopened, after the long plague, in 
1 609, Dec, and the QUEEN'S MEN removed to the Bull, 
Dekker wrote for them : 

60. 1 6 10, c. Christmas. If this be not a good play the 
Devil is in it. So the running title. The title-page has 
J^ it be not good the DevU is in it. " A new play lately 
acted" by the Queen's men at the Red Bull. They ac- 
cepted it when the Prince's men had rejected it at the 
Fortune, having already a play on Friar Evsh (see Day). 
The date of writing was 16 10, when Aug. 14 fell on a 
Tuesday, Sc. 8. In the Address Dekker refers to his 



134 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

" worthy friend's " next new play, which was, beyond doubt, 
The DeviVs Law Case, by Webster, 1610. Webster was 
the only coadjutor of Dekker in writing for Queen's men 
(see Sir T, Wyatt)y and had before this written his White 
Devil for them. AH the time-allusions confirm this date. 
The plague of 1609 is alluded to in Sc. i ; the painted 
giant of the Turners' show in Sc. 3 ; Armin's Nest of Ninnies, 
1608, in Sc. 3 ; Bermudas, ** the isle of hogs and devils," in 
Sc. 14 (compare Shakespeare's Tempest, 16 10); Moll Cut- 
pursej " late sore tormented," ie., on the Fortune stage, 1 6 1 o, 
in Sc. 16 (see supra^ The Roaring Girl)] the revival of 
Hey wood's Golden Age^ 1 6 1 o, in Sc. 2 ; and Bavaillac, who 
stabbed Henri 4 on 14th May 16 10, in Sc. 16. Note the 
fireworks in Sc. 3, the Dekkerian lame soldier in Sc. 2, and 
the origin in Sc. i o of Jonson's title. The Devil is an Ass. 
In the Induction and Sc. 10, *' Fortune favours nobody but 
Garlick " alludes to an actor of that name who appeared 
on the stage with chains of garlick hung round him, men- 
tioned also in the The Hog hath lost his pearly Amends for 
Ladies, and The World's Folly (a tract by J. H., 161 5). 
This is, of course, one of the passages inserted when 
the play was altered with a new Frontispiece for the 
Queen's men. The name Grumshall or Grumball was at 
the same time substituted for Lurchall in the "Frontis- 
piece." The retention of Lurchall in the main play shows 
that the alteration was hurried. Compare Armin's Nest of 
Ninnies. 

61. c. 161 1. Match 7ne in London. This play was 
acted at the Bull by Queen Anne's men, and afterwards at 
the Phoenix by the Lady Elizabeth's men, 1623, Aug. 21 
(Herbert), and again ("lately," in 1 630) by Queen Henrietta's. 
This shows the way in which Dekker's plays passed into 
the hands of Queen Henrietta's men, and justifies the sup- 



DEKKER. 135 

position that The Honest Whore, in like manner, was revived 
by Qaeen Anne's men at the Ball. The allusions to The 
Bearing Girl, i. 2, and the 1609 expedition to Virginia, 
ii. I, make likely the date here given. But, like all 
Dekker's plays for Queen Anne's men, this play is no 
new one, being pretty clearly an alteration of The Set at 
Maw, 1594, Dec. 14, an old Admiral's play. In ii. i, 
'* Play out our set at maw ; " in iii. 2, " I called that sound 
card to me ; " in iii. 3— 

'' Since we must needs be sharers [partneri^] use me kindly, 
And play not the right citizen to undo 
Yuur partner, who i' th' stock has more than you ; " 

in iv. I, ''I did but shuffle the first dealing: you cut last 
and dealt last ; by the same token you turned up a Court 
card." All these allude to the Maw game, which is nearly 
the same as the modem Spoil Five. 

62. c. 161 1. The Virgin Martyr was probably acted 
by the Queen's men about this time. The Bevels men had 
it in 1 62 1 as reformed by Massinger, and must have in- 
herited it from the Queen's men, I think, as there is no 
trace of Dekker's writing for the Bevels men elsewhere, 
nor indeed of his writing any plays between 1 6 1 1 and 
1622. This also was probably an Admiral's play re- 
fashioned, viz., the Diocletian of 1594, Nov. 16, which 
was then an old play. On the Bevels version see 
Massinger. 

63. 1 6 1 2. Troia Nova Triumphans ; London Triumph' 
ing : the 1 6 1 2 pageant for Sir John Swinerton's Mayoralty. 
A ship laden with wine was a principal part of this Show, 
and I fancy this Ship was that afterwards exhibited on the 
Fortune stage, which has so troubled the stage historians, 
who insist on its being the name of a play. 



136 THE ENGLISH DEAMA. 

64. The life and death of Guy of Waituick, T. H., was 
entered S. R for J. Trundle, 1620, Jan. 19, as by John 
Day and Thomas Dekker. Guy Earl of Warwick, by 
B[en] J[onson], was printed 1661 ; but I have not met 
with it. Taylor, the Water poet, in his Penniless PilgH- 
mage, 161 8, speaks of this play as acted by Derby's men. 



Plays, 1622-4. 

65. 1622, The Witch of Edmonton. With Ford and 
Eowley. See Ford. Acted by the Princess Elizabeth's 
men. 

66. 1623, July 30. The Bellman of Paris. With Day. 
Acted by Prince Charles's men at the Bull. 

6y. 1623, Sept. 18. Come see a Wonder, by John Day, 
was licensed for a company of strangers at the Bull. See 
my History of the Stage, p. 302. This was almost certainly 
The Wonder of a Kingdom, in which Day wrote the Gentili 
and Torrenti parts, i. 4, iij. i, iv. 2, afterwards reclaimed 
by him in The Parliament of Bees. Gentili's "gift to 
charity" is certainly Alleyn's "God's gift" at Dulwich: 
compare the title-page, Qiiod non dant proceres dahit Histi^io. 
Alteration of a preceding version is shown by the omission 
of Montinelli, Buzzardo, Steward, Brother, Gallant, Apothe- 
cary, Soldier, Broker, Goldsmith (all Day's characters), in 
the Dram. Pers. Mutio, Philippo, and Tornelli are. also 
from his hand. In i. i, "We shall your will — we'll hence," 
and in v. 2, " No more — nobly spoke," are insertions by 
Day. The original Dekker play was a " Card play " (see 
the last nine lines), probably The Mack, an Admiral's play 
of 1595, Feb. 21, which, like the others noticed above, 
may have been revived at the Bull. Compare McUch me 
in London. 



DENH AM— DRAYTON. 1 3 7 



68. 1624, Mar. 3. The Suris ' 
Darling. 

69. 1 624, Oct. 2 2 . The Fairy 
Knight. 

70. 1624, Oct. 24. The Bris- 
tow Merchant. 



> With Ford. See Ford. 



Pageants, 1627-9. 

71. 1627, Dekker wrote the pageant for the Mayoralty 
of H. Hamerton. Not extant. 

72. 1628, Britannia's Honor y for E, Deane's Mayoralty 
(Skinner's company). The " works " by Gerard Christmas 
and his son John. 

73. 1629, London's Tempe^ or The Field of Happiness 
(Le Beau Champ, Camp-Bel), for J. Campbell's Mayoralty 
(Ironmongers' Company). The works by Gerard Christmas. 

Plays Entered S. R. for H. Moseley. 

74. OtLstaviLS King 0/ Swedland, entered 1660, June 29. 

75. The tale of Jocundo and Astolpho, 1660, June 29. 
The MSS. of both these were destroyed by Warburton's 

servant 

y6. The Jew of Venice, 1653, Sept. 9. 

Denham, Sir John. (Play.) 

I. The Sophy. Fol. 1642, 1671. 

This play was acted in 1 64 1 at Blackfriars by the King's 
men. It is founded on a story in Herbert's Travels. 

Of Denham as a poet this is not the place to speak. 

Drayton, Michaei^. (Playwright and Poet.) 

20. 1600, Aug, II, for T. Pavier. x. Sir John Old' 
castle^ Lord Colharriy H., 1 600, " by William Shakespeare ; " 
1 600, with no name of author. 



138 THE ENGLISH DRAMA, 

The foUowiog have been more or less conjecturally as- 
cribed to him by me : — 

24. 1602, Aug. 1 1, for W. Cotton. Hu life and death 
of the Ixyrd Cromwdl, C. H., 1602, •'by W. S." for W. 
Jones ; 1 6 1 3, by T. Snodham. 

28. The London Frodigaly C, 1605, by T. C[reede] for K 
Butter ; " by William Shakespeare." 

2. 1607, Oc^« 22, for A. Johnson. The Merry Devil of 
JEdmonton, C, 1608, by H. Ballard for A. Johnson; 161 7, 
1626, 1655. 

29. 1608, May 2, for T. Pavyer. A Yorkshire Tragedy, 
1608, by R. B[onyon], for T. Pavier ; " by W. Shakespeare," 
1 6 1 9. But this play is by Shakespeare : q.v. 

I. Sir Thomas More^ Harleian MS. 7368. 

Poems. 

1 59 1, Feb. I, for R. Jones. The Triumphs [Harmony'] 
of the Churchy 1591? "by M. D.," dedicated to Lady Jane 
De vereux of Merivale ; 1 6 1 o. 

1 593, April 23, for T. Woodcock. Idea [Anne Goodyere], 
The Shepherd's Garland fashioned in nine edogvss, Bowland's 
sacrifice to the nine Muses, 1593. 

1593, Dec. 3, for N. Ling and J. Busbie. Piers Gaveston, 
Earl of CornvxUlj n.d. 

1594, May 30, for N. Ling. Idea's MiiTor, Amours 
in Quatorzains [Sonnets], 1594. Dedicated to Antony 
Cook. 

Matilda, the true glory of the noble house of Sussex, 1 594, 
by James Roberts for N. L[ing] and J. Busbie. Dedicated 
to Lucy Harrington. Commendatory verses by H. 6[oodyere], 
W. G., [Sir] R[ichard] L[ong], and Anonymos. IS94, by 
V. Sinimes for N. L. and J. Busbie. 



DRAYTON. 139 

1595, April 12, for J. Busbie. Endymion and Phasbe, 
Ideas Zatmus, n.d. ; same motto, " Phoslms erit, &c," as 
V. Simmes' edition of Matilda. Dedicated to Lucy Countess 
of Bedford. 

Sonnet in Morley's First Book of BaJletts, 1595. 

1596, April IS, for M. Lowues. Mortimeriados, 1596. 
Dedicated to the Countess of Bedford : n.d., " for H. Lownes." 

1596, Nov. 21, for N. Ling. The tragical legend of 
Bobert Dvke of Normandy, 1 596, with Matilda and Oaveston 
" augmented." Verses by H. G[oodyere], R L., and Miro- 
cinius [Query Myro-cycnus], Dedicated to the Countess of 
Bedford. 

1 597, Oct. 1 2, for N. Ling. England's Heroical Epistles, 

1 597. Dedicated to the Countess and the Earl of Bedford. 

1598, 1599, 1600 (with Idea), 1602. [Written before 

1593-] 

Verses in England's Helicon, 1600; and in Christopher 

Middleton's Legend of Duke Humphry, 1 600. 

1602, Oct. 8. Mortimeriados, assigned from H. and M. 
Lownes to N. Ling ; rewritten and published as The Barons* 
Wars, 1603 (with Heroical Epistles and Idea, ie,, the 
Sonnets, 1602). Dedicated to Sir. W. Aston. 

Grattdatory poem to King James, 1603, by J. Roberts for 
T. M. and H. L[ownes]. See Nichols, i. xxxix. 

1604, Feb. 8, for E. White and N. Ling. The Owl, 
1604. Dedicated to Sir W, Aston. 

1604, Mar., for J. Flaskett. A Pcean triumphale to 
King James, for the Goldsmiths' Society, 1 604. 

1 604, June, for T. Man and T. Man, junior. Moyses in 
a map of his Miracles. 

The collected Foem^ of 1605 contain T?ie Barons' Wars, 
Heroical Epistles, Sonnets (Idea), and the Legends, Oaveston, 
Matilda, and Bobert, but not The Harmony of the Church, 



140 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

ShephercCs Garland^ Endymion arid PJuxhe, Other editions, 
1608, n.d., 1 6 10, 161 3, 16 1 9 (enlarged), 1628, 1630 
(augmented), 1637. 

1606, April 19,. for J. Flaskett. Poems Lyric and 
PtutorcU, n.d., viz., Odes dedicated to Sir H. Goodyere, 
JEclogttes {The Shepherd^s Oarland, altered) dedicated to Sir 
W. Aston, and The Man in the Moony n.d., by R B. for N. 
L[ing] and J. Flasket. 

1607, Oct. 12, for J. Flasket. The Legend of the great 
Cromwelly 1607, 1609 (for W. Welby, greatly altered, 
" The History, &c., of the Lord Cromivelly sometime Earl of 
Essex "). This was inserted in the 1 6 1 o Mirror of Magis- 
trates, F. Kingston's edition. 

Verses in De la Serre's Care of Silkworms, 1609, and 
Da vies of Hereford's Holy Hood, 1 609. 

Verses in David Murray's Sophonisba, 161 1. 

161 2, Feb. 7, for M. Lownes, J. Browne, J. Helme, J. 
Busby, junior. Polyolhion [Songs i— 1 8, with Selden's notes], 
161 3. Dedicated to Prince Henry. 

Verses in Tuke's Discourse against Painting and Tinctur- 
ing of Women, 1616. 

Elegy in Fitzgeoffrey's Epigrams, &c., 161 7, by M. D. ; 
with others by Fr. B[eaumont] and N[athaniel] H[ookes]. 

Verses in Chapman's Hesiod, 1 6 1 8. 

Verses in Monday's Pnmaleon, 1619. 

Verses in Mantuluction, 1622, and Hollands Naum^hia, 
1622. 

1622, Mar. 6, for J. Marriott, J. Grismond, and T. Dewe. 
The second part of Polyolhion [Songs 19—30], 1622. 
Finished 16 19, April 14. Dedicated to Prince Charles. 

1627, April 16, for W. Lee. The battle of Agincourt 
[with Margaret, Nimphidia, Cynthia, Sirena, Mooticaif, and 
Elegies], 1627, 163 1. 



A 



DRAYTON. 141 

Verses in Sir J. Beaumont's Poems, 1629. 

1630, Mar. 6, for Waterson, junior, The Mused Mizium 
[10 Nymplials]: and 3 Divine poems, Noe's Flood [pro- 
nounce " No "], Moses* Birth and Miracles, David and 
Ocliahy 1630. Dedicated to the Earl nnd Countess of 
Dorset. 

1 63 1. Verses by M. Drayton, "poet laureat," the night 
before he died. MSS. Ashroole 38, art. 92. 

Drayton's List of Engush Poets. 

This is taken from his Epistle to JST. Reynolds, c. 161 8. 

I. Geoffry Chaucer; 2. John Gower; 3. Henry Howard, 
Earl of Surrey; 4. Thomas Wyatt; 5. Francis Brian; 6. 
George Gascoigne ; 7. Thomas Churchyard ; 8. Edmond 
Spenser; 9. Philip Sidney; 10. William Warner, "my 
old friend." Then the dramatists : — 11. Christopher Mar- 
low; 12. Thomas Nash, "proser;" 13. William Shake- 
speare, "comic vein;" 14. Samuel Daniel, "too much 
historian;" 15. Benjamin Johnson, "long lord of the 
theatre." Then the translators: — 16. George Chapman; 
17. Joshua Silvester; 18. George Sandys. Then his 
personal friends: — 19. William Alexander; 20. William 
Drummond; 21. [George] Beaumont; 22. [John] Beau- 
mont; 23. William Browne. He omits Lodge, Sackville, 
Constable, and James I., all of whom he had praised in his 
early poems, afterwards withdrawn. 

Connexion of "The Heroical Epistles" with other 

Poems and Plats. 

I. Bosamond and Henry. Poem : Bosamond, by Daniel, 
riay : Henry i, by Drayton, Dekker, and Chettle. {Bob&rt 
of Normandy, by Drayton, treats of the same period.) 



142 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

2. John and Matilda. Poem: Matilda, by Drayton; 
Polj/olbion 26, by Drayton. Plays: i. 2 Babin Hood^ by 
Chettle and Monday. 

3. Isabel and Mortimer. Poems: Gaveston, by Dray- 
ton; Martimeriados, by Drayton. Plays: EdvHii^d 2, by 
Mario w; The Fall of Mortimtr, by Jonson [and Chap- 
man]. 

4. The Black Prince and Alice of Shrewsbury. Play : 
Edward 3 [by Marlow and Shakespeare]. 

5. Isabel and Bichard 2. Plays: Richard 2, by Shake- 
speare ; Piers of Exton^ by Drayton, Chettle, Dekker, and 
Wilson. 

6. Catherine and Owen Tudor. Play : Owen Ttcdor, by 
Drayton, Hathway, Monday, Wilson. (Agineaurl, by Dray- 
ton, Henry 5, by Shakespeare, and i. 2 Sir J. Oldcastle treat 
of this period.) 

7. Elinor and Duke Humphrey. 8. Suffolk and Mar- 
garet. Poems: Margaret^ by Drayton; CivU wars, by 
Daniel; Polyolbion 22 by Drayton. Plays: 2. 3 Henry 6 
[by Peele, Greene, Lodge, Marlow]. 

9. Edward 4 and Jane Shore. Poem : Jane Shore, by A. 
Chute. Plays : i . 2 Edward 4, by Hey wood (?) ; Bichard 3, 
by [Marlow and] Shakespeare; Jane Shore, by Day and 
Chettle ; Bichard Crookback, by Jonson. 

10. Mary and Brandon. 11. Surrey and Geraldine. 
Poem : Cromwell, by Drayton. (The plays of Henry 8, by 
Shakespeare [Fletcher and Massinger], When you see me, 
&c., by S. Bowley, Sir T. More, Cromwell, i. 2. Cardinal 
Wolsey, by Drayton, Chettle, Monday, Smith, treat of this 
period.) 

12. Jane Grey and Dudley. Plays: i. 2 Sir T, Wyait, 
by Dekker, Heywood, Smith, and Webster. 



DRAYTON. 143 

Drayton's Pastoral Names. 

These are so important for the history of English poetry, 
as well as English drama, that I make no apology for giving 
a full list of them. I have compiled such lists for Browne, 
Spenser, P. Fletcher, Drummond, and other poets, which, 
not being connected with the drama, I cannot here insert, 
but I trust to publish them elsewhere. Beferences in- 
cluded in brackets imply that the characters are mentioned 
only; when not included they are interlocutors in the 
poems. 

From the Eclogues^ I593, April 23 (A), and 1606, 

April 19 (B). 

1. Alexis [A 4, B 6]. Sir W. Alexander. 

2. Ambry [B 9]. 

3. Batte, A 7, B 7. 

4. Borril, A 7, B 7. 

5. Cassanen, A 8, B 4. 

6. Cuffe of the fold, the virgin of the well [B 9]. 

7. Daffodil [B 9]. 

8. Dowsabel [A 8, B 4]. 

9. Elphin [A 4, B 6]. Sir Philip Sidney. 
I o. Goldy locks [B 9]. 

1 1. Gorbo il fidele, A 8, 4, 6 ; B 4, 6, 8, 9. 

12. Idea [A 5, 6; B 5, 8, 9]. Anne Goodere. 

1 3. Lettice [B 9]. 

14. Mary Sidney of Wilton. Countess Pembroke. [A 6, 

B8]. 

1 5. Melibaeus [A 4, B 6]. 

1 6. Mirtilla [A 6, B 8], a sister of the Beaumonts. 

17. Motto, A 2, 8, 5 ; B 2, 4, 5, 9. 



144 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1 8. Olcon [A 6, B 8]. (?) Sir John Davies. 

1 9. Palmeo [A 6, B 8]. One of the Beaumonts. 

20. Panape [A 6, B 8]. Idea's sister; of Arden by 
Ankor. A Good ere. 

21. Parael [B 9]. 

22. Perkin, A 3, 6; B 3, 8, 9. 

23. PhiUida [B 9]. 

24. Bosalinde, the widow's daughter of the glen [B 9] ; 
Rosa Dinle (Dinley), Spenser's beloved : see my Introduce 
tion to Spenser. 

25. Rowland of the Rock, A i, 3, 5, 9 ; B i, 3, $, 9, 10. 
Drayton, whose Muse doth like himself heroically sound : 
Spenser's ^tion. 

26. Winken the old ; Rowland's teacher, A 2, 4 ; B 2, 6. 
Probably Warner. Eclogue B 9 was added in 1606. 
Endymion (Drayton) Godfrey, Hodge, Pandora (C. Pem- 
broke), Robin (Essex), all occurring in A 4, 6, 10, were 
then omitted. 



From The Muses' Elysium, 1630, Mar. 6. 

1. Claia [3], 5, 8, 10. 

2. Clarinax [5]. 

3. Cleon, 2. 

4. Cloe, 3. 

5. Cloris, 3, 4, 8. 

6. Codrus, a fisher, 7. 

7. Corbilus, 10. 

8. Dorida, i. 

9. Dorilus, 3. Compare The Shepherds' Sirena. 

10. Doron, 3. 

1 1. Felicia [4, 7, 10]. 

12. Florimel [i, 3], 7. 



DRAYTON. I4S 

13. Halius, a fisher, 6. 

14. Lalus,' 2. 

15. Lelipa [i, 8], 5, 7. 

16. Lirope, 2. 

1 7. Melanthus, a shepherd, 6. 

18. Mirtilla, 3, 4, 8, a Beaumont. See Eclogues. 

19. Bodope, I. 

2 1 . Silvius, a forester, 6. 

22. Tita [8], of her marriage. 

From The Quest of Sirena, 1627, April 16. 

1. Colin. Spenser. 

2. Dorilus. See The Muses' Elysium. 

3. GilL Giles Fletcher ? 

4. Olcon. Sir John Davies. See Eclogues. 

5. Balph. 

6. Bock. Drayton? 

7. Sirena, who lived near Trent. Sylvia, one of the 
Astons. 

Michael Drayton was born at Hartshill, near Atherstone, 
in Warwickshire, in 1563. He became "a proper goodly 
page, much like a pigmy, scarce ten ^ years of age," probably 
in the family of Sir Henry Goodere (not Goodeve, as Mr. 
Bullen says) of Powlsworth, as he tells us himself in his 
Epistle to Henry Beynolds. He afterwards was sent to a 
University, most likely to Cambridge, at Sir Henry Goodere's 
expense, and soon after attaining his majority came to 
London, where he was intimate with Lodge (whom he calls 
Goldey) and Daniel (Musaeus). About 1587 he wrote his 
Elegy on Sidney, which was afterwards inserted in his 
Eclogues. Many other poems were probably produced and 

^ Mr. BoUen says " two yean," with his obuaI inaccuracy. 
VOL. I. E 



146 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

circulated by him some years before his first publication ; iu 
fact, it seems to have been his usual custom to delay com- 
mitting his works to the press until they had been handed 
round and criticised by a circle of friends. 

1590— I, Feb. 10. This is the date of his preface to his 
first publication, Tfie Harmony of the Churchy entered on 
the Stationers' Registers (S. R) ist Feb., and dedicated to 
Lady Jane Devereux of Merivale. This book was " seized " 
and ordered to be destroyed, but forty copies were preserved 
by Archbishop Whitgift in Lambeth Palace. 

1593, April 23, Idea, Nine Edogues, published. Idea is 
the lady to whom all Drayton's love-poems were addressed, 
and was identified by me in my Land of Shakespeare. She 
was a member of the Goodere family, and her name was 
Anne, as will be seen by comparing the following passages. 
In yEclogtie viii. two sisters are mentioned, the eldest, Panape, 
who is sick in Arden, by the river Ankor ; the younger, 
Idea, who lives by the Meene, a mountain in Cotswold look- 
ing over the Stowre, near the vale of Evesham, but was 
" bred " where Panape now abides, i.e., in Arden. This 
part of Eclogue viii. was published in 1606. In the Hymn 
to his Ladys birthplace [c. 1604] we are told that Idea 
was bom in Mich Parke, a street in Coventry, on 4th 
Aug., that Godiva was " but her type," and Elizabeth was 
queen in order that " a maid should reign when she was 
born." From Polyolbiony Song xiii., it appears that the lady 
by whom Coventry was to be made so great was Anne 
Goodere; that ./In-cor prophesies her Christian name and 
God'ivsL half her surname. There is, then, no mystery in 
this matter, which critic after critic failed to decipher ; 
unless, indeed, it be a mystery how to reconcile the fact 
of their not having read the Polyolhion with the lavish 
praises they have bestowed on it. It appears further, from 



DRAYTON. 147 

Pclyolhion, xiv., that the place to which Idea removed was 
probably Clifford, in the extreme north of Gloucestershire, 
** which many a time hath been the Muses' quiet port." It 
should be noted that no work of Drayton is openly dedi- 
cated to this lady. A list of Drayton's published works has 
already been given, and should at this place be referred to. 
It now becomes desirable to set down what results I 
have succeeded iu attaining as to the pastoral names under 
which Drayton shrouded his allusions to contemporaries in 
his Eclogues. Mr. BuUen, with the magisterial assurance 
of youth and inexperience, says, " At this date it cannot be 
discovered to whom some of the allusions refer." I need 
not say that Mr. BuUen has not had the industry to dis- 
cover to whom any one allusion refers, although merely a 
careful perusal of his author must have led him to several. 
For instance, I have already pointed out that Groldey is 
Lodge, and Musseus Daniel ; and that Idea and Panape are 
Anne Goodere and her elder sister ; so Elphin is, of course, 
Sidney, and Alexis Sir W. Alexander: Rowland of the 
Bock is Drayton's self-chosen pastoral name. But most of 
these identifications lie on the surface, and were evident 
even to Mr. Collier. Those that follow have never before 
been noted, and are, indeed, not easy to find out Sylvia, 
that once lived in Moreland, in Staffordshire, and has now 
removed to Kent, near the Bavensboum (Edogue viii.), the 
admired of Motto {Eel, ix.), is certainly a member of the 
Aston family, of Tixhall, on the Trent, the head of which. 
Sir. W. Aston, was, as we shall see, Drayton's patron. 
Sirena, who also left the Trent for another home {Sirena's 
complaint), is either identical with Sylvia or another lady 
of the same family ; Myrtilla, that lives in wild Charnwood, 
by the Soar, and her brothers, Thyrsis and Palmeo, are cer- 
tainly Elizabeth, John, and Francis Beaumont, Francis being 



148 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

the celebrated dramatist, and John the poet The " widow's 
daughter of the glen " I have shown in mj Ouide to Spenser 
to be Spenser's Bosalynde, Bosa D7nle(7). The "shep- 
lierdess on Willy's banks " is, of course, Mary Countess of 
Pembroke, who lived at Wilton. 

So far all is clear ; but the hardest nut remains to crack. 
Who is Olcon ? He is a personage important to Drayton's 
biography,, yet no guess even has been made as to his iden- 
tity. The following are the passages referring to him : — 

" So did great Olcon, which a Phcebus Beemed 
(Whom all good shepherds gladly flockt about), 

And as a god of Bowland was esteemed ; 
Which to his praise drew all the mnd rout : 

For after Rowland (as it had been Pan) 

Only to Olcon every shepherd ran. 

Bat be forsakes the herdgroom and his flocks, 

Nor of his bagpipes takes at all no keep ; 
But to the stem wolf and deceitful fox 

Leaves the poor shepherd and his harmless sheep : 
And all those rhymes, that he of Olcon sung, 
(The swain disgraced), participate his wrong." 

Eclogue viiL, 1606 edition ; not in 1593. 

" Roguish swineherds, that repine 
At our flocks like beastly clowns, 
Swear that they will bring their swine 
And will root tip all our downs. 

• ••••• 

Angry Olcon sets them on 

And against us part doth take, 
Ever since he was outgone 

Offering rhymes with us to make." 

The Shepherd^ s Sirena^ 1627. 

The name Olcon, and the fact that Olcon is a person of 
authority over the law-officers or "swineherds," seem at 
first to point to Cecil Lord Burleigh, whose seat was near 



DRAYTON. 149 

the river Olcon (see Polyolhion, vii.), but Burleigh was not 
a poetical writer, as Olcon was. I think Sir John Davies 
is meant. 

It should be noticed that in the enumeration of English 
Poets in the Epistle to Reyrtolds there are noteworthy omis- 
sions of the names of Lodge and Davies. Drayton habitu- 
ally, when offended with any writer or patron, ceased to 
mention him, and, more than that, cut out of his later 
editions any mention that existed in earlier ones. In this 
way he cancelled his allusions to Lodge and Daniel when 
he rewrote his Endimion and Pko^e, his compliments to 
the Bedfords in his Mbrtimeriados and his Sonnets addressed 
to various persons. If, then, the Sirena can be dated about 
1 604, he is very likely to be Olcon. But can we so date 
Sirena t The occurrence of the pastoral name Dorilus links 
Sirena with the Mtcses* ElizixtMy which was published in 
1630, and dedicated to Edward SackviUe, Earl of Dorset. 
Drayton's usual custom was to publish his more important 
works by themselves, and to gather up his lyrics at intervals. 
Had these poems, published in 1627, been written as early 
as 1608, we should have expected them to have been in- 
cluded in the editions of his poems in 16 10, 161 3, or 
surely in 1 6 1 9, in which sundry pieces were inserted never 
before imprinted. On the other hand, the separation of the 
Sirena from the Muses' Elizium, with which it would natu- 
rally be classed, and its publication with the Agincourt, &c., 
in a separate volume, by a difierent publisher, and not dedi- 
cated to the Earl of Dorset, certainly looks as if there were 
nothing in that poem connected with the Sackville family. 
The great influence which Davies had with James I. in the 
early years of his reign seems to indicate him to be Olcon, 
and no other poet has been suggested as even likely to 
be so. See further under Shakespeare, Sonnets, 



15© THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

I have introduced this digression in this place because 
in 1597 we reach a distinct epoch in Drayton's career. 
He was at this time driven by necessity, and the failure 
(as he alleges) of his patron's promises, to write for the 
theatre. He continued to do so for five years; and not 
till after the accession of James, and his meeting with a 
new patron in Sir W Aston, was he able to give up this, 
to him, unpalatable occupation. 

It is specially to be noted that he, like Beaumont, never 
allowed his name to appear in print as an author for the 
stage. The only published play in which we positively 
know him to have been concerned (Sir John Oldcastle) bore 
on its title-page '' by William Shakespeare." As no play 
by Monday, Wilson, or Hathaway, his coadjutors in this one, 
was ever attributed to Shakespeare, and as Drayton was the 
only one of the four ever connected with Shakespeare's com- 
pany of players, it becomes a matter of great interest to 
investigate what connexion Drayton may have had with 
other plays wrongly attributed by publishers or tradition 
to the great dramatist. For if this attribution of the Old- 
castle play was due to Drayton's connexion with it, as it 
manifestly was, the same thing may have happened in 
cases hitherto unsuspected. 

From the list of plays written for Henslow (for wliich 
see further on) many results follow important for Drayton's 
biography. It is evident from the smallness of the sums 
advanced in some instances that it was during this period 
that money was urgently needed by him ; for instance, on 
6th June 1598 we find an entry in these terms, "Lent 
unto Thomas Dowton to lend unto Drayton, I say lent for 
the 2 part of Godwin, los." Moreover, not one of these 
twenty-four plays was ever published with Drayton's name 
attached to it, and only one published at all. He evidently 



DRAYTOX. 151 

regarded his connexion with the stage as a degradation. 
Again, in his list of contemporary poets in his Epistle to 
E. Reynolds he does not mention one of his coadjutors in 
these plays, not Monday, Chettle, Dekker, Wilson, Webster, 
Hathaway, Smith, or Middleton ; the dramatists whom he 
does mention are Chapman (but only as a translator), Nash, 
Marlow, Skakespeare, and Jonson, the latter three all con- 
nected with the company known till 1 594 as Lord Strange's, 
and afterwards as the Chamberlain's. This seems to point 
to a connexion between this company and Drayton of a date 
subsequent to his engagement with Henslow. This conjec- 
ture is confirmed by the tradition that he was the author 
of the Merry Devil of Edmonton^ and I think that whoever 
carefully compares the characters of the Host in that play 
with his eternal refrain of " I serve the good Duke of Nor- 
folk," and Sir John with his " Grass and hay, we are all 
mortal, &c.," with that of Murley in Oldcastle with his 
"paltry, paltry, to and fro, &c.,*' will come to the con- 
clusion that all these characters were the productions of 
one brain. But we know that Drayton was one of the 
authors of Oldcastle ; it is, therefore, very likely that the 
tradition is a true one, and that he wrote the Merry Devil 
for the Chamberlain's company. 

A further examination of Henslow's list shows that, of 
the twenty-four plays there given, eighteen were written in 
about a year, in i 598 ; while in the remaining four years, 
1 599-1603, during which Drayton continued to write for 
the stage he only assisted in producing six plays for Henslow. 
It seems probable that during this time he must have been 
writing also for another company; he had to live, had 
lost his patronage from the Bedford family, and certainly 
produced nothing for the press. Is there any trace left of 
what he produced for the theatre ? 



152 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

The clue to an answer is, I think, to be found in the fact 
that the Merry DevU has been assigned to Shakespeare by 
tradition. I might seem to strengthen my subsequent 
hypothesis if I coupled with this the fact that Oldcastle was 
also published with Shakespeare's name on the title-page ; 
but this was, no doubt, merely a device of its dishonest 
publisher, Pavier, to get the play mistaken for Shakespeare's 
Henry 4-5, in which FalstaflF was originally called Old- 
castle. The false statement was quickly discovered and 
suppressed; only a few copies bear Shakespeare's name. 
Putting this aside, then, it is worth while to examine 
what other unauthentic plays of date 1599— 1603 are con- 
nected with the name of Shakespeare. These are The Life 
and Death of Cromwell, written 1601, published 1602; 
7%« London Prodigal, written early in 1603, published 
1605 ; the revision of 2. 3 Henry 6; and the revised or 
Folio version of Richard 3. In my opinion, ^ Cromvxll 
and the Prodigal are certainly by the same author, and 
that author was probably Drayton; and the similarities 
between the portions of 2. 3 Henry 6 added in 1600—1 
and Drayton's poems are so great as hardly to allow us to 
doubt of their authorship. I must now ask the reader 
to consider carefully the table already given of Drayton's 
Heroical Epistles as connected with poems and plays on the 
same subjects. 

I may now gather retrospectively the remarkable omis- 
sions made in the later editions of Drayton's early poems ; 

^ The only competitor for the authorship of these plays hitherto brought 
forward is Wentworth Smith, whose initials are supposed to have been used 
in order to induce purchasers to suppose they were bu3ring plays by Shake- 
speare. But among many reasons against this hypothesis one is conclusive : 
it was just during this period, 1601-1603, that Smith, who is unknown out- 
side these limits of date, was engaged in writing for Henslow ; he contributed 
to fifteen plays for him during 1 601 and 1602, and certainly did not write for 
any other company in those years. 



DRAYTON. 153 

they are of the highest importance to Shakespearians, and 
an accessible reprint of the first copies (for the price of 
Collier's Roxburgh Club Edition is prohibitory to many) 
would be a great boon. 

The EclogiieSy IS93) April 23. Collier has pointed out 
that in this early edition, in Eel. A 4 (B 6), good old God- 
frey is mentioned as Winken's teacher, in A 6 (B 8) the 
Countess of Pembroke is called Pandora, and that in the 
final Eclogue Drayton is Endymion. All these allusions 
were cut out in the 1606 edition. Again, Gorbo il fidele 
is identified with Hodge, and Robin, identified by Collier 
with Essex, was also omitted in 1606. 

Ideals Mirror y 1594, May 30 {Sonnets). The following 
Sonnets were omitted in later editions : — 2, 3 (in which 
Sidney, Constable, and Daniel are mentioned), 4, 7, 9, 1 1, 
1 8 (remarkable for its metre, ABBA, CDDC, EFFE, GG ; 
not ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG, his later form, which is 
the same as Shakespeare's), 24, 30, 32, 41, 45 (Alexan- 
drines), 49, 51, 56 (a canzonet "to conclude" in 4 xa 
octosyllabic), of rhyme formula 2 (AABBCCC), 62 (to 
James I., which at one time led me to identify James 
with Olcon), 63 (to Lucy Countess of Bedford, nie Har- 
rington), 64 (to Lady Ann Harrington, wife to Sir John), 
65 (to L. S.), 66. These Sonnets were called "Idea" 
simply in the 1600 edition, in which that to Lucy Bedford 
is still retained; but in the 1602, Oct. 8, edition this was 
permanently withdrawn. The Sonnets ultimately added in 
place of these are (in the modern numbering) i, 4, 6, 8, 
IS, 21, 27, 36, 37, 43, 46, 47, 48, so, SI, 52, S7, 58, 
61. The ABBA form occurs in 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 
26, 34, 3 Si 38, 42, and in 18 A, but never in the addi- 
tions. The Sonnets of this form are, therefore, probably 
the earlier. In 9 he says he lost his wit ''nine years 



T54 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

since," therefore in 1584. In 47 he had striven for the 
laurel with those that press the thronged theatres. The 
exact date of the addition of this Sonnet I am unable to 
give, not having access to all the old editions ; but it is 
important. That these Sonnets were the immediate model 
of Shakespeare's I cannot doubt. See especially 31, 44 
(on his old age), 56, &c. 

Endymion and Phoehey 1595, April 14. Lodge is called 
Goldey, and Daniel Mussdus. This poem, and consequently 
these allusions, was suppressed altogether in the collected 
editions of 1605 onward. 

Matilda^ IS94- Daniel's Rosamond, Chute's Jane Shore, 
Lodge's Elstredy and Shakespeare's Lucreece, "lately revived 
. . . acting her passions on our stately stage/' are alluded 
to ; but the Lucreece allusion was omitted in the 1605 
edition. It occurs in that of 1596. 

MortinuriadoSj 1596, April 15, contained a reference 
to Lucy Countess of Bedford, which was withdrawn in the 
1602, Oct., edition. As the Sonnet to her was still retained 
in 1600, this fixes the rupture with Drayton to c. 1601. 
In ii. 69 of the rewritten poem (The Barons' Wars) we 
find that Drayton's *' rhymes first begun of Idea's bower " 
in 1593 ; and from ii. 70, that he had in 1602 adopted 
Sir W. Aston as patron in Lucy Bedford's place. In v. 9, 
the allusion to the Muse being forbidden to " report what 
toucheth the deposing of a king " refers to the Essex trial 
and the Richard 2 performance in 1601. Compare the 
lines on " the deposing of a king " in Tke Heroical Epistles 
(Isabel to Eichard 2), 1597. 

Robert Duke of Normandy, IS 96, Nov. 21. Drayton, in 
his dedication to Lucy Bedford, complains of being "still poor." 

The Heroical Epistles, 1597, Oct. 12, buf probably written 
before 1595. This is important in relation to Spenser's 



DRAYTON. 155 

^tion allusion in 1595. They contain some matters of 
interest to the dramatic student. " Diana in the fountain '* 
(Rosamond to Henry) was taken up by Shakespeare (from 
the 1597 edition) in As You Like ity iv. i. The story 
of the Black Prince and Lady Salisbury from Bandello is 
diflerently treated from the version in Edward 3 [Shake- 
speare, 1594]. In the next epistle (Isabel to Richard 2) 
Hertford is used for Hereford, as in Shakespeare's play. In 
another (Humphrey to Eleanor) " path " is used as a verb, 
and so in Polyolbion, ii. Compare Julius Coeaar, ii. i. I 
have no doubt that Shakespeare read and studied Drayton's 
early poems. 

From all this it is evident that Drayton habitually 
omitted in his collected editions all allusions to persons 
whose personal relations to him had been interrupted. Thus 
we find dates for these ruptures : that with the Countess 
of Bedford, 1600- 160 2; those with Lodge, Shakespeare, 
James L, and, I think, Sir John Davies, all before or in 
1605 ; but want of access to all the old editions compels 
me to leave exact investigation incomplete. As to Davies, 
however, I have little doubt that "The Swallow whose 
swift Muse doth range through rare Ideas," mentioned in 
Orchestra (S. R. 1 594, June 25 ; not 1 593, as W. C. Hazlitt 
tells us), must be Drayton. " Ideasl' i.e., the Sonnets, was 
licensed 1594, May 30; and "Idea" the Eclogues, 1593, 
April 23. Dr. ^Locibus Grosart suggests Richard Martin, 
the Recorder, as the owner of this swift Muse. Davies, 
in 1622, followed Drayton's example by omitting this 
allusion. 

In connexion with this, the curious entry of Amours, by 

^ So named by me from the astounding " in locibua " in his edition of 
Davies, p. 356. Did the learned LL.D. and D.D. (Double Doctor) complete 
his daasical education in the third form f 



iS6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

J. D[avieB], with certain other Sonnets by W. S[hakespeare], 
S. R 1600, Jan. 3, for E. Edgar, must not be omitted. 
Were these parodies on Drayton's " Amours in QuaiorzainsI* 
1594, and Shakespeare's Sonnets, then in MS., and are the 
extant mock-amorous Sonnets of Davies a portion of them ? 

The epithet " golden-mouthed " seems to be appropriated 
to Drayton. See Meres, PaZ/adfs Tamia, 1598; Guilpin, 
Sfcialethcia, IS98; C. Fitzgeoffrey, Affanice, 1601. For 
minor matters connected with Lady Frances Goodere, Sir J. 
Swinnerton, and J. Huish, I can add nothing to what Collier 
has said in his 1856 edition, q.v. 

Thus far for Drayton's life in Elizabeth's reign. When 
James succeeded, Drayton addressed his Pcean and his 
Gfratulatory to him, and expected, as being the most forward 
to " teach his title in rhyme " (Letter to G. Sandys, c. 162 1), 
to be specially patronized ; but James, on whom " next my 
God I built my trust," forsook him, as the Countess of 
Bedford and Sir John Davies had done. The Owl, 1604, 
Feb. 8, is filled with personal satire, which cannot be dilated 
on here. In 1605 he certainly gave up all connexion with 
the stage and betook himself entirely to poetry. He began 
by collecting his Poems (with the remarkable omissions 
already noticed) in 1605 and 1606, wrote his Robert Duke 
of Nomiandy in 1607, and then devoted himself to his 
great work, the Polyolbion, under the patronage of Prince 
Henry, 1607-12, and of Prince Charles, 1612-22. The 
patronage of Sir Walter Aston had extended from 1602 to 
1606, and that of Sir H. Goodere from 1584 or earlier to 
at least the same date. Under Charles I. his chief patrons 
were the Earl and Countess of Dorset. Among his personal 
friends should be noted the dramatists with whom he wrote 
(for whom see the list further on) : Selden, who wrote the 
annotations on Polyolhion^ 161 2 ; G. Sandys (see the Epistle 



DRAYTON. 157 

to him c. 162 1) ; Henrj Beynolds, in the Eputle to whom 
not earlier than 1616 are mentioned Warner, ''my old 
friend," who must be one of the interlocutors in the Edogues ; 
Shakespeare, Jonson, Sandys, all personally known to him ; 
Alexander and the " love twixt us ; " then " my dear Drum- 
mond ; " then " the two Beaumonts and my dear Browne, 
my dear companions." To these we must add the authors 
for whose works he wrote verses, and for his early time 
those whose names were omitted in his later editions, 
especially that of Lodge. 
Drayton died in 1 63 1. 

PLAva 

1. Sir Thomas More^ a 1596. See Anonymous, 233. 

2. The Merry Devil of JEdmarUon, c, 1596-7. See 
Anonymous, 236. 

These were for the Chamberlain's men. The following 
were for the Admiral's men at the Bose : — 

3. 1597, Dec. 22, 28; 1598, Jan. 3. Mother Bedcap 
(with Monday). 

4. 1598, Mar. 13. ''A book wherein is a part of a 
Welshman " (with Ohettle), " which they have promised 
to deliver by the xx day next following " pilar. 20]. The 
next entry is [c. Mar. 20] (not dated, but before Mar. 25) for 
The famous Wars of Henry i and the Prince of Wales, by 
Drayton, Chettle, and Dekker; evidently the same book. 
It was read at the Sun, in New Fish Street. 

5. 1598, Mar. 25, 30. I. JEarl Oodmn and his three 
sons (with Chettle, Dekker, Wilson). 

6. 1598 [April c. 4]. Piers of Exton (with the same). 

7. 1 598, May [c 3] 22. I. Black Batm^an of the North. 
Probably the same story as the ballad of Baieman's Tragedy 
(with the same). 



158 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

8. 1598, April [May] 6; June 6, 10. 2. Oodtoin (with 
the same). 

9. 1598, June 13-26 (8 entries). Richard Cctur de 
Lion's Funeral (with Chettle, Monday, Wilson). 

10. 1598, June 31 [30]; July 9, 10. Tfu Madman's 
Morris (with Dekker, Wilson). 

ii« 1598, July 17, 26, 27, 18 [28]. Hannibal and 
HermeSj otherwise called Worse feared than hurt (with the 
same). 

12. 1598, July 28; Aug. 8, 10. Piers of Winchester 
(with the same). 

13. 1598, Aug. 19, 24. Chance Medley (with Monday, 
Wilson, Dekker, or more likely Chettle. See Henslow's 
entry, and compare authors of Richard Cordelion's Funeral). 

14. 1598. Aug. 30; [Sept.] 4. 2. Worse afeard than 
hurt (with Dekker). 

15. 1598, Sept. 29. I. Civil Wars in Fran/ie {mth 
Dekker). 

16. 1 598, Oct. 16, 20. Connan [Oorin] Prin^x of Corn- 
wall (with Dekker). 

17. 1598, Nov. 3. 2. Civil Wars in France (with 
Dekker). 

18. 1598, Nov. 18 ; Dec. 30. 3. Civil Wars in France 
(with Dekker). 

19. 1 599, Jan. 20. William Longsword [not Zongbeard, 
as Henslow has it. Cf. Drayton's own receipt, Jan. 21, 
Diary, p. 95]. Lodge had written a novel on W. Longbeard. 

20. 1 599, Oct. 16. I. Sir John Oldcasde (with Monday, 
Hathway, Wilson). The only one of these Rose plays 
extant. See under Hathway. 

21. 1599} Oct. 16; Dec. 19. 2. Sir John OldcasUe. 

22. 1600, Jan. [c. 14]. Owen Tudor (with Hathway, 
Monday, Wilson). 



DRAYTON. 159 

23. 1600, June 3, 14. I. Fair Constance of Borne (with 
Dekker, Hathwaj, Monday). 

This ends the Eose plays of Drayton. He seems to have 
then gone away from the Admiral's company, for whom, 
in twenty-seven months, he had written as a coadjutor in 
twenty-one plays. I conjecture that he then wrote for the 
Chamberlain's men ; that he corrected Henry 6, and wrote 
24, Cromwellj for them. See further on. However this 
may be, he rejoined the Admiral's men at the Fortune. 

25. 1601. Oct. 10; Nov. 6, 9, 12. The Rising of 
Cardinal Wohey^ written after the The Life of Wolsey, by 
Chettle, 1 60 1, June; (with Chettle, Monday, Smitli). Note 
that Drayton wrote in neither the 2. Fair Constance of 
1600, June 19, nor in the i. Wolsey, 1601, June, these 
])lays being intimately connected with his last play at the 
fiose and his first at the Fortune. He must surely have 
been away from the company for sixteen months. He had 
previously written for them in some new play every forty 
days. 

26. 1602, May 22. Cassar's Fall (with Middleton, 
Monday, Webster, and " the rest " [Dekker] probably). This 
entry was not noticed by Malone, but I do not think its 
genuineness has been disputed. 

27. 1602, May 29. "Two harpes" (with Dekker, 
Middleton, Monday, Webster). 

After this I conjecture that Drayton again wrote for the 
Globe company, 28, The London Prodigal, but not 29, The 
Yorkshire Tragedy. These plays are discussed under W. S., 
but I may here note a few remarks on the plays falsely 
ascribed to Shakespeare in the 1664 Folio. This edition 
added seven plays, viz. : — 

4. Sir John Oldcastle [by Drayton, Monday, Hathway, 
Wilson, for the Admiral's men], published 1 600, "by William 



i6o THE ENGLISH DSAMA. 

Shakespeare," but this was withdrawn in the second 1600 
issue. 

5. The Puritan Widow [by T. Middleton, for the Paul's 
boys], published 1 607, by " W. S." 

7. LoervM [by G. Peele], published 1595, "newly set 
forth, oversSen, and corrected by W. S." 

1 . PmcUsj published 1 609, '' by William Shakespeare ** 
[and W. Bowley], for the King's men ; reprinted 1611,1619. 

3. Lord Cromwell, published 1602, "by W. S./' for the 
Chamberlain's men at the Globe ; reprinted 161 3. 

2. The London Prodigal, published 1605, "by William 
Shakespeare," for the King's men at the Globe. 

6. Tfu Yorkshire Tragedy, published 1608, " by William 
Shakespeare," for the King's men at the Globe ; reprinted 
1619. 

Evidently this collection was made up from all the plays 
that had had Shakespeare's name or initials in their title- 
pages ; but 3, 2, 6, with which only we are here concerned, 
differ from the others in the followiug respects: they 
were never disavowed by Shakespeare, they were written 
for his company, and two of them reached second editions 
without alteration of author's name. The author must, I 
think, have had authority for the use of Shakespeare's name 
or initials, have been a "shadow" or "journeyman" of 
Shakespeare, have been an author who had some reason for 
not wishing his own name to appear, and, of course, have been 
connected with Shakespeare's company. Of all the authors 
enumerated in this present work only two can be regarded 
as eligible. The first is Wentworth Smith, and the identity 
of initials would make him appear at first sight as a likely 
candidate, if the initials only were concerned; but the 
absence of any connecting-link between him and Shake- 
speare or Shakespeare's company, and the appearance of 



DRUE. i6i 

the name in full in two plays, disqualify him. The second 
is Drayton, whose career tallies in every way. He had 
written The Merry Devil for the Globe ; he had not allowed 
his name to appear on the title of that play or of Old- 
castle ; he is mixed up with the FalstafiT-Oldcastle ^* comical 
humours " and the Cromwell- Wolsey series of plays. The 
plays here concerned exactly fill up the blank periods 
of his theatrical career, and the similarity between his 
Barons' Wars, &c., and the added portions of Henry 6 and 
the alterations of Richard 3 in the Folio edition, point to 
him as the journeyman employed by Shakespeare in their 
revival. This hypothesis would solve the difficulty of 
Henry 6 having been attributed to Shakespeare. It would 
require such an edition as that prepared by me at the 
request of the Kew Shakspere Society in 1874 (but not 
printed, owing to their not having kept to their engage- 
ment to issue it) to show the similarities here spoken of. 
One instance must here suffice : — 

*' So many years as he had worn a crown : 
S<> many years as he had hope to rise : 
So many years upon }iim did I frown : 
So many years he lived without his eyes : 
So many years in dying ere he dies : 
So many years shnt up in prison stron^^, 
Though sorrows make the shortest time seem long." 

Boberl Duke of Normandy, 1596. 

Compare 3. Henry 6, ii. 5, 31-40. 

Note especially that the same publisher, Pavier, who had 
had to immediately withdraw " William Shakespeare " from 
the OldcastU title was allowed to retain it in The York- 
shire Tragedy from 1608 to 16 19. 
Drus, Thomas. (Plays.) 

3. The Bloody Banquet, "by T. D./' for T. Cotes, 
1630, 1639. 
VOL. I. L 



i62 THE ENGLISH DRAMA.^ 

2. 1629, Nov. 13, for Jasper Emery. 'The Life of the 
Duchess of Suffolk, H., 1 63 1 . 

1. The Woman* s Mistaken, See Davenport, 8. 

2. 1624, Jan. 2. The Life of the Duchess of Suffolk was 
licensed for the Palsgrave's men at the Fortune, but " much 
dangerous matter " was reformed by Herbert, who had £2 
for his pains. 

3. The Bloody Banquet, which follows Davenport's plays 
in Beeston's 1639 list, and which, therefore, must have been 
acted at the Cockpit [probably by the L. Elizabeth's men in 
the time of James L], has been assigned to B. Davenport by 
an idle guess, and to R Barker by some old catalogues. 
But there can be little doubt that '' T. D.," the author, was 
Thomas Drue. 

Drury, William. (Latin.) 

DramcUica Poemata. Douay, 1628. Antwerp, 1641. 

This Englishman was imprisoned for his religion ; released 
at the intercession of Count Gondomar ; taught poetry and 
rhetoric at the English College at Douay from Oct. 161 8 
onward ; and died abroad. He dedicated his plays to Gon- 
domar. They were performed privately in the Douay refec- 
tory, and publicly in the quadrangle. 

1. Aluredus sive Alfredus, T. C, performed three times 
1 6 1 9. Strumbo (cf. Locrine) is a comic character in it. 

2. Morsj C. 

3. Beparatus {desperahmdus) sive Depositum, T. C, prima 
pars. 

Eades, Dr. Richard, of Christchurch, Oxford, 1571- 
1 604, was, according to Meres, '' one of our best for Tragedy" 
before 1 598, but even the names of his plays are all lost. 
Edwardes, Eichard. (Plays.) 

2. 1 567-8, for R. Jones. Damon and Pythias, C. 
I. MS. Misogonus. 



ELDERTON— FERRERS. 1 63 

Edwardes was born in Somersetshire 1523; scholar of 
Corpus Christi, Oxford, nth May 1540; student of Christ- 
chdrch and M.A. 1547; Master of the Chapel children 
1559; died 1566. 

I- iSS9i I^cc. 31. Misogontcs. My reasons for attri- 
buting this play to Edwardes are given in my History of 
the Stage, pp. $8, 60. 

2. 1563-4, Christmas. Damon and Pythias. See His- 
tory of the Stage, p. 60. 

3. 1566, Sept. 3. Palcemon and Arcyie, in two parts, 
was presented to the Queen in Christ Church, Oxford. 

The only performances of the Chapel children in Eliza- 
beth's reign, before Edwardes' death, were the two mentioned 
here in 1559 and 1563-4. Warton mentions a collection 
of comic stories printed in 1570, "set forth by Master 
Richard Edwardes, master of her Majesty's Revels." No 
copy is now known. As there is no evidence that this was 
a first edition, there is no reason for inserting any Richard 
Edwardes " the Younger," as Hazlitt, more suo, does in his 
Handbook. The Epitaph on Fejnbroke therein mentioned 
was, of course, by C. Edwardes, author of The Mansion of 
Mirth, See also Godly Queen Hester. 

Elderton, William. (Plays.) 

Elderton is manifestly the fifth fool in Tarlton's Horse-- 
load of Fools, who writes " pastorals for us players to speak.** 
See Tarlton. He wrote a play performed at Court by the 
Westminster children 1 572-3. See Bevels Accounts, p. 42. 

Ferrers, George. 

Mistakenly called Edward Ferrers by Puttenham, whom 
Meres copies when he speaks of '' Master Edward Ferris, the 
author of The Mirror for Magistrates" as ** one of our best 
for Tragedy." None of his plays are known. But see 
FeiTar, Anon. 56. 



1 64 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Field, Nathaniel. See Fletcher, John. 

Fisher, Jasper. (University Play.) 

I. 1633, Aug. I, for Eobert Allott. Fuimus Troes, 
The True Trojans, 1633. 

Born in Bedfordshire. Entered as commoner Magdalen 
Hall, Oxford, 1607; B.A.,M.A.; reader of Magdalen College; 
rector of Welden, Bedfordshire, c. 1631; D.D. c. 1633. 
Oldys says he was blind. 

I. Fuimus Troes. ^neid 2. The True Trqjaiis. "Being 
a storv of the Bri tains' valour at the Eomans' First Inva- 
sion. Publicly represented by the Gentlemen Students of 
Magdalen College in Oxford." A play of the usual Uni- 
versity type, with choruses and induction by ghosts. 

Fletcher, John. (Plays.) F. 

Beaumont, Francis. (Plays and Mask.) B 

Field, Nathaniel, (Actor and Playwright) Fd. 

Massinger, Philip. (Plays.) M. 

Of the known coadjutors of Fletcher ; — Beaumont, Field 
and Massinger will be found more satisfactorily manageable 
if treated in the same group ; (the reasons will be evident 
when I treat of the plays individually ;) but Dabome and 
Kowley are better treated apart. One play of Shakespeare's 
was also altered by Fletcher, and one of Fletcher's by 
Shirley ; but there is no reason to suppose they ever wrote 
in conjunction with him. 

1 . 1 607, May 20, for E. Edgar and K. Jackson. The 
Woman hater, C, 1607 [by R R], sold by J. Hodgets, 
Anon. ; 1648, by J. Fletcher ; 1649, The Woman hater, or 
The Hungry Courtier, by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher. 

2. The Faithful Shepherdess [1609], for R Bonian and 
H. Whalley, by J. Fletcher; 1629, 1634, 1656, 1665. 

8. 161 1, Nov. 23, for J. Budge. A Woman is a 
Weathercock, 161 2, by N. Field. 



FLETCHER. 165 

7. Tlu Knight of the Bttming Pestle j 1 6 1 3, for W. Buixe, 
Anon. ; .1635, by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher. 

17. 1613, Jan. [Feb.] 27, for George Norton, T?ie 
mask of the Inner Tempk and Graffs Inn, n.4 

10. 161 5, April 24, for Josias Harrison. CvpicTs 
Bevenge, 161 5, by T. Creede for J. H., by John Fletcher; 
1630, by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher; 1635. Beaumont 
died 1 61 6, Mar. 6. 

5. 16 1 6, Mar. 19, for Miles Partriche. The ScomfuL 
Lady, C., by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher, 16 16; by F. 
Beaumont and J. Fletcher, 1625; 1630, 1635, 1639, 
1651. 

26. Amends for Ladies, C, 161 8, by G. Eld for M. 
Walbanck, by N. Field; 1639, "With the merry pranks 
of Moll Cutpurse, or the Humor of Roaring." 

13. 161 8, Aug. 7, for E. Blount. A King and no King, 
T. * 1 6 1 9, for T. Walkley, by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher ; 
1625, 1631, 1639, 1655, 1 66 1, "fourth time printed "[read 
sixth, vL for iv.]. Field leaves the stage c. 16 19, Mar. 

14. 16 19, April 28, for R Higginbotham and F. Con- 
stable. The Maid!s Tragedy, 1 6 1 9, for F. Constable, Anon ; 
1622; 1 630, by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher ; 1 63 8, 1 64 1 , 
1650, 1661. 

11. 1620, Jan. 10, for T. Walkley. Philaster [Or Love 
lies a bleeding^, 1620, by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher; 
1622, 1628, 1634, 1639, 1652, n.d. 

3 1. Thierry King of France and his brother Theodoret, T., 
162 1, for T. Walkley, Anon.; 1648, by J. Fletcher; 
1649, by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher. 

47. 1 62 1, Dec. 7, for T. Jones. The Virgin Martyr, T., 
by P. Massinger and T. Dekker, 1622, by B. A. for T. 
Jones; 163 1, 1654, 1661. 

45. 1623, Jan. 29, for £. Blackmore and J. Norton. 



1 66 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

** Sforza Duke of Milan, made by Master Messinger," 1623. 
The Dvke of Milan, T., by B. A[llot] for E Blackmore, 
1638. 

32. 1623, Nov. 8, for E. Blount and I. Jaggard. Henry 
8, in the Shakespeare Folio. 

62. 1624, Mar. 12, for Josias Harrison and £. Black- 
more. ''The Bondman, by Philip Messinger/' T., 1624. 
The Bondman, an antient Story, by E. Allde, for J. Harrison 
and E. Blackmore, 1638,^1$. Fletcher was buried 1625, 
Aug. 29. 

71. The Soman Actor, T., 1629, for B. Allot. 

74. The Picture, T. C, 1630, for T. Walkley. 

64. 1630, Mar. 22, for J. Waterson. "The Benegado, 
by Philip Messinger," T. C, 1630. 

76. 1 63 1, Nov. 19, for J. Waterson. The Emperor of 
the East, T. C, 1632. 

50. 1632, Jan. 16, for Waterson, junior. " The Maid of 
Horwr, by Philip Massinger," 1632. 

37. 1632, Mar. 30, for F. Constable. The Fatal Dowry, 
T., 1632. 

51. 1632, Nov. I o, for H. Seile. " A new way to pay old 
debts, by Philip Massinger," C, 1633. 

12. 1634, April 8, for J. Waterson. ''The Two Nolle 
Kinsmen, by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare," T. C, 
1634. 

68. 1635, Dec. 7, for J. Marriott. " The Oreat Duke of 
Florence, a comical history, by Philip Massinger," 1636. 

83. 1637, Mar. 29, for J. Waterson and J. Benson. 
" Tfie Elder Brother, written by John Fletcher," C; 1637, 
by F. K[irkman?] for J. W. and J. B., Ws; 1651, by F. 
Beaumont and J. Fletcher ; 1 661, by J. Fletcher. 

6. 1639, Jan. 22, for J. Waterson. "Monsieur Thomas, 
by Master John Fletcher," C, 1639. 



FLETCHER 167 

52. 1639, Feb. 14, for J. Waterson. The Unnatural 
Combat J by Philip Massinger, C, 1639. Massinger was 
buried Mar. 18. 

20. 1639, April 25, for A. Crooke and W. Cooke. 
{a) The Nightwalkery or The LUtie Thief, C, 1 640, by John 
Fletcher; 1661. 

21. (6) Wit ivithout Money, C, 1639, by Francis Beau- 
mont and John Fletcher ; 1 66 1 . 

With these were entered The Opportunity^ Zcwe's Cruelty^ 
and The Coronation, all by Shirley. 

30. 1639, Oct. 4, for J. Crooke and R Sergier. " The 
Bloody Brother, by J. B.," T.; 1639, by R Bishop for T. 
Allott and J. Crooke, " by B. J. F. ; " 1 640, by L. Lichfield, 
Oxford, The Tragedy of BoUo Duke of Normandy, by John 
Fletcher. 

66. JRtde a wife and have a wife, C, by J. Fletcher; 
1640, by L. Lichfield, Oxford. 

The first Folio of Beaumont and Fletcher, containing all 
the Fletcher plays (save one) not yet printed in Quarto, 
thirty-six in all, was edited by Shirley in 1647 for H. 
Moseley, with dedication to Philip Earl of Pembroke, and 
Commendatoiy poems. 

56. The WUdgoose Chase, C, completing the tale of 
Fletcher plays, was recovered by a person of Honor, and 
published by H. Moseley, 1652, for the benefit of J. Lowin 
and J. Taylor, as by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher. 

1653, Sept. 9, for H. Moseley. (84) The Bashful Lover ^ 
T. C; (81) The Guardian, C. H.; (82) The Very Woman, 
or The Woman*s Plot, T. C. These were published in one 
volume as Massinger's, 1655. Moseley also entered as Mas- 
singer's (48) Philemo and ffippolito, C. ; (73) The Spanish 
Viceroy, or The Honor of Women, C. ; (75) Minerva's Sacri^ 
fice, or T/u Forced Lady, T. ; (77) Believe as you list, C. 



i68 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

(extant in MS.); (83) T?u Noble Choice, or The Orator, 
T. C. : all these five and ITie Woman's Plot were among 
the MSS. destroyed hj Warburton's servant. Also (78) 
The Italian Nigktpiece^ or The unfortunate Piety, T. ; (53) 
The Wandering Lovers, or The Painter, C. ; (87) The Pri- 
soner, or T/ie Fair Anchoress [of PavMlippo'] : these three do 
not appear in the Warburton list Also as by Fletcher 
and Shakespeare (15) The History of Cardenio. 

79.' The City Madam, C, 1658, 1659. 

1660, Nov. 29, for H. Moseley as Massinger's. (49) 
Antonio and Vallea, C. ; (jy) Believe as you list, of. 1653 ; 
(85) The Tyrant, T,; (76) Taste and Welcome, C: all 
four in Warburton's list Also as W. Eowley's (6y), The 
Parliament of Love, C. (also ascribed to him in Warburton's 
list, but extaut in MS., and certainly Massinger's). Also 
as by Beaumont and Fletcher, (82 ?) A right Woman, cf. 

1653. 

(72) The Judge, C, and (86) Alexias, or ITie Chaste 

Gallant, T., are in Warburton's list as Massinger's, but do 

not appear in Moseley 's entries. 

The second Fletcher Folio was issued 1679; it added 
to the 1647 edition the plays that had been printed in 
Quarto, Dram, Pers., and actor-lists to many plays. 

John Fletcher, the eldest of this group of authors, son of 
Bichard Fletcher, then minister of Rye, in Sussex, was bap- 
tized at Rye 1579, Dec. 20. He was entered as pensioner 
of Bene't College, Cambridge, 1 59 1, Oct. 1 5, as " of London," 
when his father, then High Almoner and Bishop of Bristol, 
had also a London residence; and was a Bible clerk in 
1593. His father, by will 1593, Oct 29, left his books 
to be equally divided between him and his elder brother 
Theophilus. Richard Fletcher, then Bishop of Worcester, 
died 1596, June 15, in debt to the Exchequer. No doubt 



FLETCHER 169 

John Fletcher's University career was then interrupted, 
but nothing more is known of him till he became a play- 
maker, c. 1608. 

Francis Beaumont, third son of Judge Beaumont of Grace 
Dieu, in Leicestershire, was admitted gentleman commoner of 
Broadgates Hall, Oxford, 1597, Feb. 4, at the age of 12; 
he was therefore bom between 1584 Feb. and 1585 Feb. 
He was "13 years or more" when his father died, 1598, 
April 22. He then left Oxford, and became a member of 
the Inner Temple 1600, Nov. 3. There is no direct ground 
beyond the S. R. entry, 1639, Sept. 2, by Laurence Blaick- 
lock for assigning Salmads and Hermaphrodite to *' Francis 
Beaumont;" it was published in 1602 by J. Hodgetts, 
without any author's name, with verses commendatory by 
W. B[ark8ted ?], J. B[eaumont], and A. F. ; but the pub- 
lisher also published Beaumont's first play, the only one 
written for the Paul's boys 1 607, and the verses by J. R 
look as if Beaumont was the author ; and if, as Draruaticus 
(Sh. Soc. papers, iii.) says, Blaicklock printed from the 1602 
edition and not from a MS., how came he to enter Jbe 
book in S. R at all ? On the other hand, he certainly did 
include in it as Beaumont's many poems by at least eight 
other authors, and the S. R. entry may have been neces- 
sitated by the addition of these, though it does not mention 
them; and though Hodgetts published The Woman Hater, 
it was entered for Edgar and Jackson. On the whole, we 
are driven to rely on internal evidence, and this, I think, is 
against Beaumont's authorship. 

In 1607 both Beaumont and Fletcher prefixed verses 
to Jonson's Volpone, and before this their meetings at the 
Mermaid must have taken place, probably in the same year. 
" What things have we seen done at the Mermaid," says 
Master Francis Beaumont in his *' Letter to Ben Jonson, written 



170 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

before he and Master Fletcher came to London with two of the 
precedent comedies [1647 folio], then not finished, which 
deferred their merry meetings at the Mermaid." This letter 
was written soon after the outburst of ** Sutcliffe's wit " in 
1606. Sutcliffe published three tracts in that year. The 
unfinished plays may have been Fcwr plays in One and 
Loves Cure. Jonson had left the King's men on account 
of the offence given by Volpone, and was now connected 
with the Revels boys at Blackfriars, to whom he no doubt 
introduced Beaumont and Fletcher in 1608. Marston had 
left writing after the Eastward Ho troubles in 1605, and 
Chapman was hiding on account of Byron. They con- 
tinued to write for these boys till 1609 (S^ which year 
Beaumont wrote his Elegy on Lady Markham), and for 
Rossiter's new company in 1610; but in the autumn of 
1 6 10 Shakespeare left writing for the King's men, and 
Jonson, Beaumont, and Fletcher succeeded him c. Sept 
They remained with the King's men till 161 3, Feb., when 
Beaumont wrote his mask for the Lady Elizabeth's marriage, 
and retired from writing for the stage on account, I think, 
of his own marriage to Ursula, daughter of Henry Isley of 
Sundridge, Kent. During this time he wrote verses pre- 
fixed to Jonson's Epicome (S. R. 1610, Sept. 20), and to 
his Catiline 161 1, to which Fletcher also prefixed some 
verses; his Elegy on the Countess of Rutland^ who died 

161 2, Aug., and whom, while alive, he had addressed in 
verse; and his Elegy on Lady Penelope Clifton, who died 

161 3, Oct. 26. He died 161 6, Mar. 6, and was buried in 
Westminster Abbey Mar. 9, leaving two daughters, Eliza- 
beth and Frances (a posthumous child). Jonson, and after 
him H. Moseley, say that he was not 30 when he died ; but 
he must have been 31. 

Philip, son of Arthur Massinger, who was a gentleman 



FLETCHER. 171 

in the service of Henry Earl of Pembroke, was born 1584 
at Salisbury, and was probably brought up as a page to the 
Countess. He was entered at St. Alban's Hall, Oxford, 
1602, May 14, at the expense of the new Earl William; 
(Henry Herbert died 1601, Jan. 19). In 1606 he left 
Oxford, perhaps at the death of his father, but more likely 
from having become a Soman Catholic, for he took no 
degree, although he had ample time for doing so. 

Nathaniel Field, son of John Field, preacher (the virulent 
reviler of stage plays), was baptized at Sc. Giles without 
Cripplegate 1587, Oct. 17. He was the youngest of a 
family of seven, one of whom was Theophilus Field, after- 
wards Bishop of Llandaff. The father, John Field, was 
buried in the same church 1588, Mar. 26. Nathaniel, 
son of John Field, clerk, deceased, was bound to Ralph 
Jackson, stationer, 1597, Feb. 7, for eight years from 
Michaelmas 1596 (S. R., ii. 215). He was educated under 
Mulcaster at Merchant Taylors' School, but before 1600 
was " taken " by N. Giles to act as one of the Chapel 
children (see my History of the Stage^ p. 128). He was 
their chief actor at Blackfriars in Jonson's Cynthid*8 Bevels, 
1 600 ; The Poetaster, 1 60 1 ; and also for the [second] 
Queen's Revels boys (a continuation of the same company) 
in his HpicosTie, 1609-10. He must have acted in such 
Beaumont and Fletcher plays as the first Queen's Revels 
boys produced 1608-9. In 1609 he prefixed verses to 
one of these, The Faithful Shepherdess. He published his 
own play, A Woman is a Weaihercock^ 161 1, Nov. 23, with 
verses by Chapman, which tell us that — 

'* To many forms as well as many ways 
Thy active muse turns like thy acted woman ; " 

and addressing the reader, he says, '* Thou knowest where 



172 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

to hear of me for a year or two and no more, I assure 
thee." This is explained by his admission to the freedom 
of the Stationers' Company 1611, June 3 (S. B., iii. 683). 
He meant to turn publisher. He did not do that yet ; uor 
did he follow Fletcher to the King's men in 161 1, but 
remained in Bossiter's company till their junction with 
Henslow's, 161 3, Mar. 

Fletcher, Massinger, Field, and Dabome (q.v.) were writing 
for the Lady Elizabeth's men under Henslow 16 13 {Varuh 
rum, iii. 337, xxi. 404), when Field, a Aug., wrote to 
" Father Hinchlow " for a loan of ;£^io, "being taken on au 
execution of £30" Dabome and Massinger also required 
to be bailed, and Field could not *' play any more till this 
be despatched." The three asked for a joint loan of ;^5 
on a play "of Mr. Fletcher and ours,"* and got it I 
suppose Field got his ;^io also, as they could not well 
play without him. He acted in Jonson's Bartholomtw Fair 
1 614, Oct. 31, for the Lady Elizabeth's men, into which 
the Duke of York's had been absorbed ; but in Amends for 
Ladies their title appears in full as " The Prince's servants 
and the Lady Elizabeth's." This was acted at Bossiter's 
new theatre at Blackfriars 161 5 (see my History of the 
Stage, p. 263); on 1616, Jan. 9, Henslow died; and as 
Field was not one of the players who came to an agree- 
ment with AUeyn on Mar. 20 (Collier's Alleyn, p. 129), 
he doubtless left the company for the King's c. Feb., 
accompanied by Jonson, Fletcher, and Massinger as play- 
writers. In 1 616 (Domestic Papers, No. 334) Field wrote 
his letter of remonstrance to M. Sutton, preacher at St. 
Mary Overy, Field's parish. He acted in The Queen of 

^ Maninger and Dabome still owed £^ to Henslow 16x5, July 4, and 
gave a bond to him for that amount (OolUer*e AUeyn, p. I3l). Compare 
Daborne. This document was not known to Malone. 



FLETCHER. 173 

Corinth, The Loyal Subject^ The Knight of Malta, and The 
Mad Lover, for the King's men, 1616--19, and wrote for 
them also in conjunction with Fletcher and Massinger. 
His stage career closes simultaneously with Burbadge's, 
their names last appearing in the patent, dated 16 19, 
Mar. 27, but drawn up earlier, for Burbadge died Mar. 
16. I infer that Field was disappointed at Taylor's being 
imported as Burbadge's successor, and retired disgusted. 
He had recently married ; his first child was baptized 
at St. Anne and St. Andrew's, Blackfriars, 16 19, 
Sept. 9. 

In S. E., 1624, Dec. 31 ; 1625, April 5 ; 1626, Sept. 
18; 1627, ^®C' ^9> entries to N". Field of his brother 
Theophilus' writings occur; and 1627, Nov. 9, Hippolito and 
Imbella was entered for N. Field, published (with verses by 
Cliapman) by N. Field and T. Harper 1628. Chapman's 
Justification of Nero was published by Harper alone in 
1629. I think Field had then disposed of the business to 
him. Field died 1633, Feb. 20. He had been Jonson's 
** scholar, and he had read to him [which is he and which 
him?] the Satires of Horace and several Epigrams of 
Martial" (Conversations with Drummond). 

During 161 9 and part of 1620 Fletcher and Massinger 
went on writing for the King's men; but in 1620— i Mas- 
singer was altering old Dekker plays for the Bevels men at 
the Bull, and Fletcher writing without a partner. Middleton 
and Rowley then went to the King's men, and Massinger 
also returned to them in 1622, but in 1623 left them for 
the Lady Elizabeth's men, with whom he remained till 
after Fletcher died of the plague, 1625, Aug., and was 
buried at St. Saviour's, South wark, Aug. 29. Massinger 
returned immediately to the King's company, and continued 
to write for them till his death. He was buried in the 



174 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

same grave with Fletcher 1639, Mar. 18. He had resided 
on the bankside. 

As a supplement to Massinger's later career I give the 
names of his patrons, derived from his dedications, in chro- 
nological order: — 

1623, J^"- 20. Lady Catharine, wife of Philip L. Stan- 
hope, Baron of Shelford. The DvJce of Milan, He men- 
tions his misfortunes. 

1624, Mar. 12. Philip Herbert, Earl of Montgomery. 
The Bondman. Arthur Massiuger had served the Herberts. 
Montgomery and the public had praised this play. 

1629. Sir Philip Knyvet, Bart.; Sir Thomas Jeay, 
Knight; and Thomas Bellingham, of Newtimber, Sussex. 
The Roman Actor. " My only supporters " in this play ; 
" the most perfect birth of my Minerva." 

1630. The Society of the Inner Temple. The Picture. 

1630, Mar. 22. George Harding, Baron Berkeley. The 
Sene^ado, 

1 63 1, Nov. 19. John Lord Mohun, Baron of Okehamp- 
ton. TJu Emperor of the Ea>st Uncle of Aston Cockaine. 

1632, Jan. 6. Sir Francis Foljambe, Bart., and Sir 
Thomas Bland. Tlie Maid of Honor. " I had not to this 
time subsisted " but for your " courtesies and favors." 

1632, Nov. 10. Robert Earl of Carnarvon. A new way 
to pay old debts. 

163s, Dea 7. Sir Robert Wiseman, of Thorreirs Hall, 
Essex. The Great Dvke of Florence. " For many years I 
had but faintly subsisted if I had not often tasted of your 
bounty." 

1639, Feb. 14. Antony Sentleger, of Oakham, Kent. 
The Unnatural Combat. Had held converse with Sir 
Warham S., Antony's father. 

Massinger wrote verses for Shirley's Grateful Servant 



FLETCHER 175 

1630; "to his son J[ames] S[miih]" on his Minerva, and 
to Poljambe, with The Maid of Ranor, 1632 ; and to Philip 
Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, on the death of his son Charles, 

1635. 

Before considering the plajs some important notes re- 
quire attention. 

1. Beaumont's name appears on the title-page of no play 
published in his life-time. 

2. When the 1679 Fletcher Folio was published all the 
previously issued Quartos were included ; and to those pre- 
viously published in 1 647 lists of chief actors, where pos- 
sible, were added. These lists necessarily include nearly 
every play acted by the King's men, and one or two others. 
The names had been probably supplied by Fletcher himself. 

3. The use of Prologues and Epilogues must be carefully 
noted. The fashion of using them fluctuated a good deal, 
and in late Quartos they are often wrongly ascribed. 

4. The limits of date of Herbert's office-books are im- 
portant. We have complete extracts from 1623 May to 
1625 Feb. made by Chalmers; and extracts, apparently 
complete, by Malone(from 1622 May onwards) for Fletcher, 
Beaumont, and Massinger. 

5. The character of Court performances is important. 
Some were of new plays, some of revivals. 

6. The division into scenes may prove valuable as a means 
of investigating dates ; but having in many instances only 
modern reprints to work from, I have not been able to use 
it for every author. I have in the present instance noted 
the plays so divided. 

7. In this more than in any other instance is the use of 
metrical tests necessary to separate the authors' parts in 
the various plays. As I have long ago published data 
sufficient for the purpose in the N. S. S. Transactions for 



176 THE ENGLISH DRAMA- 

1874 [these papers are miney although in the later lists of 
their publications my name as author has been, without my 
consent, omitted], I shall not give the particulars here. It 
will suflBce to say that every play that I have read by any 
author has been metrically analysed by me, and the results 
used where needful. Some persons have used these tests 
to determine authorship, which procedure I regard as a 
species of monomania. The use of such tests is only 
effective in primarily determining the fact that there is a 
twofold authorship, and, secondarily, determining (when the 
authors have, on other evidence, been ascertained) what 
shares in the work are to be assigned to each author. The 
immense mass of detail accumulated by me on this matter 
is certainly not desirable for publication here, nor will it 
probably ever be published ; but it will possibly be useful 
for reference, and I may say that in the margin of every 
play in my own library it is thus marked : all lines with 
female or Fletcher ending are indicated by a point (.) ; all 
rhymes by a brdce ( ; all weak endings by a tick ^J ; all 
alexandrines by a 12; all short lines by 2, 4, 6, 8, &c., 
indicating the number of syllables ; and all extra mid-line 
syllables by a plus + ; Rowley or French lines (neglecting 
accent) I have also marked with a tick ^J , I trust that 
after my death these books may be kept together for 
referential use by specialists in this matter. This digression 
is beyond my proper subject, and I apologise for it ; but it 
is not a long one. Metrical tests other than these I have 
not found useful. 

I. Tlie Woman Hater ^ C, S. R. 1607, May 20 (or The 
Hungry Courtier^ 1 649), was " lately acted by the children 
of Pauls," probably their last play. The date of production 
was probably Easter 1607 (Easter Sunday fell on April 5), 
for ''a favorite on the sudden" seems to be a palpable 



FLETCHER. 177 

allusion to the favour shown to Bobert Carr, afterwards Earl 
of Somerset ; and this began at a tilt in which Sir T. Ding- 
wall and James Lord Hay took part. This was the tilt of 
1607, Mar. 24 {Nichols, iiL 1076); it is wrongly dated in 
all the histories I have by me. ''Another inundation/' 
iii. I, alludes, I think, to the " second deluge " of 1607, Jau. 
20. The source of the plot is Jovius, De Eomanis Pimbtis^ 
cap. y. Ko author's name was given in 1607; l)ut the 
Prologue gives it a single author, '' Jie that made it" This 
author was Beaumont, as the metrical evidence proves ; 
Fletcher would have put his name on the title. In 1 648 
Ills name was wrongly put forth as the author ; but in 1 649 
Beaumont also appears in conjunction with it still more 
absurdly, for in a Prologue by Davenant " at a revival of 
the play " of unknown date but by the King's men, a single 
author, who had chief share in the three Blackfriars trage- 
dieSi PhilasteTj The MauTs Tragedy, and A King and no King, 
is expressly mentioned. This, of course, was Beaumont, 
though what Davenant means by ''full twenty years he 
wore the bays " I cannot tell. Fletcher wrote for the stage 
eighteen years at most, and Beaumont seven. Should we 
read vii. for xz. ? or did he mistake Beaumont's work for 
Fletcher's ? The Epilogue in the 1 649 edition was written 
for an altered play ; therefore not for this one, which was 
not refashioned. It appears again with TJie Noble Oentle- 
man (s.v.). This shows that no dependence can be placed 
on statements in these late Quartos after Massinger's death, 
1639, c. Mar. 1 8. Compare Wit wUhout Money, The Bloody 
Brother y The WUdgoose ChasCj Tlie Faithful Friends, &c. 

2. The FaithfiU Shepherdess^ P. T. C, was published by 
Bonian and Whalley, undated, but with a dedication to Sir 
W. Skip with, who died 1610, May 3. I find these pub- 
lishers' names conjoined in S. B. from 1608, Dec. 22, to 

VOL. I. M 



178 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1609, Sept. I, and have therefore no doubt that The F. S. 
\ras published in 1609. Moreover, Field in his com- 
mendatorj verses speaks of his muse as in swathing-clouts, 
and his first play, as we shall see, was acted in 1609 ; and 
in Fletcher's dedication to Sir W. Aston (there is yet another 
dedication to Sir E. Townsend) he mentions " the infection," 
which of late has silenced plays. The plague closed the 
theatres from 1608,. July 28, to 1609, Nov. 30, except for 
a few days in 1608, Dec. This play was therefore acted 
before 1608, July, and so Jonson in his CanverscUionSy xii., 
1 6 1 8 c. Dec, " Fletcher and Beaumont ten years since 
hath written The Faithful Sheperdess^ a tragi-comedy. 
Well done." And yet it was published as "by John 
Fletcher," and with verses to him by Field, Beaurrumt, Chap- 
man, and Jonson. There is not a trace of external evidence 
that Beaumont had a hand in the writing beyond Jonson's 
statement, and yet, again, the internal evidence of metre so 
strongly confirms it that I have no doubt on the matter. 
Beaumont's dislike to have his name published as a play- 
wright is quite enough to explain its absence in the title 
and presence in these verses. That he had such a dislike is 
clear from the fact that up to his death his name never 
appeared in print as a play-author, but immediately after 
his burial it occurs abundantly. Hie Woman Hater was 
evidently published by the company, not by himself. Let 
us listen to his own words in his lines to Fletcher : — 

" These public things and I agree 
So ill that, but to do a right to thee, 
I had not been persuaded to have hurled 
These few ill-spoken lines into the world." 

Note that all these writers of commendatory verses were 
connected with and writing for the Queen's Bevels children 
in 1608-9, and there will be small doubt that this play 



FLETCHER 179 

also was written for them and that Field acted in it. It 
passed, like The Woman Hater^ or rather like Ths Scornful 
Lady, into the hands of the King's men, who acted it 1634, 
Jan. 6y before the King and Queen at Denmark House, 
with scenes by Inigo Jones, in the clothes the Queen had 
given Taylor the year before of her own Pastoral, Davenaut 
wrote the Dialogue between a Priest and a Nymph used for 
a Prologue, and Lady Mary Mordaunt spoke the Epilogue. 
It was afterwards acted [Query with the scenes ?] at Black- 
friars. . The Scourge of Folly, Epigram 206, by J. Davies 
of Hereford, S. R 16 10, Oct. 8, mentions this play, which 
is a rival rather than an imitation of Tasso's Aminta and 
6uarini*s Pastor Fido, The 1634 edition has verses by S. 
Marmion. The charge of 6d. at private theatres is alluded 
to in Jonson's verses 1609. It was badly received then, 
but not so in 1634. 

3. Four plays (or moral representations) in one was, in 
my opinion, also acted in 1608, and by the same company. 
The Yorkshire Tragedy , acted 1605, was published S. B. 
1608, May 2, as "one of The Four plays in one," as if to 
delude the nnwary purchaser into the belief that he was 
buying one of the plays then being performed. The Induc- 
tion, with its satire on Citizens, is very like other plays acted 
by these boys. Compare, for instance. The Knight of the 
Burning Pestle. The shares of Beaumont and Fletcher 
herein are singularly independent, and the marked differ- 
ence of their metrical forms afforded me the starting-point 
for the separation of their work in all these plays in 1874, 
which was till then regarded universally as an insoluble 
problem. The Irtduction, The Triumph of Honor, or Diana 
(founded on Boccaccio's Decameron, x. 5), and The Triumph 
of Love, or Cupid (founded also on the Decameron, v. 7), are 
by Beaumont. The Triumph of Death (founded on Ban- 



i8o THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

dello's first novd (cf. Palace of Pleasure^ Nov. 40, and 
The Fortunate Deceived and Unhappy Lovers^ iii. 3), The 
Triumph of Time (founded on Lucian's Tivion^ or Misan- 
throposy in my judgment, although Dyee follows Langbaine 
in ascribing it to the author's own invention), and The 
Epilogue are by Fletcher. The Triumph of Time, acted 
by the Admiral's men at the Bose 1597, April 13, may 
have been the immediate origin of Fletcher's sub-play, for 
Hey wood translated this dialogue of Lucian's in a pre- 
sentable shape. 

4. Lowfe Cure, or The Martial Maid, C. The Prologue 
at a revival aft^r 1625 expressly assigns the original author- 
ship to Beaumont and Fletcher; the Epilogue mentions 
*' our author," i^., the reformer of the play for the revival. 
The original date of production can be determined by in- 
ternal evidence. In i. 3, Alvarez has had twenty years of 
sorrow; in i. 2, Lucio, bom just after Alvarez' departure, 
is 20; in i. ly Alvarez is 16 years before he takes Clara 
to the siege of Ostend, 1601 June- 1604 Aug. This 
makes the date of action, which is, no doubt, as usual in 
plays where such chronological calculations are introduced, 
the date of writing the play, 1 606-8. The Fletcher part 
is so worked over by Massinger, who was certainly the 
maker of the reformation, as to be inseparable, unless in 
detailed notes; but Beaumont's hand is manifest in i 3, 
iii- 5 1 V. 3 ; and iii. 2a is clearly by Fletcher. It was, in 
my opinion, acted originally by the Bevels boys in 1607-8, 
and passed in natural course to Queen Henrietta's men, for 
whom Massinger must have revised it after 1625, Nov. 17, 
when the plague fell below 40, and before 1626, Jan 22, 
when he had rejoined the King's men. The allusion, ii. 2, 
to "the cold Muscovite who lay here lieger in the last 
great frost," of course, is Massinger's ; but the allusions to 



FLETCHER. i8x 

Ostend in i. i ; the miraculoos maiden of Confolens, 1604, 
in ii. I ; the use of the name Lazarillo, as in The Woman 
Bater, 1 607 ; Don Blirt the constable, " the politic Diego," 
1602, in iil I ; and The ffonest Whore, 1604, in v. 3, all 
belong to the early form of the play, and were not dis- 
turbed by Massinger. I believe that this and The four 
plays in one were the plays that kept Beaumont and 
Fletcher in the country, as already noted in Beaumont's 
letter to Jonson. Had this play been written for the 
King's men it would have had an actor-list The scenes 
are marked ; probably by Massinger when he reformed the 
play. 

5. The Scorvfui Lady, C, was published 16 16, Mar. 19, 
as by Beaumont and Fletcher, and acted by the Queen's 
Bevels children at Blackfriars, therefore not later than 
1609. '^^^ title-page, immediately after Beaumont's death, 
and the earliest on which his name appears, is authorita- 
tive. Nor was the date earlier than 1 609, for the Cleve 
wars are mentioned v. 3. This play passed to the King's 
men before 1625, and was acted by them 1633, Oct 18, 
Shank taking the part of the Curate : Historia ffistrionica. 
In i. 2, 'Hhis Apocrypha: bind it by itself* may allude to 
the Douay or the Authorised Versions, both of which were 
in progress and under discussion in 1609, and completed 
in 16 10. I take the greater part of the play to be 
Fletcher's, but L i, v. 2, to be certainly Beaumont'& It 
is printed in a most corrupt form as regards metre, much 
verse being reduced to prose, and the rest incorrectly 
divided into lines in many places. There is a droll from 
it, The False Heir and Formal Curate, in The Wits, or 
Sport upon Sport, 1672. 

6. Montieur Thomas was acted at Blackfriars, but not 
by the King's men. It was published 1639, with dedica- 



i82 THE EXGUSH DRAMA. 

tion to Charles Cotton, by R Brome, tben writing for the 
Queen's men (Henrietta's) at Salisbury Court; it is also 
contained in their 1639 list as The Father* s own Son, and a 
droll from it, under that later title, is printed in The Wits, 
1672. Halliwell had the impudence or ignorance to re- 
print this in i860 as a portion of "a lost play/' and this 
trash must have been eagerly sought for by Shakespearian 
students, for I find a copy priced by Jarvis & Son at 15 s. 
The play must have come down to the Queen's men from 
the Eevels children, and the date of production been c. 
1609. The title-page evidently is authoritative, and sup- 
plied by E. Brome. It names " the author, John Fletcher." 
The plot founded on Boccaccio's Decamei'on (last day), Tito 
and Gisippo. The Paul's boys acted a play (Anon. 4) of 
the same plot 1577, Feb. 17. When the play was first 
acted, " when Ignorance was judge," it was badly received. 
For the second title cf. iii. 2, " Who is he like ? Yourself ; " 
iv. 2, "Dat's mine own boy;'* v. 10, "nown son again;" 
and for the ballads and songs, iii. 2, 3, iv. 2, 5, compare 
The Knight of the Burning Pestle. 

7. The Knight of the Burning Pestky C, was published 
161 3, with no author^s name, but with a Dedication by 
Burre, the publisher, to R Keysar, stating that he had had 
it these two years, and Keysar had it before him " while it 
was yet an infant ; " also that it was above a year the elder of 
Don Quixote^ i.e., of Shel ton's translation, entered S. R 161 1, 
Jan. 1 9, but dated on the printed copies 1 6 1 2. In iv. i , 
** Read the play of The Four Prentices of London^' {q.v. 
under Hey wood) shows that that play had been published ; 
but that was in 16 10, when the practice of arms in the 
Artillery Garden was revived. All this fixes the date 
of the play in 1610. It was, therefore, acted at White- 
friars. In The Induction, "this seven years ther6 hath 



FLETCHER. 183 

been plays at this house ; I have observed it ; you have still 
girds at citizens/' points to the previous occupants of that 
theatre, namely, the King's Kevels boys, 1607-9, as Mr. 
Greenstreet's discovery, made since my History of tlu Stagt 
was published, proves ; and to their predecessors, who must 
have been the Paul's boys, who must, therefore, have acted 
there 1604-7, and not in their own singing-room, as usually 
supposed. The Queen's players had acted the play by 1635, 
and they had derived it in due course from the Queen's 
Kevels boys (Sossiter's). It is one of the 1639 Cockpit 
list In i 2 the Wife asks Humfrey, " Were you never 
none of M. Moncaster's scholars ? " i.«., a Paul's boy before 
1602. Dyce strangely refers this to Moncaster's earlier 
Merchant Taylors mastership, 1569— 1586, which is out of 
all possible date. In iv. i, the christening of the Sophy's 
child refers to Hie travels of the three English Brothers : so 
Dyce ; but he did not see that the reference to tliis play 
produced at the Curtain, but here said to be acted at the 
Red Bull, implies a date not earlier than 1609. The 
" statute " in i I dates 1 609, Jan. 7. The child " so fair 
grown, &c,*' iii. 2, is also referred to in Jonson's Alchemist^ 
*' six years old," v. i, 1610. The hermaphrodite, iii. 2, was 
no doubt ''the monstrous child" born 1609, July 31, at 
Sandwich (see S. R. 1609, Aug. 26, 31), which was pro- 
bably shown in London 1609—10. In the 1635 edition 
the play is rightly assigned to Beaumont and Fletcher. It 
occurs in the 1639 list, and a droll from it called The 
Encounter i( wrongly referred to The Huvnorous Lieutenant) 
is in The Wits^ 1672. It was performed at Court (St. 
James') by Queen Henrietta's men 1636, Feb. 22, but was 
on the Cockpit stage in 1635, being mentioned as publicly 
acted in Brome*s Sjparagus Garden^ ii. 2. The latest definite 
mark of original performance that I can find is in the songs 



i84 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

taken from Ravenscroft's DetUeromdia, S. B. 1609, Oct. 12, 
" Nose, nose" i. 4 ; John Dort/, ii. 4. There are many other 
songs from Dowland, Bavenscroft's Pammdia, 1609, &c., 
jnst as in Monsieur Thomas. These parts I would assign to 
Fletcher, as well as i. i, 2 ; ii. i, 2 (part), 4, 5 (part), 7 ; 
iii. I ; iv. 3, 4 ; v. I ; that is, all the scenes with Humphrey 
and Merrythought's songs, while Beaumont wrote the parts 
with Balph and Mrs. Merry-thought ; but in many scenes 
both hands are discernible, and an exact analysis could only 
be made in an annotated edition. Among the indications 
of close approximation to M. Thomas is the reference to the 
Spaniards at Bow, ii. 2 (cf. M, Thomas, iii. 3), and this is 
surely by Fletcher. The second title, The London Merchant, 
in the Induction makes it likely that the play entered as 
Ford's S. B. 1660, June 29 {q.v.\ was only a revisal of the 
present one. The received opinion that this play was 
directed merely against the chivalry romances is far too 
narrow ; it is satirical throughout, especially of Monday's 
translation of Palm^rin cFOliva, L 3, and The Mirror of 
Knighthood, i 3, iii. 2, but also of contemporary plays ; e,g., 
of Prince Henry's men at the Fortune (Whittirhgton, S. B. 
1 604, Feb. 8, and Peele's Edward i ; in the Induction), of 
Derby's men (Heywood's If you know not me, and bis Jans 
Shore, or Edward 4 ; also of The Bold Beauchamps ; in the 
Induction), and of the King's men (Shakespeare's I Henry 4, 
[Lodge's] MucedoruSj and Kyd's Jeronymo; iu the Induction) ; 
in fact, of all the companies acting at the public theatres, for 
Hey wood had probably revived bis Derby's plays at the Bull 
for Queen Anne's men, and one of these. The Four PrenticeSy 
is not only satirised in the Induction, but mentioned by name 
in iv. I. The Prince of Moldavia of Jonson's Epicene, v. i 
(cf. " King of Moldavia," iv. 2), on whom Weber wrote such 
nonsense, and of whom Dyce says " nothing is known," was 



FLETCHER. 185 

Trith the Turkish Ambassador at the English Court 1607, 
Nov. (see Nichols, ii. 157)^ The Prologue, published in 
1 63 5 1 belongs to Lyly's Sappho. 

8. A Woman is a Weathercock, C, by N. Field, was acted 
before the King at Whitehall before 161 1, Nov. 23, when 
it was entered S. B., therefore almost certainly during Christ- 
mastide 1610-1 1, and publicly (of course before this) by the 
Queen's Bevels children (Bossiter's) at Whitefriars. It dates, 
therefore, 1610. There are allusions to Kyd's Bieronimo 
in i. I and i 2. There are three allusions to the Cleve 
wars in i. 2 — they began in 1 609 ; to lusty " Lawrence of 
Lancashire " in v. 2 (compare The late Lancashire Witches) ; 
to the 1609 plague in ii. i. The commendatory verses by 
Jonson have been already mentioned. Jonson was, of course, 
pleased at Field's following Lis example in keeping the unity 
of time ; see the final lines of the play. In his " address 
to any woman that hath been no weathercock " Field pro- 
mises his Amends for Ladies as his next play. 

9. The Coxcomb was acted before Prince Henry, Lady 
Elizabeth, and the Palatine 1612, Oct. [16-24] (see my 
History of the Stage, p. 175), and in 161 3 [Jan.] before the 
King (according to Oldys) by the Queen's Bevels children 
under Bossiter. But the actors-list prefixed to the play 
must date before 161 1, Aug. 29, for Cary and Barkstead, 
who appear in it, and who had always till then been 
Bevels boys, at that date joined the L. Elizabeth's men 
under Foster. In 1 6 1 1 we shall find Beaumont and 
Fletcher fully occupied for the King's men ; the play must 
therefore be assigned to 16 10, after Mar. 30, at which 
date Taylor belonged to the Duke of York's. Field and he 
were the chief actors in this play. The copy we have is 
that of a revival in 1636, when it was acted at Hampton 
Court Nov. 17. It had been "condemned for its length," 



i86 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

but " that fault's reformed," says the Prologue, evidently by 
Massinger, and written for a Court performance (" your noble 
censures " and " before such judges " indicate this), but that 
it was on the public stage in 162 1 I have no doubt (see 
Tfie Spanish Gipsy, iL i, iv. 2, and specially ii. 2, " Wilt 
thou ever play the coxcomb ? "). Massinger was then writing 
for the Lady Elizabeth's men, and then, I think, the altera- 
tion was made. Had it been in 1636 the play would have 
been mentioned in Herbert's register. Mr. Oliphant has 
suggested to me that this was the Taste and Welcome of 
S. B. 1 660, June 1 7, and destroyed by Warburton's servant 
(cf. the " dish cooked with care " in the Prologue). There is 
no Taste and Welcome in Herbert, but see The Emperor of 
the East further on. A relic of the original play exists in 
" The Scene England, France " of the 1679 Folio. As the 
play now stands, the scene is, if in any definite country, in 
Spain. Two original authors are implied in the Prologue — 
of course Beaumont and Fletcher. Beaumont's part is i 3, 
ii. 4. Massinger's alterations are most extensive in L i, 2a ; 
iiL la, 2 ; iv. 4 ; v. I, 3, which are nearly rewritten. The 
lower strata of Fletcher's work crop out all through, but the 
main part now extant is Massinger's. 

10. Cupid's jRevenge, published 161 5, April 24 (before 
Beaumont's death), as by J. Fletcher, but in 1630 as by 
Beaumont and Fletcher (rightly), was acted by the children 
of the Queen's Bevels (Bossiter's) 161 2, Jan. 5, before 
Prince Henry and the Princess Elizabeth; on 16 13, Jan. i, 
before the King; and 1624, Dec. 28, by the Queen of 
Bohemia's men at Whitehall, before Prince Charles and the 
Duke of Brunswick. It occurs in the 1639 Cockpit list, 
and was, for reasons similar to those for the immediately 
preceding plays, originally produced at Whitefriars in 1 6 1 o. 
It is founded on Sidney's Arcadia. There is a droll founded 



FLETCHER. 187 

on it, The Loyal Citizens, in The Wits, 1672 (wrongly said 
to be from Philaster). This play has palpably been altered ; 
of course for the Court performances 161 2-1 3, while 
Beaumont and Fletcher were with the King's men. Mr. 
Oliphant thinks by Massinger, I suppose by Field, possibly 
by Dabome. I cannot trace Massinger quite so early, nor 
is the alteration made in his careful way ; the metre is 
broken and irregular. However this may be, the play is so 
instructive as to the manner in which those recastings were 
performed that I shall give an analysis of one important 
evidence in detail. The original plot had a king, queen, 
and prince, who were imperfectly altered into a duke, 
duchess, and marquis. This king and queen were pro- 
bably too wicked to be presented at Court under those 
names. I write K for Beaumont, F. for Fletcher. The 
broken careless lines throughout (frequently divided wrongly 
by Dyce) are characteristic of Field ; but where the metre 
distinctly shows that an alteration has been made from a 
monosyllable to a dissyllable, I will write altered (alt.) after 
the altered word. 

B. i. I a, princess, duke, marquis, duke, duchess (alt.), 
king, royal 

F. i. lb, duke, duke. 

F. L 2, duke, kingdom. 

B. i. 3, princess, king. 

B. i. 4, marquis, princess, prince, kingdom, royal, king, 
prince, duke. 

B. ii. I, kingdom, prince. 

B. ii. 2, prince, prince, duke, prince, duke, sovereign, 
king, prince, kingdom, prince, prince, prince. 

B. ii. 3, dukedom. 

B. iL 4, duke, princess, duke. 

B. iL 5, duke. 



i88 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

F. ii. 6, dake, highness, king, queen, kingdom. 

B. iii. I, king, prince, queen. 

B. iii. 2, king, queen, duke, prince, king, duchess, king, 
duke, king. 

F. iii. 3,^duke, prince, duchess. 

F. iii. 4, duchess, kingly, kingdom, prince, prince, duke, 
kingdom, prince, duke, king. 

F. iv. I, duke, king, marquis (alt.), dukedom, prince, 
king, dukedom, duke. 

F. iv. 2, duchess, duke, duke, king, duke, highness. 
"Fortune, Fate" in Bache's first speech are alternative 
readings, another sign of alteration. 

F. iv. 3, duke, king, prince. 

B. iv. 4, prince, his grace, kingdom, piince, prince, 
royal. 

B. V. I, grace, prince, grace, marquis (alt.); last speech 
by Fletcher. 

B. V. 2, king, prince, prince, prince, king, duke, prince, 
prince ; bits by Fletcher. 

B, V. 3. 

B. and F. v. 4, prince, duke, highness, prince, queen, 
duke, prince. 

This list may not be exhaustive, but it makes it ciear 
that wherever prince or queen are required by the metre 
the original has been left unaltered ; and also the use of 
marquis and duchess is limited to the third hand, since the 
other words are necessarily true readings in many passages 
that are unmistakably some Beaumont's, some Fletcher's. 
But the corrector, or rather the condenser, has been ac 
work in almost every scene. 

Beaumont and Fletcher now left the Bevels boys for the 
King's men, c Sept 

II. Philaster, or Love lies a lleedinff, published 1620 



FLETCHER. 189 

(rightly) as by Beaumont and Fletcher, was acted by the 
King's men at the Globe before 1610, Oct. 8, when Da vies' 
Scourge of Folly was entered S. B., for Epigram 206 is made 
on it, and addressed to Fletcher — an additional proof that 
Beaumont in his lifetime was not known as a plaj-author. 
It was acted twice at Court 1 6 1 2-1 3, before Prince Charles, 
the Lady Elizabeth, and the Palatine ; and I suspect the 
absurd alterations of the beginning and the end of the play 
in the 1620 edition were made for that occasion. A droll 
on it, The Clubmen (wrongly assigned to CupicCs Revenge) 
occurs in The Wits, 1672. Fletcher wrote i. i,' v. 3, 4. 
The rest is by Beaumont. The transposition of the char- 
acters of Megra and a Lady in i. i shows distinctly that 
this scene was not written by the author of i. 2— iv. 2. 

12. The two Noble Kinsmen, T. C, entered S. R 1634, 
April 3, for John Waterson, as "by J. Fletcher and W. 
Shakespeare," and published as by those " memorable worthies 
of their time." From 1626 to 1639 Waterson published 
plays, and whenever he enters the author's name does so 
correctly. It seems certain that in this instance he honestly 
repeated the information given him. But who gave it? 
Hemings and Condell, the Shakespeare Folio editors, had 
been dead some years. The only King's actors surviving 
from Shakespeare's time were Lowin and Bobinson, neither 
of whom appear to have anything to do with publication of 
old plays. Judging from the other plays published by 
Waterson 163 1—7, I think it was Massinger who sent 
it to press, and hnd it been partly written by him he 
would have claimed his share in it. But it was published 
without dedication and without Massinger's name in any 
wny. Mr. Boyle, in his papers written " to test the correct- 
ness of Fleay's tables," and to claim " Mr. Bullen's and my 
own work at Day and Wilkens" [sic, though Day and 



I90 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Martin's would have been more apposite], claims much of 
the play for Massinger on metrical grounds. But the pri- 
mary tests of historic evidence and poetic power refute this 
hypothesis, although the N. S. S. paper is so plausibly got 
up that for a time I was completely taken in by it See 
my Lift of Shxikespearey p. 254. That Fletcher wrote ii. 2, 
3> 4> 5 [which Dyce wrongly calls ii 16, 2, 3, 4] ; iii. 2,* 3, 
4i 5» 6; iv. i, 2 ; v. i (1. 1-17), 2, is now universally 
acknowledged ; but as to the rest, much will depend on the 
date of production. It is claimed as a " new play " in the 
Prologue, evidently Fletcher's, and at a time " when, if this 
play do not keep A little dull time from us, we perceive Our 
losses fall so thick we needs must leave." What time and 
what company does this refer to ? The absence of the play 
in Herbert's licensing list implies a date before 1622, May ; 
but had it been then known to be Shakespeare's (and if 
known in 1634, surely it would be known in 1622) it 
would have been published in the Folio 1623 by Hemin'gs 
and Condell ; there was no copyright to hinder thepof, as in 
the cases of Pericles and Edward 3. The copy used was 
a stage copy; in i. 3 there are stage directions for i. 4, 
" 2 hearses ready with Palamon and Arcite : the 3 Queens, 
Theseus, and his Lords ready;" in iiL 5, ''Knock for 
Schoolm [aster]," omitted by Dyce; this latter occurs in 
the Fletcher part, the former not so. Hence I think the 
whole play as it now stands was written for the original 
performance, and was not completed or revived by Fletcher 
near the end of his career, as Dyce suggests. One Curtis — 
I.e., Curtis Greville — acted the messenger iv. 2. Greville 
does not appear as a King's man till 1626; his name is 
not in the 1625 patent. The play was not then originally 
acted in 1 6 2 5 , as I once supposed. In 1622 Greville's name 
appears in the Lady Elizabeth's and in the Palsgrave's lists 



FLETCHER. 191 

as a sharer ; at an earlier date, when he would be likely to 
take the unimportant part of messenger, we have no record 
of him. T. Tucke, of whom I know nothing further, and 
Curtis appear in v. 3. But, on the other hand, the divided 
scenes and the line iv. 2, '' Thou art a changeling to him, a 
mere gipsy," which surely was written after The Chavgding 
and The Spanish Gipsy were produced in 162 1, point to 
a late revival. Much more important is the fact that the 
publisher regarded the play as Shakespeare's, and therefore 
must have dated it as c. 16 10 at the latest. I have vacil- 
lated so much in my opinion as to this authorship, and the 
verdicts of Lamb, Coleridge, Hallam, Darley, &c., have so 
much weight, that it is with great diffidence that I give the 
following hypothesis, the chief merit of which is that it 
agrees with all the known facts. Fletcher and Beaumont 
wrote the play for the King's men c. 1611; in 1623 
Hemings and Condell knew that it was not Shakespeare's ; 
after this, but before Fletcher's death, it was revised slightly 
and acted by the King's men; but in 1634 they knew not 
whose the second hand was, and guessed Shakespeare merely 
from the date of original license. Beaumont, as I have 
repeatedly pointed out, did not want to be known as a play- 
wright, and in the Prologue Fletcher accordingly speaks 
only of " a writer." The inaccurate text certainly points to 
an old date, as if it had been copied and recopied. This 
hypothesis satisfies the external evidence ; as to the internal, 
the weak endings are as much like Beaumont as Massinger, 
and Dyce has pointed out one similarity with Beaumont's 
work which to me is very strong evidence : — 

" Drink to him, carve him, give him compliment" (Remedy of Love), 
^ Carve her, driuk to her, and still among intermingle your petition 
of grace and acceptance into her favor " (iv. 5}. 

This use of '' carve " is not common. One thing is quite cer- 



I9a TH£ ENGLISH DRAMA. 

tain. ChapmaD, put forward by Enigbt, and Massinger by 
Boyle, had no share in the authorship ; and if Beaumont did 
not write it, it is beyond the reach of any one else but Shake- 
speare. Yet the external evidence is, I think, insuperable 
against Shakespeare. The Bavian (Bataviau) of iii. 5 is 
surely the same as the '^ strange Indian " of Henry 8, v. 3, 
161 3, and the "Cataian of strange nature" of Bam Alley ^ 
a 1609. 

13. A King and no King was published 1608, Aug. 7, 
with Blount the publisher's dedication to Sir Henry Neville, 
who had provided the copy, as by Beaumont and Fletcher 
(rightly). Herrick attributes the " plot " to Fletcher. Earle, 
in his verses written 16 16, just after Beaumont's death, 
assigns Bessus, Philaster, and Tfie MaicCs Tragedy to Beau- 
mont, which, if we take him to mean in the main and not 
in absolute entirety, is certainly true. Fletcher's share in 
this play is confined to iv. i (part), 2, 3 ; v. i (part), 2, 3. 
It was " allowed " by Buck in 1 6 1 1 . " Mandane " in stage 
direction ii. i, not occurring elsewhere, looks as if this were 
printed from an author's copy. It was acted before the 
King 161 1, Dec. 26, and before Prince Charles, the Lady 
Elizabeth, and the Palatine 161 2-1 3. 

14. The Maid's Tragedy was published without authors' 
names 161 9; again, slightly "enlarged," t.e., with fuller 
restoration of omitted passages, in 1622; and as by Beau- 
mont and Fletcher (rightly) in 1630. That it was licensed 
in 161 1 c. Oct. is evident from Buck's superscription 
to The Usurping Tyrant (j.v.)> ^^ "this second Maiden's 
Tragedy," 1 6 1 1 , Oct 3 1 . There is a droll on it. The 
Testy Lard, in The Wits, 1672. It was acted before Prince 
Charles, the Lady Elizabeth, and the Palatine 161 2-1 3. 
I think the Mask was then inserted (compare Shakespeare's 
Tempest) : for the " floods fuller and hi<^her than you have 



FLETCHER 193 

widbed for" can hardly be referred to those of 1607, and 
as they/ with their accompanying storms and wrecks, appear 
to allude to actual facts, I feel obliged to connect them with 
the storms of 16 12, Oct.-Dec, and the floods that followed 
thereafter. I even venture to conjecture that this mask 
was originally written for the marriage of Lord Waldeu and 
Earl Dunbar's daughter, which was interrupted 16 12, Jan. 
29, and that it was subsequently altered and inserted in 
this play. In this mask the copies have so singular a mis- 
take that, although it be beyond my present scope, I must 
note it. " Another measure/' which should follow the second 
song, has been printed "if not her measure/' and in- 
serted in the text, where Dyce finds a clear meaning in it. 
This, the insertion of "the third song" after instead of 
before ** a measure, Neptune leading it/' and the addition 
(restoration) of ten lines in a speech of Cynthia's in an 
earlier passage, prove that the mask had been subject to 
revision. Fletcher's part is only i. 2, iv. i, v. i, 2a, 3; 
the rest is Beaumont's. In i. i, near the end a stage direc- 
tion^ " Cleon, Strato, Diphilus/' marking the Lords who are 
to attend Lysippus, has got into the text The copy was, 
then, probably one prepared for stage use — by the author 
(see supra). 

15. Love's Pilgrimage, C, was "renewed" for the King's 
men 1635, Sept. 16, and acted at Hampton Court before 
the King and Queen 1636, Dec. 16. As a fee was exacted 
by Herbert, there must have been alteration in the play. 
This alteration was no doubt the transference of a consider- 
able part of i. I from The New Inn, which had been hissed 
off the stage in 1629, and published in 1631. The altera- 
tion was, of course, made by Jonson. Malone says that this 
play and The Nightwalker are stated in Herbert's MS. to 

have been left imperfect by Fletcher and finished by Shirley. 
VOL. I. N 



194 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

This Cannot be correct. Shirley "corrected," i.e., altered, 
Tike Nightwalker for the Queen's men in 1633, but was not 
connected with the King's men till 1640. Weber gives the 
Herbert entry in full, and Shirley is not mentioned. We 
iimst either attribute the alteration to Jonson or suppose 
that these passages were part of the original play, and stolen 
by him for The New Inn, an hypothesis which I now abandon 
as untenable. Acts i., ii., iii. are certainly by Fletcher (with 
this exception); Acts iv., v. by another hand, perhaps Webster. 
But that the date of the original play was 1 6 1 2 I have no 
doubt. Tliere is no actor-list, as for all King's men's plays 
from 161 3 to 1624 (except those published in Quarto) ; and 
on 161 3, June 8, a play called Cardenna was acted before 
the Duke of Savoy's ambassador, and one called Cardenno 
before the King 16 12-13. The History of Cardenio was 
entered S. B. 1653, Sept. 9, as by Fletcher and Shake- 
speare ; therefore an early play of c 1610-1613. All these 
were acted by the King's men, and are manifestly one and 
the same play. Now, in Lovers Pilgrimage^ ii. 3, we find that 
Leocadia was one of the Cardinas, and in the novel (Cer- 
vantes' Las dos DoncUlas) on which the play is founded this 
name is spelled Cardenas and Cardona. Surely this is 
the Cardenna-Cardenno-Cardenio-Cardina-Cardena-Cardenas 
play originally named The Histo^Tf of the Cardinas. Carauza, 
an authority repeatedly appealed to in v. 5, was of an earlier 
time than The New Inn: "So had Caranza his," ii. 2. 
Ikowl. Ashton, ii. i, and Job Bacon, iv. i, appear in the 
stage directions as actors. The scenes are marked; pro- 
bably this was done at the revival 

16. TJie Captain was acted at Court 1612-13 before 
King James by the King's men, but not on May 20, as 
Oldys says. Here, as elsewhere, he mistakes the date of 
payment for that of presentation. But the version we have. 



FLETCHER. 195 

with its " scene Venice, Spain/' is an altered version. Acts 
i. to iv. 3 are plainly enough by Fletcher, but the rest is not 
his as it stands, though probably altered from his work, 
as the Prologue (for Blackfriars, admission 1 2d.) mentions 
" the author." In iv. 3 Lusty Lawrence is mentioned, and 
rightly explained by Dyce ; but see The WomarCs Prize. A 
list of actors is given in 1679 F., the first for the Eling's 
men's plays. The scenes are marked also for the first time. 
In ii. I is a song enlarged from The Knight of the Burning 
Pestle. 1 suppose the alterations were made for the Court 
performance, but by whom I know not. Was it Barnes ? 
Fletcher, still following Jonson, now left the King's men. 
Beaumont left play-writing altogether in 161 1, but in 16 13 
produced his Masks, viz., those inserted in The Tempest (q^v,) 
and Tfie Maid's Tragedy, and 

1 7. Tfie Mask of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn, " pre- 
sented to the King, Queen, Prince Charles, the Palatine, and 
Lady Elizabeth, 16 13, Feb. 20, at the Lady Elizabeth's 
marriage," published S. R. 161 3, Jan. [Feb.] 27, along with 
Chapman's, with dedication to Sir Francis Bacon. It was 
with special reference to these masks that Jonson said to 
Drummond " that, next himself, only Fletcher [Drummond's 
palpable mistake for Beaumont] could make a mask." 

18. TheSonest Man's Fortune, T. C, was "played in the 
year 1 6 1 3 " (MS. copy apvd Dyce), and reallowed for the 
King's men, " the original being lost," 1625, Feb. 8. It was 
originally acted, as the actor-list proves, by the Lady Eliza- 
beth's men after Rossiter's boys had joined them, 16 13, Mar., 
for Taylor and Field were both performers in it. Malone 
and Dyce are mistaken in thinking it was acted at the 
Globe. In fact, the Globe had been burned on June 29, 
when this play was written (see Daborne) in July, and thut 
fire was probably the occasion of Fletcher's leaving the 



196 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

King's men and writing for another company. A comparison 
of dates, and the certainty (derived from metrical and other 
tests) that there were four hands engaged on it, leave no 
doubt that this was " the play of Mr. Fletcher and ours " 
which Daborne, Field, and Massinger were then writing. 
Massinger's share is L i, 2, 3 ; ii. i ; Daborne's, ii. 2, 3, 4; 
Field's, iii. i, 2, 3 ; iv. i, 2 ; and Fletcher's, v. i, 2, 3. La 
Poop is a land-captain in ii 2, " served once at the siege of 
Brest ; " in iv. i " a sea-captain, you know." The ending in 
the 1625 MS. [by Field] is an alternative for that in the 
Folios [by Fletcher], and in many other places the versions 
dififer. Future editions should (as in most other cases) take 
the earlier text as their basis. ** The like story is related by 
Hey wood in his History of Womeny ix. 641" Langhaine. 
The publishing of Heywood's book probably caused the 
revival of the play. For its passing into the hands of the 
King's men compare The Scoimful Lady, &c. 

1 9. The Nice Valor, or The Passionate Madman, was re- 
vived soon after Fletcher's death, c. 1625, Christmas (see 
the Prologue) ; but greatly altered, perhaps by Middleton. 
The scene (like the preceding play) was originally in France, 
for all the proper names, except Galoshio, are French, and 
the Duke (cf. " Duchess of Yalois, ii. i) has been transferred 
from Vulois to Genoa, iv. i. Base, the jester, was, I think, 
T. Basse, who acted with Lady Elizabeth's men 16 13. The 
'' reformer " is careful to tell us that Fletcher wrote only a 
few scenes in the original play, and that these were the 
Chamont scenes : " his scenes," Prol. ; *' what is writ of 
nicer valor," EpiL ; but that he had rewritten " the love 
scenes ; Cupid in's petticoat," for which " he'll stand no shock 
of censure," Epil. Hence the 16 13 title was The Nice 
Valor, the 1626 title The Passionate Madman, None of 
the Cupid scene characters have proper names. The Fletcher 



FLETCHER. 197 

part is i. la; ii. lac; iii. 2 ; iv. i ; v. 2, 3W. The re- 
formed part, i. lb; it lb; iii. i, 3; v. i, ^ae (very little 
altered). The scenes are marked, probably by the reformer, 
who did not preserve an actor-list Fisher's Folly, 1624, 
is mentioned v. 3a. ''The private house/' iv. i, must refer 
to a time when there was only one private theatre (Black* 
friars), and must date after the closing of Whitefriars in 
1 6 1 3 . Poltrot has no name in the Fletcher part ; he is 
only " a gallant " in iv. i ; but the name was no doubt 
adopted by the reformer from the 1 6 1 3 play. 

20. The Nightwalker, or The little Thief, C, was 
licensed by Herbert, as "corrected by Shirley," 1633, May 
II, for Queen Henrietta's players, and performed before the 
King and Queen 1634, Jan. 30, as "made by Fletcher, and 
liked." Published as Fletcher^s 1640. The unaltered 
Fletcher part is i 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 ; ii. 1,2. In i. 2 Wild- 
goose occurs, and in ii. i, iii. i, v. 2 Nicholas These are 
Fletcher's names. Toby occurs for Nicholas L 3, iii. i, 3, 
iv. 1 , 4, V. 2 ; and Wildbrain for Wildgoose i. 3, iii i, iv. 1,3, 
V. I. These are Shirley's names. It is clear that iii. i, 
v. 2 were only altered, not rewritten ; and so, doubtless, other 
scenes, ffistriamastix, 1633, is mentioned iii. 4. "The 
witches hanged at Ludlow," iii. 3 ; " A new book of Fools," 
iii. 3, await identification. The play is not the same as The 
Devil of Dowyatey 1623, Oct. 17, for that belonged to the 
King's men ; this one, like other Fletcher plays that came 
down to Queen Henrietta's men, was originally acted by the 
L. Elizabeth's players c 1 6 1 4. Had it been left unfinished 
at Fletcher's death the King's men would have had it. It 
cannot date later than 161 5. 

21. Wit wthout monet/, C, certainly by Fletcher only, 
though the 1639 Quarto says by Beaumont and Fletcher, 
was produced soon after 16 14, Aug. 24, when the Sussex 



198 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

serpent appears in S. H,, " Dragons in Sussex, sir, or fierj 
battles seen in the air at Aspurg," ii. 4. The Beeston boys 
acted it at Court 1637, Feb. 14. It had been acted before 
this by Queen Henrietta's men. It is in Beeston's 1639 
list. It was entered S. R. with The Nightwalker and three 
of Shirley's plays. The "half-crown boxes," i. i, are also 
mentioned in Bartholomew Fair (Induction), 16 14, Nov., at 
the Hope, and this unusually high price points to the same 
theatre. The New River, finished 1613, Sept. 29, is alluded 
to in iv. 5. The date of the play is certainly 16 14, after 
August. 

22. The WomarCs Prize^ or The Tamer Tam>ed, or Ths 
Taming of the Tamer (Herbert), C, was revived in Oct 
1633; "an old play, by Fletcher" (only), suppressed by 
Herbert on Friday the 1 8th [not 1 9th], and The Scornful 
Lady acted instead of it. The book was sent him on Oct. 
19, returned '^purged" Oct. 21. Lowin and Swanston 
apologised for their ill manners in discourse about this Oct. 
•24. It was acted before the King and Queen at St. James*, 
and was liked, Nov. 28, two days after The Taming of the 
Shrew, which was not liked. Of course Henrietta would 
not like the taming. There is no actor-list in the 1679 
Folio. It must therefore date, if a King's men's play, after 
Shakespeare's retirement^ 16 10, and before 161 3. The 
Prologue and Epilogue (by Massinger, I think) show that 
The Tam^ Tam£d was the 1633 ^^^^^i ^^^ ^^ Herbert has 
it. *^ The wind and the rain," ballad i. 3, is quoted also in 
Ths Knight of the Burning PestUy 1610, and Jf. ITumuu, 
1609. The siege of Ostend, L 3, is referred to in Lovers 
Cure, 1608, and The Coxcomhy 1610. Lusty Lawrence is 
alluded to i. 3, and mistaken by Weber and Dyce for a 
singlestick player. The " armies in the air " at Aspeig are 
also mentioned in Wit without Money ^ 1614. On the 



FLETCHER. 199 

whole, I date this play, if a King's men's play originally, 
1 6 1 2 ; but it may have been a Lady Elizabeth's men's, c 
161 5, and most likely was S0| like The Scornful Lady, acted 
instead of it in 1633. The scenes are marked, but this 
may have been done at the revival. Would a play bur- 
lesquing one of Shakespeare's have been produced by the 
King's men in 1 6 1 2 ? I think not ; nor does the play 
occur in the 1 6 1 2- 1 3 list as acted at Court 

23. The Beggars' Bushy C, was certainly by Fletcher 
and Massinger. Fletcher's share is iL i ; iii. i, 2, 3, 4, 5 ; 
iv. I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; v. I (part); Massinger's, i. i, 2, 3 ; ii. 2, 
3, 4 ; v. I (part), 2. Fletcher spells Jaculin, and Massinger 
Jaqueline ; in v. i both occur. Dyce, as usual, suppresses 
this diGTerence ; but his is a modernised edition, not a 
*' literal" reprint, like Grosart's I>ido^ where the same thing 
is done without a vestige of excuse. As there is no actor- 
list, I have no doubt that the original performance was by 
the L. Elizabeth's men at the Hope c 161$. The scenes 
were probably divided and the text revised for the Court 
performance 1622, Dec. 27, by the King^s men, to whom 
this play had passed with The Scornful Lady, &c. The 
attribution of part-authorship to Beaumont in the 1 66 1 
Quarto indicates, as usual with those mistaking late Quartos, 
a date prior to Beaumont's death. Dyce says, ''Fletcher 
may certainly be regar Jed as sole author ; " and again, " We 
may conclude" it was originally acted in 1622 ; but ''this 
remark only shows how dangerous it is to be confident in 
matters of such uncertainty," as Dyce remarks on Weber, 
re Cupid^s Bevenge, The Epilogue is by Higgin and Prig 
together. Fletcher used, I think, the 16 12 edition of 
Dekker's Bdman for the canting parts. 

24. The C&dnces^ C, has a Prologue and Epilogue for a 
revival after Fletclier's death ; v. 3 ridicules devil plays. 



200 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

" Ascend Asteroth," " Belfegor," *' St. Dunstan," " the Devil's 
in't," " the Merry Devil," &c., allude plainly to Haughton's 
Grim^ Drayton's Merry Devil of Edmonton, Dekker's If this 
he not, &c. ; while " Dost thou think the Devil such an ass 
as people make him ? " v. 3, probably supplied Jonson with 
a title for his play, 16 16. Jonson*s, of course, is not one of 
the satirised plays, for Pug does not '' run of errands with 
Asteroth and Behemoth and Belphegor." The play has no 
flctor-list, but " RowL," t.e., W. Rowley, acted in it, iii. 2. 
Dyce has sophisticated this name into Rowland without 
authority. In the same scene the song of John Dory is 
sung, which occurs in The Knight of the Burning Pestle, 
1 610. Some other songs, found only in the 1679 Folio, 
are of doubtful authorship. The play is founded on La 
Sennora Cornelia, on*e of Cervantes' Novdas Hxemplares. It 
has been much abridged, probably for Court performance. 
I have little doubt that it was written for Prince Charles' 
men 161 5, and I think it likely that it was the play, A 
Vow and a good one, acted by them before the Prince 1623, 
Jan. 6. Compare L 10, the Duke's vow, with v. 3, the final 
line. A droll. The Landlady , founded on it, is in The Wits, 
1672. 

25. The Faithful Friends was entered S. R 1660, June 
29, for Moseley as by Beaumont and Fletcher (and printed 
1 8 1 2 by Weber), together with A Right Woman, of which 
more hereafter, and Mador King of Britain, H., "by 
Beaumont" Had these plays been by Fletcher and Beau- 
mont they would certainly have been included in the 
Folios ; but the attribution to them indicates, as usual, a 
date before Beaumont's death, 1616, Mar. 6. The present 
play was written 16 14, Mar., after the marriage of Carr 
Earl of Somerset, 161 3, Dec. 26. The reference to him, 
i. I, as the analogue in "courts that I have seen" to 



FLETCHER. aoi 

Alexander's Hepbsestion and Philip's Lerma, and to '* the 
revellings of this great nuptial " some two days since, or 
rather two months since, cannot be mistaken. I have no 
doubt that Daborne, then writing for Henslow, was the 
author. The MS. is one corrected after alterations by the 
Master of the Bevels. In i. 3, " Dost tell me — image " is 
replaced by a couple of lines, the original being full of 
allusions to Dogberry; in ii. i, "dost not — debtor" is 
omitted as profane ; iv. 5 has the plot of the scene by one 
author, and the scene itself by another, written in a different 
hand. The copy had probably been damaged, and completed 
from some other copy, for the beginning (three leaves) and 
the end (one leaf) have been supplied in a more modern 
writing. I think the play is Daborne's (except iv. 5), and 
that it was almost his last for the stage. I conjecture that 
it gave offence, and caused Daboiiie's giving up writing for 
the stage ; and, further, that it may be the play indicated 
as Damon and Pythias in Jonson's Bartholomew Fair six 
months afterwards. 

26. Amends for Ladies, C, was published 16 18 as acted 
" at the Blackfriars both by the Prince's [Charles'] servants 
and the Lady Elizabeth's." As these companies never occur 
in connexion with the King's men's Blackfriars Theatre, and 
did for a very short time act at £ossiter*s new theatre in 
Blackfriars in 161 5, this must be the theatre intended. 
But it may have been, and I think was, acted earlier. On 
161 1, Nov. 23, Field, in the Dedication of The Weather- 
cock Woman, says of it, "till my next play be printed, 
wherein she shall see what amends I have made to her." 
Would Field have said " printed " if it had not been acted 
already ? and in the -A't'oJe dissolved into a Niltis, by A. 
Stafford, S. R. 161 1, Oct 10, he says, "/ will never 
write an Amends for Woman till I see Woman Amended." 



202 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

I think h roust have been acted by the Queen's Bevels 
boysat Whitefriars before 1611, Oct. The 1639 edition 
adds in the title ''with the merry pranks of Moll Cut- 
purse or the humour of roaring." This again implies (for 
the play \ras not altered) an almost contemporaneous pro- 
duction with The Soaring Girl (g'.r.), and therefore a date of 
1610-11. This is, I think, the Fortune play alluded to 
in iii. 4 ; but Long Meg of Westminster and " The Ship " 
(whatever that was) were also to be seen there, ii. i. 
The Honest Whore, iii 4 ; Mueedcrus^ v. 2 ; and i Henry 
4, V. I : — 

" The play M'here the fat knight hight Oldcastle 
Did tell you truly what his honor was/' iv. 3, 

all earlier plays, are also alluded to. The two latter had 
both given offence. An anterior limit of date is given in 
the S. R entry of Don Quixote^ 161 1, Jan. 11, for the plot 
is from The Curious Impertinent, and there is no reason to 
suppose that Field read SpanisL Compare The Usurping 
Tyrant and The Knight of the Burning Pestle. There is 
no reference (as editors have supposed) to The Fair Quarrel 
in iii. 4; but the parallels of the song in iv. i with the 
dialogue appended to The Fatal Dowry, and of a passage in 
iii. 3 with one in the text of that play, are helpful in deter- 
mining Field's part thereof. I have no doubt that 1 6 1 1 is 
the original date. 

In 16 1 6, after Henslow's death on Jan. 9, and before 
AUeyn's agreement-, Mar. 20, Jonson, Fletcher, Massinger, 
and Field left the L. Elizabeth's and went to the King's 
men. 

27. The Jeweller of Amsterdam, or The Hague, by 
Fletcher, Field, and Massinger, founded, no doubt, on the 
murder of Wely, the jeweller at the Hague (cf. S. R 1 6 1 6, 



FLETCHER 203 

June 5), and produced, like Bamaveldt, close after the facts 
occurred, was entered S. R'1654, April 8. 

28. Bonduca, T., which has the scenes marked, and an 
actor-list with Ostler in it, cannot date lal^gf than 1 6 1 6 ; 
ii. I and iv. 4 have rhyming passages unlike Fletcher's 
work, inserted by some actor, I think ; perhaps Field. Other- 
wise the play is purely Fletcher's. The reader should con- 
sider the passage i. 2 repeated almost verbally in FoZeTi- 
tinian, v. 3, if he cares to form an opinion as to which play 
was the earlier. 

29. Valentinian, T., by Fletcher only, has the scenes 
marked, and Ostler in the actor-list ; the date, therefore, is 
again 16 16. 

30. The Bloody Brother, or BoUo Duke of Normandy^ T., 
was entered S. E. 1639, Oct. 4, as "by B. J." (but printed 
1 640, as " by B. J. F." in London, and as " by John 
Fletcher " at Oxford), along with A wife for a month. It 
was written by Fletcher, ii. i, 2, 3 ; iii. 2 ; v. 2 ; Massinger, 
i. I ; but as we have it iii. i ; iv. i, 2, 3; v. i, are by 
a third hand. Cartwright's Boyal Slave had been acted at 
Oxford 1636, Aug. 30, and published at Oxford 1639 by 
W. Turner for T. Robinson, and all three plays were acted 
at Hampton Court in 1637 — J%« Royal Slave on Jan. 12, 
Bollo on Jan. 1 7 [so Cunningham, Revels, p. xxv. ; but Jan. 24, 
Malone, Variorum, iii. 239], -4 wife for a month, Feb. 9. 
This, I think, justifies the inference that the Fletcher plays 
had also been performed at Oxford in 1636, Aug.; for if 
not, why an Oxford publication of them ? If this be so, 
the J. B. of the 1639 entry was probably John Birkenhead, 
and the B. J. F. of the 1639 edition a printer's erroneous 
correction from J. B., the corrector having written in the 
margin J. F., and the compositor having neglected to delete 
the B. In any case, we must, I think, look for an Oxford 



ao4 THE ENGLISH DRA^IA. 

man as the reformer of the play. I have little doubt that 
it was Cartwright, not Birkenhead, who really did this; he 
admired Fletcher greatly, preferring him to Shakespeare and 
Jonson, although the latter called him " ray son Cartwright," 
and his style was founded on Jonson's. The date of the 
original play was c. 1 6 1 6. Fisk and Norbret (in whom, to 
my surprise, Dyce failed to recognise Bretnor) occur in the 
Fletcher parts, and are also mentioned in The Devil is an 
ass, i. 2, played in i6i6; but Rusee and Savory are 1636 
additions, and do not speak in the Fletcher parts, only 
occurring in the stage direction of v. 2 as altered in 1636, 
and in the text of the Oxford additions. The play as pub- 
lished in London has no division into scenes, but in the 
Oxford (which is the more correct, and should be made the 
basis when re-edited) the scenes are divided in the French 
way — a new scene at the entrance of each new actor. So are 
Cartwright's plays. In ii. i, "Oh power of tears dropt by 
a thorough woman!" was printed Ia the 1639 edition 
" prayer dropt through by a woman," and in the Oxford 
text " paper dtopt through by a woman." Mitford saw that 
" prayer," taken from the preceding line, was a mistake for 
" tears," but no editor has corrected the rest of the line, 
which I give as a sample of the merits of the modern 
editions. The scene changes from Caen to Bouen, iv. 2, in 
the 1636 part only. The song of Three vierry boys is quoted 
in The Knight of the Burning Pestle, and its parody, iiL 2, 
must be of early date. As for the so-called imitation of 
Neptune's Triumph, 1624, in ii. 2, it is of no import; if 
there be any imitation, which is very doubtful, it is more 
likely to have been by Jonson, who imported Marlow's 
translation of an elegy by Ovid into TJi^ Poetaster, and 
inserted a scene from The New Inn into Love's Pilgrimage, 
than by Fletcher, who was not accustomed to translations 



FLETCHER 205 

of this sort A droll from this play, The thru Tnerry men, 
occurs in The Wits, 1672. The ballad given by Collier, in 
which ** 1*11 lead you like brave Eollo " occurs, is a forgery. 
For the historical arigines of the plot see Dyce. 

31. Thierry King of France and his brother Theodoret, 
T., was published 162 1 without author's name, but acted by 
the King's men at Blackfriars. The 1648 edition is worth- 
less ; it attributes the authorship to Beaumont and Fletcher, 
gives a Prologue which belongs to The Noble QerUleman, and 
an Epilogue stolen from Shirley's Love in a Maze^ written 
when he removed to Salisbury Court, 1632, Jan. Until 
I discovered this theft I was greatly puzzled with allusions 
in it which would not fit into Fletcher's career. Compare 
the Epilogue wrongly assigned to The Woman Hater. The 
astrology of Lacure and the name De Vitry distinctly point 
to the condemnation of Concini in 16 17 for treason and 
sorcery. The whole play is a satire on the French Court 
under Marie de Medici Yitii arrested the Mar^chal 
d'Ancre, and on his resistance killed him. The placing the 
scene in the reign of Clotaire 2 is one of Massinger's poli- 
tical adaptations. A play on Brunhalt (really historical) 
had been acted by the Admiral's men at the Hose 1597, 
Nov., "Brunhowlte, Branhovdte,*' which has no connexion 
with Suckling's Brennoralt, or The Discontented Colonel, as 
Collier supposes. Fletcher wrote i i ; ii. 2, 3 ; iv. i ; 
y. 2; Massinger, i. 2; ii. i, 4; iv. 2 ; and a third hand, 
whom I believe to be Field, iii. i, 2, 3 ; v. i. The scenes 
are not divided. 

32. Henry 8, by Shakespeare, Fletcher, and Massinger. 
See my Idfe of Shakespeare, 

33. The Knight of Malta, T. C. In this play Field and 
Barbadge acted. It dates, therefore, between 1 6 1 6 and 1 6 1 9. 
Mr. Boyle (the value of whose papers I have repeatedly 



3o6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

recognised) deliberately and falsely asserts that I have dated 
this play 1613 {Englische Studien, v. i), and on this founds 
an absurd theory that Beaumont wrote a part of it. Mr. 
Boyle is, as I have frequently pointed out, incapable of 
distinguishing Field's work from Beaumont's. Had this 
occurred in a New Shakspere Society paper I should not 
have noticed it, but the reputation of so distinguished a 
publication as Englisdu Studien demands a positive contra- 
diction. The date 161 7 suits best with the general order 
of Fletcher's plays. He wrote ii. i, 2, 3, 4, 5 ; iii. 1,4; 
iv. 2, 3, 4 ; Massinger iii. 2, 3 ; iv. i ; and a third author 
i. I, 2, 3 ; v. I, 2. I have little doubt that this third 
liand was Field. The character called Zanthia by Field 
is named Abdella by Fletcher. The statement of Mr. Boyle 
that Gomera has two pronunciations is founded solely on 
his defective ear for English verse, which, indeed, has viti- 
ated all his calculations. 

34. T/ie Qtuen of Corinth, T. C, was probably acted 
161 8, Mar. The allusion to the burning of Dian's temple 
with the church books, iv. i, I think refers to the burning 
of the Palace at Paris with the ancient French records, 
161 8, Mar. 7. In 161 7 there were so many fires in 
England that Stow could not set them down particularly 
(p. 1029). Coryat, " the Ulyssean traveller" of iii. i, died 
Dec. 1 6 1 7 at Surat. I do not think this play would have 
been produced after his death was known in England ; but 
news from India came very slowly ; the Amboyna massacre 
was not known for two years. As to authorship, Massinger 
wrote i. i, 2, 36; v. i, 2, 3 ; Fletcher, i. 3a, 4; ii. i, 2, 
3, 4; Field, iii. i, 2; iv. i, 2, 3, 4. Where Massinger 
writes Onos the others have Lamprias, but Fletcher has 
Lampree, not for Onos, but for the uncle. T, Corya£s Orut" 
irtg of 1 6 1 6 (the one with the elephant) is alluded to in iii. i , 



FLETCHER. 207 

and was priuted 16 16. Tbe play must have beeu later, 
yet Mr. Boyle says it is partly by Beaumont. Does he 
know tbe date of Beaumont's deatb? Kote in iii. i tbe 
curious meeting of parallel lines in the centre. The author 
means meridian lines^ which become parallel in Mercator's 
projection. The supposed similarities (i.e., the fact that a 
church book is destroyed in both) between this play and Tfie 
Old Law are not helpful as to date or authorship. Field 
abounds in reminiscences of older plays ; witness ** admired 
Miranda'' in The Knight of Malta, iii. 2. The scenes are 
marked. 

35. The Mad Lover, T. C, is expressly and rightly 
ascribed to Fletcher by Cockaiue. Field acted in it. 
Founded on Josephm, xviii. 4 (Mundus and Paulina). 
Banddlo, iii. 19, has the same story. Ed. Hor[ton], ii. i, 
and £. Bax[ter], iv. i, acted in it according to the stage 
directions 1 647 Folio, but this must have been at a revival 
c. 1630. The original production cannot be more than a 
year wrong if put in 161 8. One actor "doubled" Cloe 
and the Courtesan, iv. 5. 

36. The Loyal Subject, T. C, was licensed by Buck 161 8, 
Nov. 16. Field acted in it. Bevived and licensed by 
Herbert, "with some [slight] reformations," 1633, Nov. 23, 
with Prologue and Epilogue [by Massinger], which ascribe 
it rightly to one author, Fletcher. Acted before the King 
and Queen at Whitehall 1633, Dec. 10, and liked. It 
took three hours to act (Epilogue). For the plot compare 
Heywood's Royal King and Loyal Sidject. The scenes are 
marked. 

All the King's men's plays up to this point that have 
actor-lists have Burbadge as one of the actors. He died 
161 9, Mar. 13. See for the complete list my Mistory of 
the Stage, p. 269. 



2o8 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

37. The Fatal Dowry, T., by N. F[ield] and P. M[a8singer], 
was published 1632. In ii. 2, Florimel, acted by Field (for 
such a personal allusion, I think, implies identity of author 
and actor), is '^32 years old/' ii. 2. Field was baptized 
1587, Oct. 17, and therefore 32 in 16 19 — rather old for 
a woman's part; but Field was young-looking, with little 
beard. He seems to have left acting at Burbadge's death, 
as his name never occurs except after Burbadge's in any 
list I date the original production of this play, therefore, 
in 161 9, about Shrovetide, which agrees with the ''after 
Twelfthtide" of ii. 2. Field's part is i. 2b (from "exeunt 
Officers"), ii. I, 2 ; iii. ih (after "exeunt all but Charolois 
and Eomont), iv. i ; v. 2, 80-120. Massinger's isi. i, 2a; 
iii. la ; iv. 2, 3, 4 ; V. I, 2 (mostly). But this, I think, was 
written later, for the decree in favour of creditors i. 2a was 
a statute made 1623. I guess, therefore, that the play as 
we have it is an alteration made by Massinger ; perhaps The 
Judge J licensed 1627, June 6. See iv. 4. But see also 
The Unnatural Combat One passage, iL 2, was transferred 
by Field from Amends for Ladies. 

38. The Humxyrous Lieutenant, T. C. (or Denutrius and 
Enanthey C, by John Fletcher, 1625 MS.), the date of 
which " cannot be ascertained " (Dyce), is the most definitely 
dated of all Fletcher's plays, except those in Herbert's en- 
tries, for Field and Burbadge did not act in it, and Condell, 
who acted in all the other Burbadge plays, did act. Its 
original production was in 161 9, just after Burbadge's death, 
and before Condell's retiring. It was founded on History 
and Horace' Epistles, ii. 2. The story is also told in Thomas 
Ford's Theatre of Wits, 1660. The 1625 MS. contains 
many passages which were omitted, to shorten the play for 
the stage, in the FoTio version, and ought to be made the 
basis of future editions. These omissions are very valuable 



FLETCHER. 209 

as showing the kind and extent of such alterations. A droll 
from it, Forced Valor, is in The Wits, 1672. 

39. Sir John van Olden Barnaveldt, T., was announced by 
Mr. A. H. Bullen as a play of Chapman's, but printed for 
him from MS. Addit 1 8,6 5 3 as by Fletcher and Massinger 
in 1 883. He had obtained his knowledge of the real author- 
ship from me, and subsequently quite independently from 
Mr. Boyle. Massinger wrote i. i, 2 ; ii. i ; iiL 2, 3, 5 ; iv. 
4, S ; V. I ; Fletcher, i 3 ; ii. 2, 3, 4, S, 6, 7 ; iil I, 4i 6 ; 
iv. I, 2, 3 ; V. 2, 3. The play was acted 161 9, Aug. 14-27. 
Barnaveldt was executed May 1 3. See Mr. Lee in Athenasum, 
1 884, Jan. 1 9, and his quotations from Domestic State Papers, 
ex. 18, 37. For the actors in this play, as given in the 
MS. stage copy, see my History of the Stage, p. 268. 

We now come on a group of plays which, as Burbadge, 
Ostler, and Condell in their actor-lists had been succeeded 
by Taylor, Benfield, and Bobinson, must date after 16 19, 
Mar. 1 3 ; and as they are not included in Herbert's entries, 
must date before 1622, May 14. It is also probable, as we 
shall see, that during 1621 Massinger and Fletcher wrote 
separately, not as coadjutors. I cannot be more than a 
year wrong in dating these plays, but do not pretend to give 
them in exact oitler. 

40. The Laws of Candi/f T. C, founded on Cinthio, ReeatO" 
mithi, X. 9, dates, I think, 1 6 1 9. The comet or " blazing 
star" (Stow, p. 1030) which passed over London 16 18 
Dec. 1 1, and an account of which was published S. B. 16 19, 
Jan. 22, probably suggested passages in ii. i. The play 
has been greatly abridged for stage purposes, whence the 
irregular metre in ii. i, iii. 3, but is clearly almost entirely 
Massinger's; nevertheless, in ii i, iii. 3, v. i, and especially 
in iv. 1,1 can distinctly trace in places the hand of Fletcher, 
who, I think, revised it for the stage. That the plot is 

VOL. I. O 



2IO THE ENGU8H DRAMA. 

Massinger's will be clear to readers of Tlu Unnatural 
Combat, 

41. The Custom of the Country, C, both the chief plot 
and underplot of which I have found in Cervantes' PerMes 
and Sigismunda (translated 16 19, Feb. 22, S. R), from 
which were taken the names Hippolito, Zabulon, Clodio, 
Arnoldo, Rutilio, Manuel, Alonzo, Zeuocia, Sulpitia, but not 
Charino, Duarte, and Guiomar, probably belongs to 1619. 
It was revived for Herbert's winter benefit, being "an old 
play," 1628, Nov. 22. A droll, The Stallion, founded on it, 
is in The Wits, 1672. The first Prologue and Epilogue 
were for the original performance. The Prologue mentions 
"the authors," t.«., Fletcher, i. i, 2; iii. i, 2, 3 ; iv. 3, 4; 
v. 5 (part) ; and Massinger, iL i, 2, 3, 4 ; iii. 4, 5 ; iv. i, 2 ; 
v. I, 2, 3, 4, S (part). The second Prologue and Epilogue 
were for a revival after Massinger's death, 1639, Mar. (not 
the 1628 revival). The Prologue was spoken by "my son" 
[Hugh] Clark, but by whom written I know not, nor have 
I found any other mention of Clark till 1647. The Guiomar 
story is also found in Cinthio, but there is no reason for suppos- 
ing the authors went to a second source for it The scenes 
are marked, but whether originally or at a revival I know not. 

42. The Double Marriage^ T., was written by Fletcher, iL 
1. 2, 3, 4 ; iii 2, 3 ; iv. 3, 4; v. 3 ; and Massinger, i I, 2 ; 
iii. I ; iv. i, 2 ; v. 1,2 (these two scenes were worked over 
by him, but at first written by Fletcher), 4, 5. Massinger 
spells Ferrand, Fletcher Ferrant The original version 
was necessarily c. 1620, but whether Massinger's part was 
then written I doubt. The triple mention of " nightpiece " 
in V. I, and Juliana's allusions to her "piety," iii. 3, iv. ii., 
which was quite sufficiently "unfortunate," induce me to 
identify this play with The Unfortunate Piety, or The Italian 
Nightpiece of 163 1, June 1 3 ; and the innumerable allusions 



FLETCHER 211 

to Ferrant as the " tyrant " almost justify a further iden- 
tification with The Tyrant, by Massingerfof S. R 1660, 
which is generally, without sufficient reason, considered to 
be the same as The King and the Subject The monopoly 
in "oil," i. I, which is a necessary ingredient in soap, is, I 
think, directed against the soap-boiling monopoly of 1630, 
Nov. ; and I have no doubt other definite allusions in L i , 
e,g.y that to ** horses," may be dated by those who are ac- 
quainted with the minuti89 of Charles' reign ; y. i is imi- 
tated from Don Quixote, Part 2. The scenes are not marked, 
which is peculiar, if the play as we have it be, as I think, a 
revival of 163 1. 

43. The Little French Lawyer ^ C. The Prologue and 
Epilogue mention the " writers " and " poets," viz., Fletcher, 
il I, 2, 3 ; iil 2, 4, S ; iv. 2, 3, 4 ; v. 2, 3 ; and Massinger, 
i. i> 2, 3 ; iii. i, 3 ; iv. i, 5, 6, 7 ; v. i. The Annabel part 
is entirely Fletcher's, and her speeches in iv. 5, 6, v. i, were 
inserted by him in the Massinger scenes. Fletcher accentuates 
Dinant, ii. i, v. 4; but Massinger Dindnt, i. i, 2, 3 ; iil i, 
3 ; iv. 3. The plot is from TJ^e Spanish Bogue, ii. 4, wlrich 
is taken from the Novellino of Masuccio ScUemitano. The 
date is c. 1620. The nurse in ii. 3, the only Fletcher 
scene in which she speaks, is called " Old Lady," not " Nurse," 
as in the Massinger scenes. A quotation from an unknown 
play, '' Give me the man that will all others kill And last 
himself," occurs in iv. 4, and allusions to Shakespeare's plays 
in iv. 6. 

44. The False One, T., is by two authors (see Prologue 
and Epilogue), viz., Fletcher, ii., iii., iv. ; Massinger, i., v. The 
Prologue apologises for taking up the subject of Antony an4 
Cleopatra after Shakespeare. Date c. 1 6 20. There is a mask 
in iii. 4, which looks as if it had been written for the opening 
of the New River 161 3, and adapted here. If so, it had 



212 THE ENGLISn DRAMA. 

perhaps been rejected when Middleton's was preferre<^. 
Lucan has been used by the writers, as well as the hii- 
torians, Plutarch, &a 

45. The Duke of Milan, T., published 1623, Jan. 20-; 
by Massinger only ; his earliest unassisted performance ; 
founded on Josephus' History of the Jews, xv. 4, and, 
slightly, on Guicciardini's History, xv., xix. Date c. 1620. 
Acted by the King's men at Blackfriars. With the painting 
the corpse, v. 2, compare The Usurping Tyrant and The 
Bevenffer's Tragedy. The " fellow that could indite," iii. 2, is, 
I suppose, Wither. 

46. Women Pleased, T. C, by Fletcher alone, is founded 
on Chaucer's Wife of Bath's Tale and Boccaccio's Decameron, 
viL 6 (for Act ii. Sc. 4), viii. 8 (for Act iv. Sc. 3). " The 
Duke of Milan of late days," i. i, I think, refers, though 
very indirectly, to Massinger's play. The actor-list is 
identical with those of The Little French Lawyer and The 
Ctistom of the Country, Date c. 1620. 

I now pass to a group of Massinger's plays not written 
for the King's men. About this time Massinger and Fletcher 
ceased for some eighteen months, c. 1620 Sept.— 1622 Mar., 
to write together, whether through disagreement I cannot 
say ; but I think Massinger did not like his name not having 
appeared as author in any published play. I will take his 
plays for this interval first. 

47. The Virgin Martyr, T., was published 1621, Dea 7, 
S. R., as by Dekker and Massinger. This, of course, was 
the version of the play as reformed and licensed by Buck 
1620, Oct. 6. It is evidently a recasting by Massinger of 
an old Dekker play. The Hirtius and Spongius filth, ii. 
I9 3> iii* 3> ^^' ^t ^^ 1^0^ he^n touched by Massinger, and 
Dekker's hand is still discernible in bits retained in the 
scenes that have been rewritten. The original play was 



FLETCHER 213 

doubtless Diodesian^ acted at the Bose 1594, Nov. 16, but 
even then an old play, dating from 1 591 at the latest. One 
vestige of primitive date may still be seen in' iv. 2, " Bounce, 
robble, hobble, &c.," a hexameter in ridicule of Harvey's 
(cf. The Old Wife*s Tale)] and probably another in ii. i, 
" Our next neighbour's man " Christopher, ie., Marlow, who 
had left the Admiral's men (for whom he had written with 
Dekker) in 1589. There was a new scene added 1624, 
July 7, but this was never published. Herbert does not 
name the company acting at the Bull 1620 ; in fact, they 
had no name. They had been Queen Anne's men till her 
death, but did not get their patent as the Bevel's company 
till 1622, July 8; till then their only name is the com- 
pany at the Bed Bull Dekker spells "Ceesaria." The 
Dekker play is The Martyr Dorothea of the 1626 Dresden 
company. 

48. FhiUfizo and HippoliiOy "by Massinger," S. B. 1653, 
Sept. 9, the MS. of which was destroyed by Warburton's 
servant, was no doubt an altecation for the same company 
about the same time of [Dekker's] FhUippo and HippolitOy 
acted at the Bose 1 594, July 9, but, like Hie Virgin Martyr, 
an old play of c. 1 590. 

49. Antonio and Vallia, by Massinger, entered S. B. 
1660, June 29, which also was destroyed by Warburton's 
servant, was doubtless the Bose play of 1595, June 20, 
altered by Massinger in the same way. This . also was an 
old play of c i S90 [by Dekker]. 

50. The Maid of Honor, T. C, was published 1632, as 
then acted at the Phoenix by Queen Henrietta's servants ; 
but it was probably written before 1622, for it does not 
occur in Herbert's license-list In 162 1 Massinger was 
writing for the Bull company, and we know that their plays 
passed to the Fhcenix company. This is, therefore, the 



214 THE ENGLISH DEAMiu 

likelier list-date. It is not The Honor of Women, for that was 
a King's men's play. Fulgentio, I have no doubt, means 
Buckingham. The King can spare him 50,000 crowns for 
a mask, iii. 2, and he makes more bishops in Sicily than the 
Pope, i. I (t.e., in England than the King) ; notably M. 
Fotherby of Salisbury, 16 18, and J. Williams of Lincoln, 

162 1. In L 2 the strange meaning of " parallels," as if 
meridians, again occurs : ** We are not parallels, but, like 
lines divided, can ne'er meet in one centre." 

5 1. -4 new way to pay old debts, C, was, like the preced- 
ing, published 1632, Nov. 10, as acted by the Queen's 
men at the Phoenix, and there are five lines in i. 2 on the 
taking of Breda 1625, July i, which require a later date 
for the copy we have; yet I venture to assign 1621 for 
the original production. It is not mentioned in Herbert's 
OfBce-Book, and must therefore date, I suppose, before May 

1622. The subsequent insertion of the five lines in 1625 
c. Christmas by Massingcr, before he rejoined the King's 
men in 1626, need not give us any trouble; he was con- 
tinually revising his plays, as his whole career indisputably 
proves. It was published by Massinger himself, with a 
dedication, as his own work. Yet Mr. Boyle, of the New 
Shakspere Society, has stated that Fletcher was co-author. 
As his foundation for this inconsiderate statement is simply 
the use of metrical tests of which he understands neither 
the bearing nor the limitations, his verdict cannot for a 
moment be weighed against the positive testimony, "by 
Philip Massinger," in the S. K entry. I might as well say 
that " Fleay, with his usual infallibility," and other similar 
courteous allusions to my work in Mr. Boyle's paper, prove 
it to be written by the Director of the N. S. S. 

52. The Unnatural Combat, T., does not appear in Her- 
bert's license-list It was published 1639, with dedication. 



FLETCHER. 215 

as " an old tragedy without prologue or epilogue, being com- 
posed in a time when such by-ornaments were not advanced 
above the fabric of the whole work." Yet prologues to 
comedies are alluded to iv. 2. I date it 162 1 provisionally, 
not knowing when The Soldier's Delight was " a new song, * 
iii. 3, which would fix the date if I did know. 

53. The Woman's Ploty C, was acted at Court i62i[-2] 
{Biog. Dram!). One MS- of it was destroyed by Warburton's 
servant, no doubt the one entered S. R 1653, Sept. 9, as 
The Very Wom^n, or The Womxins Plot. But The Very 
Woman, or The Prince of Tarent, is extant, having been 
licensed by Herbert 1634, June 6, and pubished with The 
BashfiU Lover and The Guardian as Massinger's in 1655. 
I believe that the 1653 entry wis a mistake, and that The 
Woman's Plot and the The Very Wotnan were different 
plays. See further on under A Very Woman. Neither 
The Woman's Plot nor The Woman's too hard for him^ 
which also was performed at Court i62i[-2], were pro- 
bably by Fletcher, nor do I know by what company they 
were acted. 

I now turn to Fletcher, who still wrote for the King's men. 

54. The Island Princess, T. C, by Fletcher only, was 
acted at Court i62i[— 2] {Variorum, iii. 225). Za Con- 
q^iista de las Moluccas, by Melchior Fernandez de Leon, has, 
in the historical part only, a similar plot. 

55. The Pilgrim, C, by Fletcher only, was acted at 
Court 1 62 1 [-2], and again at Whitehall 1622, Dec. 30; 
ill 7 is from Don Quixote, which is, strangely, unnoticed by 
Dyce. Scenes divided. 

56*. The Wildgoose Chase, C, was acted at Court 
1 62 1 [—2], and revived for Herbert's "summer day" 1631. 
By Fletcher only. When the 1647 Folio was published 
the stationer, Moseley, said that that volume, " beside those 



2i6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

that were formerly printed," contained every piece by Beau- 
mont and Fletcher, written "either jointly or severally," 
except this play, for which he " put up this si quis." In 
1652 "a person of honor" retrieved it, and it was pub- 
lished by Moseley, for Lowin and Taylor, as Beaumont and 
Fletcher's, with a list of actors and their characters, which, 
as it includes Hamerton, Trigg, Sander Gough, and Honey- 
man, must belong to the 1 63 1 revival. The copy was, there- 
fore, not the original version, and has evidently been much 
abridged. The scenes are divided. A mark of alteration re- 
mains in " Leverdure, alias Lugier," iii. i . In spite of Mose- 
ley's direct statement quoted above, this same man entered 
S. E. 1653, Sept. 9, under the names of Beaumont, Fletcher, 
and Shakespeare, Cardenio (F., Sh.), Henry i and Henry 2 
(Sh., Davenport), and 1660, June 29,-4 Right Woman (B., 
F.), Iphis and lanthe (Sh.), Duke Humphrey (Sh.), Stephen 
(Sh.), The FaUhful Friends (B., F.), and Madar (B.). Great 
critics have regarded, and still do regard these entries as 
evidence. I cannot 

The three plays last mentioned were no doubt pro- 
duced in 1 62 1. We now get the guidance of Herbert's 
OflBce-Book. 

57. The Prophtess, T. H. Licensed 1622, May 14; re- 
vived for Herbert's " summer day " 1629. By Fletcher, i. i, 
2, 3 ; iii I, 2, 3 ; v. 3 ; and Massiuger, ii. 1,2, 3 ; iv. i, 2, 
3 > 4* 5 ; V. I, 2 (the Persian part and Aper). For the his- 
toric subject compare The Virgin Martyr. For the She 
devil, iii. 2, cf. The Devil is an a>ss, 161 6. There is a 
Dumb Show and a Chorus and a Dance. The pastoral 
names, v. 2, may contain personal allusions. The scenes 
are divided. 

58. The Sea Voyage, C, licensed 1622, June 22; by 
Fletcher, i., iv., and Massinger, ii, iii., v.; but I think 



FLETCHER. 217 

there are Fletcher bits in the Massinger acts. The metri- 
cal arraDgement is very corrupt, and I think the copy used 
was a late acting one. I dare not be so positive as the 
New Shakspere Society (I give this name to Mr. Boyle in 
the same sense as he assigns it to me) in separating the 
authorship. 

59. The Spanish Curate, C. Licensed 1622, Oct 24; 
performed at Court 1622, Dec. 26. A droll from it, 
The Sexton, or The Mock Testators, is in The Wits, 1672. 
Founded on Don Gonzalo de Cespides* Oerardo the un/ortu- 
TUite Spaniard, translated by L. Digges 1622, Mar. 11, 
S. R. By Fletcher, Prol., ii. i, 2, 3, 4, S ; iii i, 2, 4; iv. 
2, 3, Sj 6, 7; v. 2, Epil. ; and Massinger, i. i, 2, 3 ; iii. 3 ; 
iv. I, 4; V. I, 3. Fletcher writes C6rdova, Angelo Milanes 
(as a single name), Bart61us, Assistant ; Massinger prefers 
Cordiiba, Angelo, Milanes (two names), Bdrtolus, Assistente. 
The names of the characters which, though taken from the 
novel, have been transmuted were assigned by Massinger ; 
many of them (Ascanio, Henrique, Octavio, Jacinta, Yiolante) 
do not occur in Fletcher's part, except incidentally. Mas- 
singer now left the King's men again. 

60. The Maid in the Mill, C. Licensed 1623, Aug. 29. 
By Fletcher and W. Rowley. Acted Sept. 29 at Hampton 
Court, Nov. I at St. James' before the Prince (with refor- 
mations), and Dec. 26 before the King and Prince at White- 
Iiall. The plot is founded on Gerardo (see The Spanish 
Curate) and Bandollo's Alessandro D. di Firenze (of. Belie- 
foreste. Hist. Trag,, i. 1 2, and Goulart, Hist, Admir., i. 2 1 2). 
Fletcher's part is i. i, 2, 3 ; iii. 2, 3 ; v. 2 (part) ; Rowley's 
(who acted in the play), ii. i, 2 ; iii. i ; iv. i, 2, 3 ; v. i, 
2 (part). "Am I your father ? " ii, i, refers to Merlin (j.v.). 
The "Julian feast," ii. i, is Aug. 28. In iii. 3 we learn 
that 1622 was "a healthful year." A droll. The Surprise, 



2i8 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

from this play is in The Wits, 1672. The scenes are 
divided. 

61. The Devil of Dowgate, or Usury put to use^ C, was 
licensed 1 623, Oct. 1 7 (in place of an old play by Middleton), 
for the King's men. As Massinger was away, we must look 
for a play by Fletcher, Middleton, or Rowley. Such a 
play is Wit at several Weapons^ C. Fletcher only writ in an 
" act or two " (see the Epilogue at a revival, when the name 
of the play, no doubt, was altered). The old title is alluded 
to i. 2, *' Father, you shall know that I put my portion to 
use." The scene, is in London, and the subject is of such a 
father and son as the old ballad title. The Devil of Doivgate 
and his Son, would lead us to expect. Fletcher's part is i. 
I ; ii. I ; iii. i ; iv. i, 2, 3 ; but it has been altered at the 
revival, of course after Fletcher's death. The rest is by 
Rowley. " Blindnian's buff is an unlawful game," v. i, t.e., 
under the statute of i Car. i. I place the revival, there- 
fore, in 1626. The calling a puppy with hist, hiss, 
hiss, taken from a play at the Bull, ii. 2, I am unable 
to trace at present. I find no notice of a Court perfor- 
mance under either of the above names, but as it is not 
likely that any play of Fletcher's should at this late date 
have been omitted from the Court list, I would suggest 
that The Buck is a Thief presented 1623, Dec. 28, was 
this play. Sir Ruinous Gentry, of course, would be the 
Luck. 

Massinger now appears as a writer for the Lady Eliza- 
beth's men at the Cockpit. 

62. The (Noble) Bondman, licensed 1623, Dea 3, for the 
Cockpit company, was published S. R. 1624, Mar. 12. 
This early publication implies eagerness on the company's 
part to make known their new playwright, for whom they 
had exchanged Middleton and Rowley ; and, I think, on Mas- 



FLETCHER 219 

singer's to see nis fall name in print Founded on Plutarch's 
TimoleoUj &c. 

63. The Wandering Lovers was licensed for the King's 
men 1623, Dec. 6. " By Mr. Fletcher." The Lovers' Progress, 
T., is, as the Prologue and Epilogue tell us, an alteration 
of a play of Fletcher's " long since writ." It is clearly by 
Fletcher, i. 2b; ii. i, 3, 4; iii i, 2, 3, 5, 6a; and Mas- 
singer (the alterer), i. i, 2a; iL 2; iii. 4, 6b; iv. i, 2, 
3, 4; V. I, 2, 3. This was the play of Oleander, licensed 
1 634, May 9. There can be no doubt that Lydian, Clarange, 
and Lysander are The Wandering Lovers > cf. "Let's part 
upon our pilgrimage," ii. 3, and "I will part too, a third 
unfortunate and unwilling wanderer." Oleander is a prin* 
cipal personage in the play. On 1624, Jan. i, the original 
play, The Wandering Lovers, was acted at Whitehall be- 
fore Prince Charles; and 1653, Sept. 9, it was entered 
S. R. as The WanderiTig Lovers^ or The Fainier, "by P. 
Massinger." The play must be in the Folios which con- 
tained all Fletcher's works (except Henry 8, published as 
Shakespeare's, the two Barnaveldt plays suppressed, and 
The Very Woman, q,y.), and I can find no other play with 
which to identify it. The title The Painter has no import- 
ance; these 1653 entries- by Moseley abound in blunders, 
and are only useful by way of suggestion. This mistake 
arose, I think, from a confusion with Doctor Doddypolj in 
which 'there is a Painter and also Wandering Lovers, and 
which was, in my opinion, revived in an altered form 1623, 
June 10, as The Dutch Painter and the French Brank (?) 
which may have been the play of thq 1653 entry. The 
date of The Lovers' Progress exactly agrees with that of ITie 
Wandering Lovers, for Tooley, who died 1623, June, is not 
in the actor-list, and Underwood, who died 1624, Oct., is in 
it. Daudiguier's Lysandre et Caliste, on which the play is 



220 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

founded, was translated by W. B. 1638, Jan. 22, S. B., 
probably in consequence of the success of the revival. 
Davenant's lines — 

'' Some tale in Diana de Monteraayor 
Taught you this trick of wandering after lovers," 

from The Distresses, v. i, 1639, refer to The Two OerUlemen 
of Verona primarily, but may also allude to this play. 

64. The Benegado^ or The Gentleman of Venice, T. C, 
was licensed 1624, April 17, for the Cockpit. ''By Mas- 
singer/' It has a list of actors, with characters assigned ; 
but whether this dates 1624 or 1630, Mar. 22, when the 
play was published as acted by Queen Henrietta's men, is 
not certain. The title was changed before Shirley's Gentle- 
man of Venice was produced. 

65. -4 wife for a month, T. C, "by Fletcher," was 
licensed 1624, May 27. Acted by the King's men at St 
James' 1637, Feb. 9. Langbaine refers the Alphonso story 
to the history of Sancho 8, King of Leon. Weber's parallel 
with The Maid's Tragedy is more to the purpose. The 
occurrence of Tooley, who died 1623, June, in the actor- 
list throws a light on the nature of these 1679 Folio lists. 
They begin with Fletcher c 161 3, and end with him in 
this play, and were, I think, memoranda made by him of 
the cast he wrote for : not inserted, like Jonson's, after the 
play was performed. This will explain the presence of 
Tooley's name here, if Fletcher began to write the play 
before 1623, June. The Quarto editions and the 1679 
Folio, whenever printed from the Quartos, omit these lists. 
Fletcher did not mean them for publication. 

66. Bule a wife and have a wife^ C, was licensed 1624, 
Oct. 19. Presented by the L. Chamberlain to the ladies 
at Court Nov. 2 ; acted before Prince Charles at White- 



FLETCHER 221 

hall Dec. 26; published at Oxford 1640, and therefore 
probably acted there before the King and Qaeen 1636, 
Aug. (compare Bollo and Cartwright's Bayal Slave). In 
the Prologue, " Our late errors " and " We're Spaniards all 
again" allude to the trouble about Middleton's Game at 
Chess in 1624, Aug. The underplot is from Cervantes' M 
Casamiento Engafioso {Novelas JExemplares, xi.). By Fletcher 
only, for the King's men. 

67. The Parliament of Love, C, "by Massinger," was 
licensed for the Cockpit 1624, Nov. 3 ; entered S. R. 1660, 
June 29, as "by W. Eowley," and was so endorsed in 
Warburton's list. It was published from an imperfect 
MS. by Gifford. Alexander Gough, who seems to have 
supplied Moseley with the authorship data, was one of the 
King's men, but evidently little acquainted with the facts, 
especially in these Cockpit plays. Between 1625, Feb. 10, 
and 1626, Jan. 22, 1 am unable to trace any license entries. 
The King's accession, 1625, Mar. 27, and the closing of the 
theatres for the plague, May 12-Nov. 17, partly account 
for this. Tet I find plays which I cannot refer to any 
other year. 

68. The Great Duke of Florence, C. H., was licensed as 
The Great Duke 1627, July 5, for the Queen's servants, 
and published 1635, Dea 7, as by Massinger, with dedica- 
tion and verses by Donne and Ford. It was, however, 
probably written by 1625, as after Massinger's return to 
the King's men in 1626, after Fletcher's death, there is no 
trace of his ever writing for any other company. This date 
of return confirms me in my conjecture that the cause of 
his leaving them was some personal disagreement with 
Fletcher. Mr. Gardiner has Eihown that this play con- 
tains contemporary allusions. At the end of the play, 
Calandrino (acted, I suppose, by Timothy Bead) speaks of 



222 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

liimself as the only natural stage fool left ; " They that do 
survive Do only zany us." 

69. The Fair Maid of the Inn^ T. C, was licensed 1626, 
Jan. 2 2. " By Fletcher." Founded on Cervantes' La Blustre 
Fregona {Nov. FxempL). The Host Rowlando was pro- 
bably acted by Rowley. The Prologue speaks of " our 
invention.*' The different spellings, Alberto and Albertus, 
Bianca and Biancha, are helpful in determining the author- 
ship. Fletcher wrote i. 3. ii. i, iii. 2, iv. i (Alberto, 
Biancha) ; Massinger i. i, 2 (Albertus, Bianca), and revised 
v. 3, originally Fletcher's. The rest of the play seems to 
me to be Jonson's. Alberto is not mentioned in the text, 
but Bianca is uniformly so spelled. At any rate the allusion 
to Nat. Butter, The New World in the Moon, and Amboyna, 
iv. 2 ; to Dr. Lamb and the prophet Ball, v. 2, mark those 
scenes as his, and the metrical evidence confirming this 
assignment of ii. 2, 3, 4, iii i, iv. 2, v. i, 2, is very strong. 
Tfie Staple of News, 1625, should be carefully compared 
throughout this part, which is certainly not Rowley's. 

70. T}u Noble Gentleman, C, was licensed 1626, Feb. 3. 
" By Fletcher." The Prologue and Epilogue, which belong to 
it, and not to Thierry and Theodoret and TIu Woman Hater 
(7.1;.), were written late, "at a revival," and are of no authority. 
The want of proper names in the old editions, as well as the 
muddled metre and the license date, show that the play was 
left unfinished by Fletcher. That he was the author we 
have the positive statement of Herbert, which the reader 
will probably prefer to Boyle's equally positive statement to 
the contrary, N. S. S. Transactions, 1886. The completion 
of the play I do not hesitate, on historical grounds, which 
the metrical analysis (properly subordinate) duly confirms, 
to assign to William Rowley, probably aided by Middleton. 
Compare the peculiar use of "faithfully met" in iii. 3 with 



FLETCHER 223 

"faithfully welcome," Nice Valor, iii. i (Middletou), and 
note the use of ** dirty " as anti-angelical, ii. i. I think the 
Prologue was used at one of the Salisbury Court perfor- 
mances 1644. 

All subsequent plays (except the alterations from Fletcher) 
are by Massinger only, for the King's men. 

71. The JRoman Actor, T. Licensed 1626, Oct. 11. 
Published 1629; with dedication, actors' character list, 
and verses by T. J[eay], dedicatee ; T. Goff, play writer ; T. 
May, play writer; J. Ford, play writer; R. Harvey, and J. 
Taylor, actor, who took the part of Paris. Massinger calls 
it "the most perfect birth of my Minerva," t.e., up to 
1629. 

72. TJie J'iidge. Licensed 1627, June 6. The MS. 
was destroyed by Warburton's servant. But as the title 
does not occur in Moseley's S. R. entries of 1653, 1660, I 
believe this was a play that had been already published 
under another title, very likely The Fatal Dovxry (see iv. 4, 
Charalois is " the judge "). If so, the original play may have 
been by Field alone, and the "reformation" by Massinger. 
We must be prepared for any number of changes of title in 
Massinger's plays. 

73. The HoTwr of Women. Licensed 1628, May 6. 
The MS. was destroyed by Warbuiton's servant ; but from 
the S. R. entry, 1653, Sept. 9, it appears that this was a 
new title for The Spanish Viceroy, which had been acted 
without license in 1624; on Dec. 20 the King's players 
made a humble submission to Herbert admitting this. 
Who wrote the 1624 play is unknown, probably Fletcher; 
but the 1628 one was certainly only an alteration by 
Massinger. Cunningham in his edition confuses it with 
Middleton's Game at Chess (see further under A Very Woman, 
later on). 



2 24 THE ENGLISH DEAMA, 

74. The Picture^ T. C. Licensed 1629, June 8. Pub- 
lished 1630, with an actors' character list. Verses by T. 
Jay, and dedication. Founded on Painter's Palace of 
Pleasure, Nov. 28, or Whetstone's Bock of Begard. The 
same story occurs in Bandello. '^ Massinger calls it this 
* true Hungarian History ' " (Gifford). 

75. Minerva's Sacrifice. Licensed 1629, Nov. 23. In 
both the S. R. entry 1653, Sept. 9, and in Warburton's 
list there is a second title, The Forced Lady. In all these 
bi'titled plays we generally have to do, not with original 
plays by Massinger alone, but with his alterations of other 
men's work. In this instance I think this is only another 
name for The Queen of Corinth (q.v., supra), as altered by 
Massinger. 

76. The Emperor of the JSast^ T. C. Licensed 163 1, 
Mar. 4. Published 1 63 1, Nov. 1 9, with verses by A- Cokain, 
&c. ; dedication ; prologues and epilogues, at Court and at 
Blackfriars. This was Massinger's first Prologue to any 
play of his own making, forced from him by "imperious 
custom." I think the Court name of the play was Feast 
and Welcome, and that this, rather than The Coxcomb^ was 
the F[e]ast and Welcome of Warburton's MS., and of the S. 
£. entry 1660, June 29. Some read Taste and Welcome; 
but the Court Prologue has "deserve a welcome ... at 
such a solemn feast.** This " story of reverend antiquity " 
had suffered by " the envy of some Catos of the stage," yet 
Massinger says there was no passage but the Queen might 
hear without a blush. Perhaps so. Henrietta could do a 
good deal that way, but the severe satire on the King's 
way of raising money, &c., in i. 2 must have been most 
unacceptable at Court. This was the latest written of Mas- 
singer's plays published in his lifetime. 

27 . Believe as you list, licensed 163 1, May 7, but un- 



FLETCHER. 225 

questionably an alteration of the play of Massinger's which 
Herbert had refused to license, Jan. 11, for its dangerous 
matter — the deposing of Sebastian of Portugal by Philip of 
Spain. Massinger altered Sebastian into Antiochus, Spain 
into Some, Portugal into Lower Asia, England into Sicily, 
wrote an ironical Prologue apologising for his historical 
ignorance, admitted that the play was ** too near a late and 
sad example," and told his hearers to interpret as they liked, 
" Believe as you list." No wonder that he gave serious 
offence. There are S. R entries of it 1653, Sept 9, and 
1660, June 29. Warburton had the MS. It was printed 
by the Percy Society, with Prologue, Epilogue, and actors' 
character list. 

78. The Unfortunate Piety. Licensed 163 1, June 1 3, and 
entered S. B. 1653, Sept. 9, with the additional title of 
The Italian Ifightpieee. In Warburton's list this latter is 
the only title given. This was certainly some reformed 
play, for it is not reckoned in the two failures mentioned 
in The Guardian Prologue, and I have no doubt it was The 
Dovhle Marriage {q-v.), which contains allusions to both the 
163 1 titles. 

79. The City Madam, C. Licensed 1632, May 25. Pub- 
lished 1658 by A. Pennycuicke, the actor, with dedication 
to Ann Countess of Oxford. This again was an old play 
altered. It is certainly not one of the two plays that " ship- 
wreckt his fame" mentioned in The Guardian Prologue, 
and the Dram. Pers. gives Sir John Eich and Sir John 
Lacey, which (comparing the present version of the play) 
have been changed to or from Sir John Frugal and Sir 
Maurice Lacy. But Pennycuicke expressly mentions Mas- 
singer as the author. Unfortunately, we have no confirma- 
tion of this statement by Massinger himself. I believe the 

original play was written c. 1 6 1 9. In iii. i French and 
VOL. I. p 



226 THE ENGLISH DEAMA. 

Venetian ambassadors are mentioned as just come oyer " to 
make a full term with us." This suits 1619^ not 1632. 
Pocahontas was in England 16 16, and all the Virginian 
matter implies a date when public interest in that country 
was excited. There is no Prologue or Epilogue ; and surely 
" your neighbour, Master Frugal," in A Tiew way to pay old 
debts, ii. i, refers to the Frugal in this play. These two 
plays are the only ones by Massinger alone (as commonly 
supposed) which have English scenes and names, and the 
coinage of the names in The City Madam, from which, I 
suppose, The new way &c. was imitated, is thoroughly 
Jonsonian. The dear "roses" for shoes, iv. 4 (cf. Stow, 
1039), indicates the time of James. The "strange comet, 
and had now foretold the end of the world," cannot, surely, 
be long after the great comet of the 161 8 winter (see S. B. 
1619, Jan. I, 22). There was no other strange comet 
)bserved till 1647. ^^^ allusion to the pageant poet, iv. i, 
s very like Jonson. The metre throughout is far unlike 
iny play of Massinger's, and abounds in trisyllabic feet, as 
any one with ear delicate enough to require no counting on 
the fingers will feel on the most cursory perusal. Had the 
original play been Fletcher's it would have appeared in the 
1647 Folio; but these considerations, and the astrological 
accuracy of ii. 2, leave no doubt in my mind that it was 
Jonson's. That the play of 1632 was not an original one 
we have the express testimony of Massinger himself. In 
the Prologue to The Ouardian, licensed 1633, Oct. 31, and 
therefore written somewhat earlier, he says — 

^ After twice putting forth to sea, his fame 
Shipwreckt in either, and his once known name 
In two years' silence buried." 

This is positive. Ko play had been produced in Mas- 



FLETCHER. 227 

singer's name since Oct. 1631 ; therefore The City Madam 
surely was not his. The two shipwrecked vessels were The 
JSmperar of the East, 163 1, Mar. 1 1, and Believe as you list, 
1 63 1, May 7, which leaves two years and a margin of some 
five months before ITie Ouardian came oat. As to The 
Unfortunate Piety, see supra^ 

80. The Guardian^ C. H. Licensed 1633, Oct. 31. Pub- 
lished by Moseley with The Very Woman and The Bashful 
Lover, 1655, with Prologue and Epilogue. Performed at 
Court 1634, Jan. 12, and well liked. Two days after 
Jonson's Tale of a Tub was presented, and not liked ; and 
this obviates an objection to my hypothesis as to The City 
Madam. Why did not Jonson reform that play himself for 
the King's men ? Answer : Because he had left them. It 
was the Queen's men who presented The Tale of a Tub. 

81. Cleander. Licensed 1634, May 9. The Wandering 
Lovers, or The Painter, S. R. 1653, Sept 9 (see The Lovers' 
Progress^ supra). 

82.-4 very Woman, or The Prince of Tarenty T. C. 
Licensed 1634, June 6. There is an entry S. R. for Moseley 
1653, Sept. 9, of A very Woman^ or The Woman's Plot; 
and the present play was published by him as A very Woman, 
1655, with Prologue and Epilogue. But among the MSS. 
destroyed by Warburton's servant was one called The Woman's 
Plot, and " A Bight Womvan, by Beaumont and Fletcher," 
was entered S. R. by Moseley 1660, June 29. This could 
not have been A very Woman, which he had published 
already, but may have been, and I think was, The Womxiris 
Plot (a play acted at Court 162 1), the error in the 1653 
entry having arisen fi^m the similarity of the titles, A very 
Woman and A right Woman. There is no "Woman's 
Plot " in the extant play. In the Prologue Massinger says 
^ something like this play " had been " acted long since; " he 



228 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

had " reviewed it . . • by command . . . of his patron," and 
" raised new piles upon an old foundation." The patron, I 
suppose, was the King, the patron of the King's players. 
That the old play was The Spanish Viceroy I have no doubt. 
The Viceroy of Sicily was Spanish from 14 1 6 to 1734- 
We first hear of this play in 1624, Dec. 20, when it had 
been acted by the King's men without Herbert's license. 
On 1628, May 6, it was licensed. In S. R. 1653, Sept. 9, 
we find it entered as The Spanish Viceroy, or The Honor of 
Women ; and in iv. 3 Almira is in the ante-Massinger part 
called, accordingly, '* Honor of Ladies ; " while The Spanish 
Viceroy, the other and obnoxious title, even in Massinger's 
part crops up in i. i, where Cardenes tells the Prince of 
Tarent that he ia ''still subject to the King of Spain." I 
have no doubt that the 1628 play had been revised by 
Massinger, for in the Prologue he speaks of the 1634 copy 
as ** much bettered," a phrase he would not have used of 
another man's work. The Fletcher part still left is ii. 36 
to iv. I and iv. 3 ; the rest is Massinger's. 

83. The Orator was licensed 1635, Jan. 10, and entered 
S. R. 1653, Sept. 9, as The Orator, or The Noble Choice. 
As in the case of nearly all these supposed lost plays (for 
The Noble Choice was one of the MSS. destroyed by War- 
burton's servant), I believe that this was only a reformation 
of a Fletcher play which I would identify with The Elder 
Brother. That play was acted at Court 1637, Jan. 5, 
and published S. R. 1637, Mar. 29, with a Prologue and 
Epilogue evidently Massinger's. In the Prologue he says 
Fletcher is in it, and he hopes it will be received as legiti- 
mately his ; but this was long after Fletcher's death (for he 
adjoins, " if he that made it still lives in your memory "), and 
at a first performance. It was apparently left unfinished at 
Fletcher's death. Had it been performed in his lifetime it 



FLETCHER. 329 

would have been in Herbert's license list, for it dates after 
Jonson's Neptune* s Triumph^ 1625, June : ** like a blue Nep- 
tune courting of an island/' iii. 3. One 1635 title is plainly 
alluded to in i. i, where Angelina says her "choice" shall 
be " a noble husband ; " while the other. The Orator^ is so 
apprdpriate to Charles, whom Love teaches to speak, that 
I can hardly be mistaken in my identification, which is 
almost forced on me by the absence of any other play ful- 
filling the required conditions. Massinger's 1635 P^^ ^ 
i. I, 2; V. I, 2. Fletcher's (the rest) dates 1625. I 
especially call attention to the fact that, although this play 
was published as Fletcher's 1637, and again in 1661, 
Moseley, in an intermediate edition, 165 1, has it "written 
by F. Beaumont and J. Fletcher." This shows not only 
his inaccuracy, but his motive, and settles the value of his 
other entries when uncorroborated. 

84. The Bashfvl Lover, T. C. Licensed 1636, May 9. 
Published 1655 with Prologue and Epilogue. The "late 
example," iv. 3, is the assassination of Wallenstein 1634, 
Feb. 25. This is the last extant play by Massinger. 

8 5 . The King and Subject. Licensed 1638, June 5 , after 
it had been referred to the King, who marked one passage 
in a speech by Don Pedro, King of Spain, as " too insolent." 
It was on the raising of supplies, &c. The title had also 
to be altered, perhaps to The Tyrant, which was entered 
S. R. 1660, June 29, and one of the unlucky Warburton 
MSS. Massinger died 1639, Mar. 

86. AlexiuSy or The Chaste Lover, was licensed 1639, 
Sept. 25. In the Warburton list it is called Alexias, or 
The Chaste Gallant. 

87. Th^ Fair Anchoress of PausUippo was licensed 1640, 
Jan 26. Entered S.E. 1653, Sept. 9, as Tfie Prisoner, or 
The Fair Anchoress. 



330 THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

Fletchbb, Phinsas. (University.) 

1. 163 1, April 25, for William Sheeres. Siedides, 

1631. 

This " piscatory " was intended to be presented to James I. 
on 13th Mar. 16 14, but he left Cambridge without seeing 
it. It was acted before Charles I. by the gentlemen of 
King's College, of which Fletcher, leaving Eton, became a 
member in 1 600 ; was B.A. 1 604, MJl i 608 ; and died 
1649, being then Sector of Hilgay, Norfolk. He was a 
son of Dr. Giles Fletcher. 

MS. copy in Brit. Mus., MS. Addit. 4453. 

This would not be a suitable place to discuss his poems. 

Ford, John. (Plays.) 

7. 1629, June 2, for Henry Seile. The Zaver*8 

Mdancholy, T., 1629. 
6. 'Tispity she's a tchore^ T., 1633, by Nicholas Okes, 

for Bichard Collins. 
9- i633> Jsii^* 21, for Hugh Beeston. Love's Scuri* 

MT., 1633. 

8. 1633, Mar. 28, for Hugh Beeston. The Broken 

Beart, T., 1633. 

1 1. 1634, Feb. 24, for Hugh Beeston. PerJdn War^ 
beck, H., 1634. 

10. 1638, Feb. 3, for Henry Seile. The Fancies 
chaste arid noble, T. C, 1638. 

12. 1638, Nov. 6, for Henry Sheapard. The Ladjfs 
Trialj T. C, 1639. 

2. The Sun's Datling, Mask, 1656. 

I. The Witch of Ednumton, T. C, 1658. 

Ford was baptized at Ilsington, Devonshire, 17 th April 

1586; entered at the Middle Temple i6th Nov. 1602. 

In 1606 he published Honor Triumphant, or The Peek's 

Challenge, along with The Monarch' s Meeting, or The King of 



FORD. 231 

Denmark's Welcome irUo England, S. B., for Francis Barton, 
25 th Julj 1606; and a little earlier in the same year 
Fanu*8 Memorial^ or The Duke of Devonshire Deceased (for 
Christopher Purset; cf. S. B. 9th May 1606). On 25 th 
Kov. 161 5 Sir Thomas Overbury's ghost was entered S. B. 
for Laurence Lisle. On loth Oct 1620 ^ line of life was 
entered S. R for Nathaniel Butters. Honor Triumphant and 
The Line of Life were reprinted by the Shakspeare Society. 
I. The Witch of JSdmonton was acted by the Princes[s 
Elizabeth's] servants at the Cockpit and at Court I con- 
jecture that the word in brackets had been cut off the MS. 
before the publication in 165 8. The Prince's men did not 
act at the Cockpit, and Phen (Fenn, not Penn), who spoke 
the Epilogue, belonged to the regular Cockpit company. 
Theophilus Bird, who spoke the Prologue, was also one of 
the Lady Elizabeth's men; Pheu's being mistakingly read 
Penn (who was a Prince's man) probably confirmed the 
miBtake. W. Mago and W. Hamluc acted two country- 
men ; Bowland and Jack, two of Cuddy's companions. The 
play was certainly produced soon after the trial of Mother 
Sawyer, Groodcole's account thereof being entered S. B. 27th 
April 1 62 1. These topical plays were always hurriedly 
written, and often several hands were employed against 
time. In the present play. Ford, I think, contributed the 
Thorney story, i. 1,2; ii 2 ; iii. 2, 3 ; iv. 2 ; Dekker the 
Sawyer part, iL i (part), iv. i, and v. i ; Bowley the 
buffoonery of Cuddy Banks, ii. i (part); iii. i, 4; v. i 
(part). The last scene, as usual, is a joint production (by 
Ford and Dekker). But the work overlaps a good deal 
Dekker was, I think, the chief plotter ; certainly not Ford, 
who was a young hand. The allusions to Dogdays and Mid- 
summer, iL I, iii. I, fix the date of writing to about July 
162 1. 



333 THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

2. 17te Sun's Dwding was acted at Whitehall (Biog. 
Dram.), and afterwards at the Cockpit ; '* a moral mask/' 
by Ford and Dekker. It was licensed for the Cockpit 
company, (the Lady Elizabeth's) 3rd Mar. 1624, was re- 
tained by the King's and Queen's company in 1639 (see 
Beeston's list), and given to the press as theirs 1657 by 
Bird and Pennycuicke. The mask is palpably a refashion- 
ing by Ford of an older production of Dekker^s, of whose 
work hardly any traces are left One supposed trace is very 
obscure, " Farewell 1538! I might have said five thou- 
sand; but the other's long enough, 0' conscience/' i. i. It 
appears from a passage in Dekker's prose works, iii. 355 
(Grosart's edition), that he adopted as his date for the Crea- 
tion 3960 B.a This would give iS77 for the date of the 
original play, which is too early. Dekker must have 
changed his mode of reckoning, or (which is more likely) 
this date is Ford's ; and of the many hypotheses then in 
vogue we have at present no means of deciding which one 
was adopted by him for his Creation epoch. 

The songs also are evidently in substance Dekker'ew 
Now, one of these was printed in Lyly's Campaspe in 
Blount's 1632 edition, in a form that is evidently the 
original. This would lead one to suppose that the other 
songs in that edition which do not appear in the earlier 
editions are also by Dekker. I for one believe them to 
be so. There are allusions Hb Chronomastix in i. i, and 
Tamberlane in iii. 2. Nabbes founded his Microcosmoa on 
V. I. The mask was certainly acted before Prince Charles. 

3. The Fairy Knight^ by Ford and Dekker, was licensed 
iith June 1624. Query ffuon of Bordeaux (s»v.) re- 
fashioned. 

4. A late murther of the Son upon the Mother, T., by Ford 
and Webster, was licensed 3rd Sept 1624. Query The 



FORD. 233 

Stepmother's Tragedy, by Dekker and Chettle, refashioned. 
But this would hardly be a late murder. 

•5. The Bristow MercharUy by Ford and Dekker, was 
licensed 22nd Oct 1624 for the Palsgrave's men [at the 
Fortune]. 

These three plays were probably refashionings of old 
ones; the last perhaps of Day's Bristol Tragedy (May 
1602). 

6. 'Tis pity she's a whore was acted by Queen Henrietta's 
men at the Phoenix c. 1626. It was the first-fruits of 
Ford's leisure, i.e., his first play without a coadjutor, and 
had been well allowed of, when acted, by the Earl of Peter- 
borough, to whom he dedicated it. So it is now by some 
critics and publishers (see Vizetelly's edition by Mr. H. 
Ellis), but not by any well-regulated mind. The passage 
in the Dedication on which the above statement is founded 
has been often misunderstood as if this were Ford's first 
dramatic writing of any kind and the words " my leisure 
in the action " were grammatically connected. In i. 2, " I 
hope thou never heardst of an Elder Brother that was a 
Coxcomb " contain, I think, a personal allusion to Richard 
Perkins as having acted those parts for the King's men, 
and now personating Bergetto for the Queen's. This actor 
left the King's company for the Queen's at Charles the 
First's accession. The play is in Beeston's 1639 list. 

7. The Lover's Melancholy was acted at the Globe and the 
Blackfriars by the King's men; produced 24th Nov. 1628 
(Collier). 

8. The Broken Heart was acted by the King's servants 
at the Blackfriars c. 1629. 

9. I/yoe's Sacrifice was acted by the Queen's servants at 
the Phoenix c. 1 630. The ''women anticks" of iii. 2 has, 
I think, reference to the French women who first acted in 



234 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

London 4th Nov. 1629. Published with complimentary 
verses by Shirley. 

10. The Fancies Chaste and Nolle was acted by the 
Queen's servants at the Phoenix ; therefore before May 1636. 
The allusions to old Parr as 1 1 2 years old in v. 2, and the 
entry of Taylor's Old, old, very old Man 7 th Dec. 1635, 
show that Parr came to London in or before 1635. Taylor 
fabricated the exaggeration of Parr's age as being 152. There 
seems to be an allusion to this play in Shirley's Changes, 
loth Jan. 1632 (g'.t;.). 

1 1 . The Chronicle Histoi^y of Perkin Warleck, " a strange 
truth," was acted by the Queen's men at the Phoenix c. 1 63 3 : 

*' Should reverend Morton, our archbiehop, move 
To a translation higher yet, I tell thee 
My Durham owns a brain deserves that see " (iii. 5). 

But Morton was not succeeded by Fox, then Bishop of 
Durham, but by Dene of Salisbury. At the time this play 
was written another Morton was Bishop of Durham, and 
Abbott, the Bishop of London, had " both feet in the grave " 
(Fuller). He died 4th Aug. 1633. On Aug. 16 Laud was 
appointed his successor. I believe that in this passage there 
is a covert advocacy of Morton's claim versus Laud's. 

12. The Lady's Tried was acted at the Cockpit by their 
Majesties' servants ; therefore after 17th Aug. 1637. Theo- 
philus Bird spoke the Prologue. 

13. Beauty in a Trance was entered S. B. 1653, Sept. 9. 

14. TheBoyal Combat, C, S. R. 1660, June 29. 

15. The London Merchant^ S. B. 1660, June 29. 

1 6. An HI Beginning has a good Bndy and a had Beginning 
may have a good End, S. B. 1660, June 29. 

The MSS. of these four plays were destroyed by Warbur- 
ton's servant, but only the first can be regarded as authentic. 
The last was acted at Court 161 3 as .^ bad beginning makes 



PORDE— FULWELL. 235 

a good end, and was probably tlie satne as Tfie London 
Prodigal (cf. v. 2, " Such bad beginnings oft have worser 
ends "). The third was the original name of The KnigM of 
the Burning Pestle (see the Induction; ''And now you call 
your play The London Merchant. Down with your title, 
Boy "), which passage Dyce quite i^isunderstood. 

Ford wrote commendatory verses to Brome's Northern 
LaeSy 1632 (Eling's play) ; M»a&mgex^^ Borrian Actor, 1629 
(King's play); and The Great Dvke of Florence, 1635, Dec. 7 
(a Queen's men's play 

FoRDE, Thomas. (Play.) 

I. Love's Lahyrinthy or The Boyal Shepherdess, T. C, 
1660, by R. and W. Ley bourn, for William Grantham, 
written "by Tho. Ford, Philothal." This is a dramati- 
sation of Green's Menaphon ; but Halliwell and Biog, Dram, 
say "part of it is borrowed from GomersaVs [Ludowick] 
Sforza, Duke of Milan." There are commendatory verses. 

FoRMiDO, Sir Cornelius. (Play.) 

I. The Governor was entered S. R. 1653, Sept. 9. The 
MS. was destroyed by Warburton's cook. 

Freeman, Sir Ralph. (Play.) 

I. 1639, Mar. I, for T. Harper. Imperials, T., 1640, 
1655. Scene, Genoa; plot from Beard's Theaire, Goulart's 
Hist. Admiral),, &c. 

FuLWELL, Ulpun. (Play.) 

1 . 1568, for John AUde. Like Will to Like, 1 568, 1 587. 

Bom in Somersetshire 15 — ; commoner of St. Mary's 
HaU, Oxford. 

I. Like will to like^ quoth the DevU to the Collier was 
probably acted by the Paul's boys 1661 or 1662-3 (see 
my History of the Stage^ p. 59). Fulwell is, I think, the 
Carisophus of Edwardes' Damon and Pythias. There was 
certainly a jealousy between these University writers for 



236 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

the Paul's and Chapel companies (the only boys' com- 
panies 1559-63), as well as between the choir actors. 

Fulwell's other writings date 1575-6. 

Gagkr, Dr. William. (Latin.) 

1. Ulysses Bedux, T., Oxford, 1592. 

2. Meleoffer, T., Oxford, 1592. 

Educated at Westminster School ; entered Christ Church, 
Oxford, 1574; B.A., M.A.,LL.D. 1589. His controversy 
with Dr. John Bainolds was printed by Bainolds at Oxford 
in 1 599, The overthrow of Stage plays^ " by the way of con- 
troversy betwixt D. Gager and D. Eainoldes, . . . wherein 
it is manifestly proved that it is not only unlawful to be an 
actor, but to be a beholder of these Vanities." In 1609 
William Heale published at Oxford an Apology for Womeny 
or An Opposition to Mr. D[ominus'\ 0\ager'] his assertion, 
** who held in the Act at Oxford, anno 1 608, that it was 
lawful for husbands to beat their wives." 

1. c 1580, Ulysses Bedux, T., 1592, was acted at Christ 
Church. 

2. 1 58 1, Afeleager, T., was acted at Christ Church before 
Lord Leicester, Sir Philip Sidney, &c. 

3. c. 1579, (Edipus, T., by W. Gager, student of Christ 
Church. Bliss MS. 

4- 1583, June, Bivales, C, was presented at Christ 
Church by the students of Christ Church and St. John*s 
before Albertus de Alasco, Polish Prince Palatine; and 
again before the Queen at Christ Church 26th Sept. 1592. 
" Meanly performed." 

5. 1583, June, Dido, T., was acted by the same actors 
on the same occasion. An extract is given by Dyce in the 
Appendix to his Marlow, 

Gaktkr, Thomas. (Play.) 

I. 1 568-9, for Thomas Cqlwell. Siisannay C, 1 578. 



, ' I 1 587, by A. JeflfeB. (Works.) 
•> J 



GASCOIGNK 237 

I. Tlu Comedy of the most viriuow of godly Susanna, 
** Eight persons may easily play it." No copy now known. 
Gascoigne, George. (Plays.) 

3. The Glass of Government, T. C, 1575, by H. 

Middleton for C. Barker. 

4. The Princely Pleasures ai the Court at KenUworihy 

1576, by R. Jones. 

5. JBemetes the Hermit, 1576, with the preceding. 
!•• Supposes, C, 
2. Jocasta, T. 

6. The Montacute Mask (Flowers), 1572-3, 1575. 
The following notice of Gascoigne is from a paper by me, 

published by the Boyal Historical Society, read 1882, Feb. : — 
This poet has lately been brought into notice by the 
reprint of three of his works by Mr. Arber, along with Whet- 
stone's Bem^rnbranee of his Life and Death, Mr. Arber 
tells us that ** a consideration of these four works in con- 
nexion with his time will doubtless create a favourable 
opinion both of the genius and character of George Gas- 
coigne." This was written in 1868. In the following 
year Mr. W. C. Hazlitt published an edition of his works : 
expensive, but inaccurate and incomplete. I have had to 
use the original editions. 

George Gascoigne was son and heir of Sir John Gascoigne, 
of Cardington, Bedford. Born about 1525; matriculated at 
Trinity College, Cambridge ; entered at the Middle Temple, 
whence he migrated to Gray's Inn, where he was admitted 
an ancient in 1555. He had seven years before this been 
imprisoned for dicing and other disreputable practices. Yet 
from 1557 to 1559 he was M.P. for Bedford. He was 
disinherited; spent a fortune, however — whence obtained 
we know not ; and was patronised by Francis, Earl of Bed- 
lord, and Arthur, Lord Gray of Wilton. Before October 



238 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

27, 1568, he married Elizabeth Breton, widow of William 
Breton ; for at that date a jury was inquiring, under a writ 
of mandamus, how to protect W. Breton's property against 
him in the interest of his child William. In 1572 he 
attempted to become M.P. for Midhurst, but failed, objec- 
tions having been laid against him before the Privy Council 
to the effect he had been long lurking about to avoid arrest 
for debt ; that he was defamed for manslaughter and other 
great crimes ; that he was " a deviser of slanderous pasquils 
against divers persons of great calling ; " that he was a spy, 
notorious rufiSan, and atheist. He then went to the wars in 
Holland, where he was imprisoned, and returned in 1573. 
He had arranged that the pasquils above alluded to should 
be published during his absence with other poems. Mr. 
Hazlitt, who suppresses the most salient differences between 
the first and second editions, says that these poems were 
indiscreetly published by two brother authors ; but a refer- 
ence to the first edition has convinced me that the prefaces 
signed H. W. and G. T. are merely a blind, and that the 
whole matter was arranged by Gascoigne only. In 1575 
he wrote eTUertainm^erUs for the Queen at Woodstock and 
Kenilworth, and acted therein himself. He also visited Sir 
Humphry Gilbert at Limehouse, borrowed his account of his 
voyage to Cathay, printed it without the author's knowledge, 
and, of course, pocketed the proceeds. The rest of his life 
— two years — he occupied in writing the moral poems on 
which Mr. Arber founds his estimate of his character. Let 
us now turn to the poems on which I found my opinion. 

The narrative of the adventures of Ferdinando Jeronymi, 
which is the pasquil which was brought beforo the notice of 
the Privy Council, is concerned with his amour with Leonora 
Bellavista, or Elinor Belvoir : this lady is married to the 
son of Yalasco. Gascoigne accuses her not only of adultery 



GASCOIGNE. 239 

with himself, but also with her secretary, and with Hercole 
Donato and Annibal de Cosmis. Now, seeing that Elinor 
Belvoir points pretty plainly to Elinor Manners, daughter of 
George Manners, Lord Boss, heir to the barony of Belvoir, 
and wife to John Bourchier, Earl of Bath, it is not surprising 
that Gascoigne was accused of defaming a lady of great 
calling from " the northern parts of this realm." Of course, 
the words here quoted are omitted in the second edition of 
his poems and in Mr. Hazlitt's reprint. Yalasco I take to 
be a sort of anagram for Yal. Aq. So., the vale of Agpia Solis, 
the Latinised name of Bath. The poems scattered through 
the narrative, especially those on David and Bethsabe and 
on Mars and VenuSy connect this story with the poems signed 
with the motto Meritum petere grave. The tale itself is 
signed Ever or n£ver, but in the group of poems with that 
signature, as in those signed Spreta tamen vivunt, there is 
little of a distinctly personal or interpretable character ; 
except that in them he speaks of his " grey hair " and his 
** green youth past," which, seeing that one poem of the group 
is dated 1562, is hardly consistent with Mr. Arber's notion 
that he was bom in 1537. Nearly every poem in the 
Meritum petere grave group agrees with the tale of Ferdi- 
nando in detail, and one is even entitled Praise of a CourUesSt 
as if to give an additional indication of the lady pointed at. 
The Earl of Bath died in 1 561, so that the events alluded to 
in these two groups must date before that year. 

If we now turn to the story of Bartholomew of Bath, 
which is acknowledged to be autobiographical even by the 
editors, who consider the Ferdinand story to be fictitious, 
we shall not find matters improved. I may remark in pass- 
ing that Gascoigne himself identifies Bartello, the fictitious 
author of both poems, with the Green Knight, who is 
assuredly Gascoigne himself: — 



240 THE ENGLISH DEAMA. 

" That same knight which there his griefs begun 
Is Bat's own father's sister's brother's son ;" 

and as he also identifies Bartello and Bartholomew, I am at a 
loss to understand how the authenticity of both sets of adven- 
tures can be evaded. In the poems of the Bartholomew 
group, Gascoigne complains that his second love, whom he 
calls Ferenda, which is merely a synonym of the next name, 
Natura, " to be borne," Hollow tree, livia, had forsaken him 
after granting him favour for a time ; that she intrigued with 
Admirals and Noble Face ; that she banqueted with Ippo- 
crace, but charmed him with bracelets, preferred printed 
poems to his written triumphs, and much more to the same 
purpose. From a passage in Ferdinando it appears that the 
real name of this second love was Helen, and that Gascoigne 
used poems written for Elinor or Hellen indifferently by 
the device of using Nell as a pet name applicable to either. 
I take Hellen to be Helen Suavemberg, who married William 
Parr, Baron of Kendal, and afterwards Marquis of North- 
ampton. The hollow tree, his special name for her, is a 
common metrical synonym for a boat, and Hellen Suavem- 
berg's arms were " a lighter boat in f esse." The Admiral, I 
suppose, must have been Edward, Lord Clinton and Say ; 
the Noble Face is probably another translation of Belvoir : 
but the whole of these allusions are too obscure for cer- 
tainty. What is certain is that Gascoigne had to retire 
from Court and went to Bath ; within a year or so he 
married — not happily, if we may judge from his poems. 
The few poems signed Ferenda Natura should be read with 
the Bartholomew story ; whether those signed Si fortunatus 
infelix should is doubtful. In one of them there is a lady 
who rejects Gascoigne and marries a baser man, being 
induced thereto by sweet gloves and broken rings. Gas- 
coigne says their names are bewrayed in the poem, but 



GASCOIGNE. 241 

I cannot find them, unless tbe "gorged hawk" alludes 
to Hellen Suavemberg's second marriage with Thomas 
Grorge. 

One detail, the statement that he was charmed by brace- 
lets, singularly illustrates the history of a more important 
person. In Z'innocence de la tris Ultistre, tr^ chaste et 
debonnaire Princesse, Madame MarUy Heine d^Ecosse, &c., we 
read : '* Above all the Countess of Lennox " (one of Ferenda's 
associates, by the way, whom Gascoigne calls " another ox 
right lean," just as he indicates F. Pierrepont as the " Bridge 
with stony arch," and Jane Stanhope, who married Sir Boger 
Townsheud, as " one who dwells at Town's end "), " Damley's 
mother and maternal aunt to Her Majesty, besieged her with 
letters and secret messages, and enchanted her with a pair 
of bracelets which she sent to her ; and the threats of the 
Bastard, the Queen's half-brother, the practices of this lady, 
the entreaties of several others, and the force of this charm 
(let no one find this strange, seeing that the island of 
Albion has in all times been made infamous by sorcerers), 
were the cause of her condescending to their will and 
mariying as she did." This was published in Paris in 1572, 
and simultaneously with Gascoigne's first poems. But to 
return. 

We have here a poet and soldier, highly honoured at 
Court, in frequent personal communication with the good 
Queen ; one who took a prominent part in her reception at 
Kenilworth ; one whose published poems were commended 
by Stanyhurst, Chaloner, Whetstone, Baleigh — in fact, by a 
score of well-known poets ; one whose works are reprinted 
for our edification, and recommended to us with confidence 
that we shall form a favourable opinion of the poet's char- 
acter, and on examining these works what do we find ? A 
man who openly boasts of his adulteries, and who shrinks 

VOL. I. Q 



242 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

not from exposing himself to any charge if he can only 
involve in it the unfortunate women who were his associates 
in wrong-doing ; a man many of whose poems are as lewd 
as any others of his time, and far more filthy in expression ; 
a coward who took advantage of his absence from England 
to print his scurrilous libels with misleading signatures^ 
which he tried to evade and had to disavow on his return ; 
a man with no redeeming feature but personal courage to 
counterbalance all these and other defects, such as gaming, 
prodigality, and the like. Nevertheless he was a favourite 
of our good Queen, under whom freedom was established, 
and in his last years he wrote moral rhymes. 

1. Supposes, C, Englished from Ariosto. Presented at 
Gray's Inn 1566. "Doctor Dotipole" occurs in i i., 
which shows the antiquity of this name. ** Saint Nicolas' 
fast," i. 2, Dec. 26, points to a Christmas performance. The 
use of " etc.," ii. 4, where it evidently indicates " gag " to be 
introduced by the actor, removes all doubt as to the meaning 
of this word in later plays. *' Set up his rest " is fully ex- 
plained in iiL 2. " Sporet " (sport), iii. 4, is important as 
showing the pronunciation of words with rt, rd, &c. " Call 
me cut" occurs iv. 5. 

2. Jocasta, T., translated from Euripides and "digested 
into act " by G. Gascoigne (ii., iii., v.) and F. Kinwelmarsh 
(i., iv.), was presented at Gray's Inn 1566, probably at 
Christmas, with Supposes. There are Dumb Shows and 
Choruses. 

3. The Olass of Oovemmenty T. C, was dedicated to Sir 
Owen Hopton 1575, April 26. In the Prologue Gascoigne 
mentions " Bell Savage Fair " as fit for merry jests and vain 
delights, as well as Enterludes and Italian toys. The work 
was compiled on " sentences set down by C. B[arker]," for 
whom the book was printed. In i i. " our eldest sons are 



GASCOIGNK 243 

near the age of xxi. years, and our younger sons not much 
more than one year behind them ; . . . they therefore will 
shortly be ready for the University," shows that the age of 
matriculation was usually c. 1 9, as now, and that the early 
entrances so often met with in dramatic biography were 
cases of exceptional talent. Gnomaticus of St. Antline's 
and Lord Barlemonte were no doubt real persons, but I 
cannot identify them. In i. 4 we find that the education 
of a boy of 19 consisted in Grammar (Latin, of course), 
Erasmus' Colloquies^ Cicero's Offices, and Latin verses. By 
20, if he had also read some of Terence's Comedies, some 
of Cicero's EpistleSy some Virgil, and entered on Greek 
Grammar, he ** had not lost his time." Shakespeare pro- 
bably left school at about 14, before even the Latin verse 
stage. The Choruses are in verse. Dick Drum, as a 
character-name, should be compared with Marston's Jack 
Drum and Shakespeare's Tom Drum. 

4. The Princely pleasures at the Court at Kenilv>orth^ in 
which Leicester acted as Deep Desire and Gascoigne as 
a Wild man, was presented 1575, July 9-14. Hunneys, 
Badger, Ferrars, Muncaster (or Paton), Gk)ldingham (the 
original Arion in the Dolphin so often alluded to by later 
writers), all contributed ; but Gascoigne was the chief author. 
Part of his show, however, was not presented. Compare 
Laneham. 

5. The Tale of Hemetes the Hermit, in which Gascoigne 
again appeared as a Wild man, was presented at Woodstock 
^57 Si Sept. It was published in English, Latin, Italian, 
and French. 

6. A Device of a Mask for Viscount Montacute (Antony 
Brown), at the marriages of his son and daughter to the 
daughter and son of Sir William Dormer. In Venetian cos- 
tume. The Siege of Famagosta, 1571, Aug., is mentioned 



244 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

in it, and it was published early in 1573. It must date, 
then, c. 1572. 

Geddes, Dr. (Latin.) 

1. Julius Ccesar, acted at Christ Church, Oxford, 1582. 
Glapthorne, Henry. (Plays.) 

4* 1639, Jan. II, for Daniel Pakeman. Argcdus and 

Parthenia, T., 1639. 
8. 1639, Sept. 23, for George Hutton. Albertus Wed- 

lenstein, T., 1640. 
3. 1640, April 4, for Francis Constable. The Ladies' 

Priviledffe, C, 1640. 
5. 1640, April 27, for Francis Constable. Wit in a 

Constable, C, 1640. 

2. 1640, May 22, for Widow Wilson. The Hollander, 

C, 1640. 
I. Eger. MS. 1994, The Lady Mother, C. 
I. 1635, Oct 15, Tlie Lady Motlicr was licensed by W. 
Blagrave, " the reformations observed " [for the Eevels Com- 
pany at Salisbury Court; cf. ii. i, "This boy does sing as 
like the boy at Whitefriars as ever I heard"]. Probably 
the same play as Tlie Nolle Trial, S. E. 1660, June 29, of 
which one MS. [the stage one] was destroyed by War- 
burton's cook. The MS. from which Mr. A. H. BuUen 
prints the play was the copy corrected by Blagrave. For 
a probable third title see the last line — 

" There is no Arraignment like to that of Love." 

From ii. i it appears that one of the musicians was called 
Jarvis. In the same scene Tlie Fine Companion (Marmion's, 
acted by the Prince's men at Salisbury Court) and Joans 
as good as my Lady (by Heywood ; altered, I think, into A 
Maidenhead tvcll Lost, acted by Queen Henrietta's men at 



GLAPTHORNK 245 

the Cockpit) are alluded to. Both these plays were pro- 
bably still on the stage. 

2. The Hollander was acted at the Cockpit and before 
their Majesties at Court by their Majesties* servants Written 
iu 1635 ; but "then acted" in the title must mean tlvere" 
after acted, for their Majesties' company did not exist till 
1637. All local allusions in the play agree with 1635 ^^ 
the date of writing. 

3. The Ladies^ PrivUedgt was acted at the Cockpit and 
before their Majesties at Whitehall twice by their Majesties' 
servants. Glapthome is called "the new author" in the 
Prologue. The title is alluded to in Brome's Mad Couple 
well maiched, a play which also belonged to their Majesties' 
players, who had retained it from Queen Henrietta's. The 
Ladies' Privilcdge was probably acted, but not written, 
before The Hollander in 1636. 

4. Argalus and Parihcnia was acted at Court before 
their Majesties and at the Cockpit by their Majesties' ser- 
vants probably in 1638. It is founded on The Arcadia 
of Sidney. 

5. Wit in a Oonstaile was written in 1639, and acted 
at the Cockpit, but not at Court, by their Majesties' ser- 
vants. In V. 2 the " swine-faced gentlewoman " is said to 
have been introduced in two plays ; but the plays seem not 
to be extant. This play is clearly an older version refur- 
bished. Thoroughgood and Tristram in i., iL, iii. become 
Freewit and Grimes in iv., v. ; and the occasional retention 
of the earlier names in iv., v. shows that this was the part 
of the play rewritten. The older part dates probably c. 
1636. 

6. TJu DucJiess of Femandina, T., entered S. E. 1660, 
June 29, with The Nolle Trial, is lost, the MS. having 
been destroyed by Warburton's servant, as well as that of 



246 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

7. The Vestal, T., which, not having been entered S. E., 
was probably a second title of some other play ; perhaps of 
ArgcUus and Parthenia. 

8. Albertus Wallenstein, T., was acted by the King's men 
at the Globe, but not at Court. Chronologically, it must 
come either first or last of Glapthorne's plays. In deference 
to general opinion, I should have noticed it first ; but my 
own belief is that it should stand last. I think that it 
could hardly have been written in 1634, immediately after 
Wallenstein's death, 25th Feb. 1634, although such plays 
as represented contemporaneous history sometimes suc- 
ceeded the facts without delay. Compare, for instance, 
Fletcher's BamavelcU, For, on the other hand, a passage 
in V. I : — 

" Retreat into tbat fortress of your mind, 
Your resolution ; call it up to guard 
Your soul from timorous thoughts ! Are you the man 
Have swayed the Roman emj)iTe four-aTid'twenty years," &c., 

requires for fact and metre (which is terribly mangled in the 
printed copy) that we should read fourteen (xiv. for xxiv.), 
for Ferdinand had in 1634 been Emperor fourteen years. 
Of course this error may have been accidental, but as in 
1639, the date I would give to the play, Charles I. had 
been King just fourteen years, I suspect that the alteration 
was intentional, to avoid suspicion of any covert allusion to 
Lim. It is more likely that Glapthorne's career should 
end with the principal company than that it should begin 
there ; and all his early plays seem to have been comedies. 

9. Eevenge for Honor. See Anonymous plays. 
Glapthome also published PoeTns in 1639, and White- 

hall, a poem, in 1642. I have not been able to identify 
the Lucinda of the poems. Among these is that To 



GOFFE— GOLDINGHAM. 247 

Ezechid Fenn ^ " at his first acting a man's part/' viz., after 
1635, when he acted Sophonisba in Nabbes' Hannibal and 
Sdpio. 

GoFFE, Thomas. (University Plays.) 

1. 163 1, Sept 7, for Eichard Meighen. T/ie Raging 

Turk (Bajazet 2), T., 1631, 1656. 

2 . 1 6 3 1 , Sept. 7, for Eichard Meighen. Tht Courageous 

Turk (Amurath i), T., 1632, 1656. 

3. Orestes, T., 1633, 1656. 

4. The Careless Shepherdess^ P. T. C, 1656. 

Born in Essex c. 1592; educated at Westminster 
School; entered as student of Christ Church, Oxford, 
1 609 ; B.A., M. A. ; preferred to the living of East Clan- 
don, Surrey, 1623. Died July 1627. The "three excel- 
lent tragedies," i, 2, 3, as they are called in the 1656 
edition, were written after he took his M.A. degree [c. 
161 5], and before his leaving the University in 1623. 
They were acted by the Christ Church students ; he spoke 
the Prologue to Orestes himself. 4. The Careless Shepherdess 
was acted before the King and Queen at Salisbury Court ; 
therefore not earlier than 1629. It has an Induction, the 
scene of which is in Salisbury Court, and which must, there- 
fore, be dated after Gofife's death. The scene of the play 
is in Arcadia. To the printed copy an erroneous list of all 
plays then in print is appended. Some catalogues mention 
a Pastoral called Tlie Careless Shepherd ; perhaps the same 
play. 

GoLDiNGHAM, WiLLi. M. (Latin.) 

I . MS., Univ. Library, Cambridge. EerodeSy T. ; 
dedicated to Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhrrst. 



^ In my Ilittory of the Stage ^ p. 321, the printer has made Fenn act the 
Duke of Mantua in 163 1 by omitting to bracket thia character with the 
" Merchant " aboTe, acted by Axen. 



24 S THE ENGLISH DKAMA. 

GoMiRSAL, RoBEBT. (Play.) 

I. 1628, Feb. 27, for John Marriott. Ztidavick 
Sforza, Duke of Milan, T., 1628, 1633. 

Bom in London 1600 ; student at Christ Church, Oxford, 
1614 ; B.A. c. 162 1 ; M.A., B.D. ; left Oxford 1627 ; pub- 
lished his Poems and play 1628 ; afterwards held the living 
of Flower, Northamptonshire. An enlarged edition of his 
Poems and play appeared in 1633. The play was probably 
never acted. 

GossoN, Stephex. (Plays.) 

Bom in Kent 1554; scholar of Christ Church, Oxford, 
4th April 1572; came to London 1 576. Wrote pastorals 
(plays), one of which was i . Catiline's Con^racies, which was 
acted at the Theater ; then wrote his ScJiool of Abuse against 
plays 1579) and dedicated it to Sidney. Then two more 
of his plays, 2. The comedy of Captain MariOy " a cast of 
Italian devices," and 3. Praise at Parting ^ a moral, came to 
the stage ; and Lodge answered his tractate, which Gosson 
had amplified, by A Short Apology of the School of Abuse, 
appended to his Uphemerides of Phialoy 1579. Then 
Grosson answered Lodge in his Plays confuted in Five 
Actions [1581-2]. He also wrote Quips for Upstart 
New-fangled Gentlewomen, 1596. He was a private tutor 
in the country before taking orders; published 1598 The 
Trumpet of War ; preached at Paul's Cross ; then became 
parson of Great Wigborow, Essex ; and finally rector of St. 
Botolph, Bishopsgate, from 1600 to 1623, Feb. 13, when 
he died. He wrote verses for Florio's First Fruits, 1578; 
Nicholas' West Indies, 1578; and Kerton's Mirror of 
Mans ZifCj 1 5 80. See Lodge for further particulars. 

The chief interest in Gosson now centres in the theatrical 
allusions in his writings. Thus, in his School of Ahise, p. 1 1 
(reprint by the Shak. Soc), his mention of the lion*s skin 



GOSSON. 249 

upon ^sop's ass and Hercules' shoes on a child's feet goes 
far to settle the reading in King John, i. 2, 144 (my edi- 
tion) ; p. 20, he tells us the first comedies smelt of Plautus 
(this is important), those of our days (i 579) taste of Menan- 
der ; p. 29; the access to the theatres (built 1 576) had been 
restrained many times ; p. 30, he mentions two prose books 
performed at the Bell Savage, The Jew and Ptolemy at the 
Bull, The Blacksmith's Daughter and Catiline's Conspiracy at 
the Theater, on all which see my History of the Stage^ and 
under their titles in the present work. 

In his Third Blast, 1580, p. 123 (Hazlitt's JRoxburgh 
Library)^ he says, " My wits were exercised in the inven- 
tion of those follies;" p. 143, he refers to ''The tragical 
comedy of Calisttis, where the bawdress Scelestina inflamed 
the maiden Melebeia with her sorceries;" p. 147, "Need 
and Flattery are two brothers, and the eldest servitors in 
the Court ; they were both scholars unto Aristippus." This 
alludes to the Fulwell and Edwards quarrel of 1 561-4, on 
which see my History of the Stage, p. 60 ; and finally, p. 
145, he refers to the children actors as "pigmies," and to 
the play of Pompey, 

In his Plays confuted, 1582, p. 188, he again refers to 
Pompey and The Fabii as acted at the Theater, and says 
" The Palace of Pleasure, The Golden Ass, The Ethiopian 
History, Amatis of France, The Bound Taile," bawdy come- 
dies in Latin, French, Italian, and Spanish, have been 
thoroughly ransacked to furnish the playhouses in London. 
In pp. 189, 202, The Play of [about] Plays is said to have 
been acted at the Theater 29th Feb. last; 1.0, in 1580, the 
last Leap-year. This proves that my conjecture was right. 
Leicester's men acted it at Theater then, and as the 
play of Delight at the Court 1580, Dec. 26. The char- 
acters are given by Collier : Life, Delight^ Zeal, Glut, He- 



250 THE ENGLISH DRAMA, 

creatioD, and Tediousness. In p. 189 we also find mention 
of the song of The Maid of Kent and the speech of The 
Stalled rogv/e [not "rage," as printed], 

GoDGH, J. (Play.) 

I. 1640, Jan. 3 1, for "William Leake. The Strange Dis- 
covery^ T. O., by J. G., 1640. Some copies have the name 
J. Gough in full. This play is founded on Theagines and 
Charidea, by Heliodorus (compare The Queen of Ethiopia, 
Anon. 66). 

Gbeville, Fulke, Lord Brooke. (Plays.) 

1. 1608, Nov. 25, for Nathaniel Butter. Mustapha, 

T., 1609, 1633. 

2. 1 63 2, Nov. I o, for Henry Seile. Alaham, T., 1633. 
Bom at Beauchamp Court, Warwickshire, 1554; Fellow- 
Commoner of Trinity, Cambridge; afterwards studied at 
Oxford; travelled on the Continent; was introduced at 
Court ; held lucrative appointment in the Marches of Wales ; 
was knighted 1 597 ; Member for Warwickshire and Knight 
of the Bath 1603; Chancellor of the Exchequer 161 5; 
Baron Brooke of Beauchamp Court 1620; Lord of the 
Bedchamber 162 1. Was mortally stabbed by a serving- 
man 30th Sept. 1628. 

His plays were on the Seneca model, with Choruses and 
Inductions ; probably not acted. His poems, &c., are be- 
yond the scope of this work. 
Greene, Robert. (Plays.) 

2. 1593, Dec. 7, for John Danter. Orlando FuriosOj 
H., I S94. Transferred to Cuthbert Burbye 28 th 
May 1594, and printed for him by Danter. 
5. 1594, May 14, for E. White. Bacon and Bunguy, 

H., 1594, IS99» 1630, 1655. 
8. 1594, May 14, for T. Creede. James 4, H., 1598. 
10. Selimus, H., 1594, for T. Creede. 



GREENE. 251 

I. AlpJumms of Arragon, C. H., 1599, for T. Creede. 

This and the preceding play, not in S. E., were 

no doubt obtained by Creede in 1594 (compare 

James 4). 
3. 1595, April I, for Cuthbert Burbye. The Pinrur 

of WaJcefidd, C, 1 5 99. 

KoN- Dramatic Works. 

1580, Oct. 3, for Thomas Woodcock. Mamillia, "a 
Mirror or Looking-glass for the Ladies of England. By 
Robert Greene, Graduate in Cambridge," 1583. 

1 581. Mar. 20, for Edward White. A ballad on YotUh's 
Eepcntance, Not extant. " By Greene." 

1 581, July 10, for Richard Jones. The Exhortation of 
London unto her children, &c., is probably the same work 
(though somewhat differing in title) as The Hxhortation, &c., 
"by R. G.," printed for N. Ling 1584 (see Collier, iii. 149, 
and compare S. R.). Not extant. 

The Mirror of Modesty , 1584, for Roger Ward, "by R. 
G., Master of Arts," was probably Greene's next work, and 
written 1583. 

Planetomachiay 1585, for Thomas Cadman, "by Robert 
Greene, Master of Arts and Student in Physic," was almost 
certainly produced in 1583, when the conjunction of Saturn 
and Jupiter on 22nd April excited much attention to 
popular astronomy. 

1583, Sept. 6, for W. Ponsonby. Mamillia, the second 
part of T?u Triumph of Fallas, 1593, "by Robert Greene, 
Master of Arts in Cambridge." Dated 7th July, " from my 
study in Clare Hall." 

1 584, April 1 1, for W. Ponsonby. Gwidonius, The Card 
of Fancy (with the debate between Folly and Love trans- 



252 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

lated from the French), " by Eobert Greene, Master of Art 
in Cambridge," 1584, 1587, 1593, 1608. 

1584, Aug. 13, for Hugh Jackson. Arbasto, The 
Anatomy of Fortune (The King of Denmark's love to fair 
Doralicia), 1626, "by Eobert Greene, Master of Art. 
Omne tulit punctttm qui miscuit utile duUi *' [but this is a 
late and probably altered title]. To which is usually added 
Gale's Pyramus and Thisbe. 

Mo7undo, The Tritameron of love, 1584, for Edward 
White, " by Eobert Greene, Master of Arts in Cambridge ; " 
1587, by John Wolfe. 

1586, Aug. 8, for E. White. Morando (including the 
second part, 1587, by J. Wolfe for E. White, "by Eobert 
Greene, Master of Arts in Cambridge "). 

1 587, June 1 1, for Edward Aggas. Gretftve's Farewdl to 
Folly (but not then published). 

1587, June 26, for Thomas Cadman and E. Aggt^. 
Penelope's Web (with three Comical histories), "by Eobert 
Greene, Master of Arts in Cambridge. Omne tvlit punetum 
qui miscuit utUe dtdci" [1587], 160 1. 

1587, Sept. 18, for E. White. Fuphues, his censure to 
Philautus (Hector and Achilles). ^^ Pobertus Oreene, in 
artihus Magister, Fa hahentur optima, &c." Dedicated to 
the Earl of Essex, 1587, 1634. 

1 588, Mar. 29, for E. White. Perimedes the Blacksmith. 
"Omne • • . dulci" Dedicated to Gervase Clifton, 1588. 

1588, May I, for T. Cadman, **two copies, whereof he 
is to bring the titles." One of these was probably Pan- 
dostOj The Triumph of Time, Temporis fUia Veritas (Dorastus 
and Fawnia), " by Eobert Greene, Master of Arts in Cam- 
bridge. Omne . . . rft^/ci;" 1588, for T. Cadman; 1607, 
1609, 1614, 1619, 1629, 1632, 1636, 1655, &c. 

1588, Dec. 9, for John Wolfe (who probably printed it 



GREENE. 253 

for E. White). Alcida, Greent's Metamorphosis, 1617, "by 
E. G. Omne . . . dvlei " (late title ; probably altered). 

Ciceronis AmoTy Tally's Zovc, by li. Bobinson for T. 
Kewmau and J. Winnington, 1589, "by Eobert Greene, in 
artibus mdgister. Omnc . . . dvlci" Dedicated to L. Strange, 
1592, 1597) 1601, 1605, 1609, 1611, 161S, 1616, 1628, 
1639. 

1589, Feb. I, for Thomas Cadman. The Spanidi Mas- 
qtcerado, " by Eobert Greene, in artibus Magister" 1589, bis, 

1589, Aug. 23, for Sampson Clark. MenapJion, 
Camilla*s alami to slumbering Euphucs [Lyly, j.v,] in his 
mdancJwly cell at Silcxedra. " Bdbcrtus Greene, in artibtis 
Magister, Omne tulit punctum" with address by Nash. 
1589, 1599, 1605, 1610 (Gree7ic*s Arcadia), 1616, 1634. 

1 590, Feb. 9, for E. White. Greene's Orpharion (Orpheus 
and Arion), 1599. " Omnc . . . dulci, Bdbcrtus Greene, in 
artibus Magister " (late title ; probably altered). 

1590, April IS, for Thomas Nelson. Cornucopia, or 
Tlie Boyal Exchange, 1590, I. Charlewood for W. Wright. 
'* Bob. Greene, in artibus Magister." Translated from the 
Italian. 

Never too late, or A Powder of Experience. "Bob. Greene, 
in artibus Magister. Omne tulit punctum." 1590, by T. 
Orwin for N. L[ing] and J. Busbie. 

Francesco's Fortunes, or 2 Never too late, 1590, for K. 
L[ing] and J. Busbie. " Sero sed serio. Bobertus Greene, in 
Artibus Magister." 1600, 1607, i6i6, 1621, 1631, n.d. 

1 590, Nov. 2, for J. Wolfe. Greene's Mourning Garment, 
1590* I597> 1616, by G. Purslowe. "By E. Greene, 
ntriusqtce Academic in artibus Magister. Sero sed serio " 
(late title ; apparently not altered). 

GrecTie's Farewell to Folly, 1591, by T. Scarlet for T. 
Gnbbin and T. Newman. " Sero sed scrio. Eobert Greene, 



254 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

idHusqxic Academix in artibus Magister" 1617 (cf. 1587, 
June 11). 

1591, Dec. 6, for T. Nelson. A Maiden's Dream, On 
the death of Sir Christopher Hatton [Nov. 20], " by Eobert 
Greene, Master of Arts," 1 5 9 1 . 

1591, Dec. 13, for E. White and T. Nelson, i Cony- 
catching, 1 591, A Notable Discovery of Cozenage, for T. N. 
" Naseimur pro patriccy by R. Greene, Master of Arts;" 1592. 

1 591, Dec. 13, for E. White and T. Nelson, 2 Cony- 
catching ; 1 5 9 1 , for W. Wright ; 1592, with new additions. 
" Mallcm non esse quam non prodesse patrice, R. G." 

1592, Feb, 7, for T. Scarlet. 3 Conyeatehing (with 
Fooltaking), 1592, by T. Scarlet for C. Burbie, "by 
R. G." 

He and She Cony catcher (Thief and Whore), with the 
Conversion of an English Courtesan, 1592. "Nascimur 
pro Patria. By R. G." 1592, by A. I[slip] for T. 
G[ubbins]. 

Thieves falling oiU Tnie men come by their Goods, or The 
Bellman wanted a Clapper, A peal of new Villanies rung 
out. 1 6 1 S , f or T. G[ubbins] ; " By Robert Greene." [Evi- 
dently near in date to the preceding.] 16 17, 1637. 

1592, July I, for E. White. Philomela, The Lady 
Fitzwaier's Nightingale, 1592, 1615. "By Robert Greene. 
Utriusqxie Academics in ArtHnis Magister, Sero sed serio," 
163 1, n.d. 

1592, July 21, for J. Wolfe. A Quip for an Upstart 
Cotcrtier (Velvet Breeches and Cloth Breeches), 1592 (three 
editions, one non -extant containing the attack on the 
Harveys), 1606, 1615, 1620, 1625, 1635. Chiefly taken 
from Pride and Lowliness ; usually, but wrongly, ascribed to 
F. Thynne. 

1592, Aug. 2 1, for T. Nelson. The Black Book's Messen- 



GREENE. 25 s 

' gtr (Ned Browne the Cutpurse). Nascxmurpro pati^ia. " By 
R G." 1592. 

Greene's Vision, written at the instant of his Death [3rd 
Sept. 1592]. " Sero sed serio," for T, Newman [i 592]. 

1592, Sept. 20, for W. Wright. Greene*s Chroatsworth of 
Wit, bought with a Million of Eepentance. Published [by 
Chettle] at his dying request, 1592, 1596, 1600, 16 16, 
1 61 7. ^^Felicem fuisse infattstuniy* 1620, 162 1, 1629, 
1637, n.d. 

1592, Oct. 6, for J. Danter. 7%e Repentance of Bobert 
Grreene, Master of Arts, 1592, for Cuthbert Burbie. 

Eobert Greene, born at Norwich, took his B.A. degree at 
St. John's, Cambridge, 1578, having previously travelled in 
Italy and Spain, where he practised " such villany as is 
abominable to declare," his proneness to mischief being due 
to his mother's pampering and secretly supplying him with 
money. Immediately after his B.A. he must, if the dates 
in Francesco's Fortunes are to be trusted, have married a 
wife, with whom he lived for seven years. No doubt exists 
that Francesco as well as Eoberto in T/ie Farewell to Folly 
are impersonations of Greene himself ; still, some allowance 
must be made for the necessities of romance. According 
to this Francesco account, Isabel eloped with him from near 
Caerbranck (Brancaster, in Norfolk), where Francesco lived, 
and the marriage took place at Dunecastrum (Doncaster), 
whither her father pursued them, and imprisoned Fran- 
cesco on a charge of felony. He was freed, and got wealth 
by teaching of a school. After five years they were recon- 
ciled to Isabel's father, and visited him at Caerbranck. 
This would be in 1583, when Greene had taken his M.A. 
at Clare Hall, from which college he dated 2 Mamillia, 
7th July. At this time he was a " student in physic " (see 
Planetomachia). On 19th June 1584 he, having taken 



256 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

orders, was presented to the vicarage of ToUesbury, in 
Essex (Oct. Gilchrist), no doubt the place where he had 
been schoolmaster. In 1585 c. Mar. he resigned his posi- 
tion there, and went to London (Troynovant), leaving his 
wife, by whom he had one son "six years" (in round 
numbers), before the Francesco story was published, c. Oct. 
1590. In 1586, March (if I am right in identifying him 
with " Eobert the Parson "), he went to Denmark as actor 
as Leicester's man, and was in Saxony in October. The only 
work of his appearing in London at this time was 2 Aforando, 
which had, it seems, been in the publisher's hands from 
1584. On his return, "three years" (round numbers 
again) after leaving his wife, who had returned to Lincoln- 
shire (Repentance), and. forming a connexion with Infida 
(Cutting Ball's sister, by whom he had a son, Fortunatus), 
Francesco took to writing plays. From the Roberto narra- 
tive it appears that the actor who introduced him to the 
company for which he wrote (the Queen's men) had once 
played "fardle a footback," had now "playing apparel" 
worth more than £"200, was famous in acting Del Phrygxis 
and The Kinig of Fairies^ Hie 1 2 Labors of Hercules and 
The Highway to Heaven, had penned Man's Wit, a moral ; 
Dives, a dialogue, and " for seven years' space was absolute 
interpreter of the puppets ; " an extempore rhymer, whose 
" almanac " is now out of date. This can be only Robert 
Wilson. In Perimedes, S. R. 29th Mar. 1588, he resumed 
his " old posy," onine tulit punctum, which he abandoned in 
Euphues' censure for Ea hahcntur, &c., and had first used in 
Penelope's Web. " Two gentlemen poets made two madmen 
of Rome {i.e., London), beat it out of their paper bucklers " 
{i.e., pamphlets; the phrase does not necessarily refer to 
plays, as R. Simpson takes it) ; but Greene expressly adds, 
" I but answer in print what they have uttered on the stage." 



GREENK 237 

These mottoes of Greene's are the key to the chronology 
of bis writings ; they are carefully displayed in the list of 
liis prose works already given, chiefly in view of that ques- 
tion. These poets had also derided him for the inferiority 
of his blank verse to that of Tamherlane and " The mad 
priest of the sonne" (Dyce, p. 35). This must refer to his 
Alp/umsuSf written in direct rivalry to Tamherlane. Their 
motto allusion I am unable to identify ; but the two poets, 
whom Greene further describes as novices, pothouse fre- 
quenters, and bred of Merlin's race, must, I think, have been 
Marlow (Marlin) and Kyd. In this year, 1588, Greene 
was incorporated at Oxford, and from the Latin verses pre- 
fixed to Alddttf 9th Dec, it appears that up to this time he 
was suffering from a tedious fever in the country. 

On 23rd Aug. 1589 Menapkon was entered S. B. The 
" dark enigmas or strange conceits " in Greene's address are 
his way of acknowledging that the work is a personal satire 
(compare " if I speak mystically " in the address to TvUy'e 
Love). The clown Doron, p. 74 (Arber's reprint), makes 
this speech : " We had a ewe among our rams whose fleece 
was as white as the hairs that grow on father Boreas' chin, 
or as the dangling dewlap of the Silver Bull; her front 
curled like to the Erimanthian Boar, and spangled like to 
the worsted stockings of Saturn ; her face like Mars tread- 
ing upon the milk-white clouds; . . . her eyes like the 
fiery torches tilting against the moon." In The Taming of 
a ShreWy Sc. 2, Kate is described as '' whiter than icy hair 
that grows on Boreas' chin" (this Mr. Simpson pointed 
out) ; in Sc. 5 Aurelius' love is " as fair as is the milk- 
white way of Jove." In Hamlet ^ iii. 4, 56 (a play founded 
by Shakespeare on an old play of Kyd's : see Kyd), we still 
read even in the altered play : — 

^ Hyperion's carls, the front of Jove himself, 
An eye like Mar^s ; " 
VOU I. R 



2sS THE EXGLISH DRAMJL 

wheat Qi has *a face to outface liars hiiiisdl:* and tLit 
Krd was the anthor sadrised is clear from the reference 
in Xash*s address (compare Nash) to " the Kid * in JEsop 
and the ** whole Hamlets of tragical speeches.' Had ve 
the old HaTnlct as ve hare Tk€ Taming cf m Skrew^ I hare 
no coal^ we shoald he able to track oot a'l l>oron*s alia- 
sions. Bat this Doron shepherd {ijt^ Terse-vhter) must 
not be confused with "the Taing'orions tragedians" of 
Xasb's address. These are cleaxij actcxs, among whom 
there is one Boscios (R Wilson) ; he is identified with the 
actor who introduced Greene to the Queen's men by the 
mention of Tlu King of Fairies and Ikfjltrijiu^ and by 
his name with the Boscins of Ft-arufsto's Fort urns, who is 
taught bj the Cobler (Marlow, the Cooler's son) to sav Arc 
Carsar (ct Marlow's Fdtrard 3, L I, 164), and is as actor 
^prankt with the glory of others' feathers." Tiiis bnngs 
ns to the determination of the comi>anv wiih which 
Greene was so incensed. It had been a strolling com- 
pany, and was now rivalling the Queen's men. It was 
Pembroke's, of course ; and accordingly we find that The 
Taming of a Slirew was acted by Pembroke's men, and 
that Marlow also wrote for them (see Edward 2). More- 
over, Tlic Tariii'iig of a Shrew, Hamlet, 3 Henry 6, Ti^us 
Andronicus, and Edirard 3 all passed (no doubt together) 
from Pembroke's to the Chamberlain's men, and all these 
were in some way connected with Shakespeare, and were 
originally written, in my opinion, by either Marlow or 
Kyd. My hypothesis as to the identification of Melieert 
with Lyly, Menaphon (whom Doron, " his next neighbour," 
plainly imitates; compare pp. 31 and 74) with Marlow, 
and Pleusidippus with Greene is too conjectural to claim 
further notice here ; but I think that Moroo, lately deceased, 
is surely Tarleton; and as to Marlow, there cannot be 



GREENE. 259 

much doubt that in p. 54 he is described as "prophetical" 
(Merlin), " full mouth " (cf. " every word filling the mouth 
like the Fa burden of Bowbell/' Perimedes), teller of a 
" Canterbury tale " (Marlow was born at Canterbury), ** as 
he were a Cobler's eldest son " (he was so). 

In 1590 Never too late was published. I have already 
utilised the first part, The Palmer's Tale of Francesco, which 
is recognised as autobiographical. The continuation of 
Francesco's Fortunes in Part 2 is, however, not so. It con- 
tains a reunion with his wife, which, if Greene desired it at 
this time, as I suppose he did, never came to pass. But 
there is another story. The Host's tale, which requires notice. 
MuUidor ^^ was of honest parents, but very poor ; . . . cast 
in JEsof's mould ; his back like a lute and his face like 
Thersites' ; his eyes broad and tawny ; his hair harsh and 
curled like a horse*mane; his lips of the largest size in 
Folio ; ... his nose . . . beaked like an eagle. Nature 
into his great head put little wit ; ... he was never no 
good arithmetician, and yet he was a proper scholar, and 
well seen in ditties." Subsequent allusions go far to prove 
that this was Dekker, the Thersites of Troylus and Cressida, 
the Deformed of Much Ado about Nothing, the great head 
and little wit of Wily Beguiled, the exquisite song-writer, 
the satirist of Greene, in his Old Forttmatus (q.v.), originally 
produced for the Admiral's men c. 1 589. I formerly agreed 
with Mr. Simpson in identifying MuUidor and Doron, but 
had not at that time obtained evidence of Dekker's pre- 
Shakespearian career (see Dekker). But, whichever view 
be right, in the next work. The Mourning Oarment, S. R. 
2nd November 1590, the Dedication of which contains a 
reference to the Jonah story, which forms the foundation of 
The Looking Glass, Philador, like Francesco and Roberto, is 
a reflex of Greene's own personality. Then appeared Fair 



26o THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Em {q-v.\ in which, among other things, Mandeville's (t.€., 
Greene's) purposed return to his first love is declared to be 
rejected by her. Greene, in his Farewell to Folly, accuses 
the author of " abusing of Scripture," of distilling his writing 
out of Ballads (see S. B. 1581, Mar. 2), of borrowing of 
Tiieological poets, of making himself " the father of inter- 
ludes/' evidently the Boscius who penned the moral of Man's 
Wit, &c. ; i.e., E. Wilson. 

Greene's Oroaisworth of Wit was published 20th Sept. 
1 592, edited by Chettle. Greene died Sept 4. As I have 
already noticed the autobiographical story of Boberto, it 
only remains to explain the often-quoted address to his 
'' quondam acquaintance " who make plays. He first ad- 
dresses the atheist Machiavellian (cf. Jew of Malta) gracer 
of tragedians (which word here, as always in Greene, means 
tragic actors, not writers), who is, of course, Marlow. The 
broacher of this atheism, whose disciple Greene was by him 
persuaded to be, and who died like Julian, was doubtless 
Vrancis Kett, M.A., burnt at Norwich (Greene's native place) 
Feb. 1589 for his detestable opinions against Christ. Mr. 
Simpson's suggestion that Machiavelli is meant is very un- 
lucky. Malone was, as usual, much too thoughtful to be 
easily misled in such a matter. Note especially the words 
'' the betrayer of him that gave his life for him," and '' is 
dead " surely recently. Next he addresses " Young Juvenal, 
that biting satirist, that lastly with me together writ a 
comedy;" certainly Lodge, who with. Greene wrote the 
satirical play Hu Looking Olasa for London, and some of 
whose Satires, collected as A Fig for Mormis, 2nd April 1595, 
were probably circulated in 1592. An hypothesis that 
Nash was meant has been often advocated on singularly 
weak grounds, viz. : i . Lodge was out of England. But 
this argument is quite valueless ; he could be as well written 



GREEXK 261 

to, in print, out of England as in it. 2. Greene calls him 
" sweet boy," Lodge being older than Greene " by about two 
years/' says Mr. Simpson in his usual haphazard way. In 
fact, neither the age of Greene nor that of Lodge are known, 
and all probabilities point to Greene- being a little the elder. 
3. Young Juvenal was not a professed play-writer, nor was 
Lodge. He carefully kept his play-writing, " whence shame 
<Ioth grow," as secret as he could, and only two plays (one 
being that written with Greene) passed the press under his 
name. But Nash's only play, written before Greene's death, 
was being acted at Court, not in public, at the very time 
Greene was writing this tractate ; and there is no trace of 
any " sharp and bitter lines " by him (for " lines " implies 
verse), and Nash's bitterness is all prose. The third author, 
^* in some things rarer, in nothing inferior," is admitted by 
every one to be Peele. Then Greene turns against players, 
" puppets that speak from our mouths ; antics gamisht in our 
colors : " one crow especially " beautified with our feathers," 
with " his Tiger's heart wrapt in a player's hide " (cf. 3 Henry 
6, i. 4), is not content with his proper calling, but aspires 
to play-writing, and supposes he " can bombast out a blank 
verse : " a Johannes Factotum " in his own conceit the only 
Shake-scene in a country " (i.e., county). He might " insert 
against these buckram gentlemen" two more (t.e., Eyd and 
Wilson) •* that both have writ. As for new-comers, he 
troubles not." Now, a glance at the table p. 95 of my 
History of the Stage shows that Lord Strange's men, between 
19th February and 22nd June, acted plays by Marlow {Tlu 
Jew of Malta), Lodge {The Looking Glass), Peele (Mullimorco), 
Kyd (Jeronymo), Wilson (probably The Knack to Know a 
Knavi)^ and Greene {Ba^m and Orlando). Moreover, the 
great success of the season had been i Henry 6, written by 
several of these men, but produced as a new play with the 



262 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

addition of Shakespeare's Talbot scenes. Can there be any 
doubt as to the company he aims at ? Only, I think, in the 
minds of the followers of Mr. J. 0. H. Phillips, who makes 
Shakespeare travel at this time with Pembroke's company. 

For all that is known of the end of Greene at the shoe- 
maker's near Dowgate ; his hostess, Mrs. Isom ; his keep- 
ing of Cutting Ball's sister, and of her son, Fortunatus 
Greene, who died Aug. 1593, see Dyce's Account of B. 
Green. For his quarrel with Harvey see Nash ; where 
also his share in the anti-Martinist controversy will find a 
fitter place. But before noticing bis plays I must note 
that Nash, in his Apology for Piers Penniless, says that 
" Greene was the chief agent of the company [the Queen's 
company of course, the only one that could be called " the 
company "], for he wrote more than four others." 

I. The comical history of Alphonsm King of Arragon 
was acted soon after Tamberlane, to which there is an 
allusion in iv. 3, probably by the Queen's men, as it is 
mentioned as " Mahomet's pow " by Peele in his Farewell, 
April 1589, with other plays. A second part, ''when I 
come to finish up his life," was intended, but not produced, 
probably in consequence of the first not being successful. 
That it was one of Greene's earliest plays is evident. In 
the Presentation Venus says (or rather Greene says) : — 

" And this my hand, which ua^d for to pen 
The praise of love and Cupid's peerless power, 
Will now begin to treat of bloody Mors ; " 

and with still clearer allusion to his previous prose tales : — 

*' I that was wont to treat of Cupid's games 
Will put in ure Minerva's sacred art" 

There is no motto to this play. As Venus is "let down 
from the top of the stage," it may be the play satirised for 



GREENK 263 

its " descending throne " in the Prologue of Jonson's Every 
Man in Ms Humor (which Gifibrd could not explain), especi- 
ally as it was published in 1 599. T. Creede, the publisher, 
seems to have published Queen's plays only. 

2. The History of Orlando Furioso, one of the twelve 
peers of France, was published in a much abridged version 
as it was played before the Queen. In The Defence of 
Co^My Catching^ S. B. 2 ist April 1 592, Greene is accused of 
selling it to the Queen's players, to whom it no doubt 
properly appertained, for twenty nobles (;£'6, 1 3s. 4d), and 
when they were in the country to the Admiral's for as much 
more. This must mean^ I think, on the Queen's men's 
breaking in Dec. 1591. But the MS. at Dulwich, con- 
taining the full version of Orlando's part (as acted by 
Alleyn), belongs to the time when he revived the play for 
L. Strange's men, 21st Feb. 1592, when he was their 
manager; there is no trace of it for the Admiral's men, 
who were subsequently under him, and L. Strange's men no 
doubt got it from the Queen's, like so many other plays. 
There is an allusion to the repulse of the Armada in Sc. i, 
where Brandimart rebates the Spanish fleets who come to 
subdue the islands; the date of production is therefore c. 
1 588-9. The line, sc. i — 

** I am no king, yet am I princely bom," 

is harped on in The Shoemaker's Holiday. Curiously, the 
phrase, "Ave to GsBsar," which Greene satirises when used 
by Marlow in Edward 3, occurs in Sc. 3, both plays dating 
in the same year. Compare Peele, Old Wives Tale, for 
further allusions to this play, especially the four lines 
quoted by Eumenides Sc. 11, the " three blue beans in a blue 
bladder " Sc. 8, and the name Sacripant. Compare Orlando, 
Sc. I and Sc. 5 (Alleyn MS.). 



264 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

3. Greorge a Gfreene, the Pinner of Wakefield, has been 
ascribed to Greene because a copy exists with MS. inscrip- 
tions : " Ed. Jxxhj saith it was made by Bo. Greene/' and, in 
a different hand, "Written by ... a minister, who acted 
the pinner's part in it himself. Teste W. Shakespeare." But 
there are two hands in the play. In Sc. 13 "all the merry 
shoemakers " dwell at " the town of merry Bradford." Sc 
1 1 is a replica of Sc. 13 at " the town of merry Wakefield." 
Again, just before the Jenkin bit in Sc. 13 the King will 
send for George ; at the end of it he will go to him. Sc. 
1 3 (except this inserted bit), 3, 5, 9, I assign to Greene. 
This part of the play is independent of and has different 
characters from the rest, except at the d^navsment The 
other part is, I think, Peele's. The version we have is 
preatly abridged (for country performance, I suppose), as 
Sussex' men acted it. They played it at the Bose as an old 
play at Christmas 1593. But they probably got it from 
the Queen's ; there is no trace of Greene's writing for Sussex' 
men. It is, like Peele's Old Wives* Tale (a Queen's play), 
called " a pleasant conceited comedy." Will Perkins, Sc 1 3, 
and I think John Taylor, Sc. i, are names of actors. The 
date of original production is probably c. 1588—9 (see the 
reference to Tamberlane, Sc. i ; see also Wily Beguiled), 

4. The History of Job, the MS. of which was destroyed 
by Warburton's servant, is not otherwise known. It does 
not appear in S. B. 1594, although Mr. Halliwell retains 
the statement that it does (as usual with him) without 
verification. 

5. The Honorable History of Friar Bacon and Friar 
Bungay was played by Her Majesty's servants. The motto, 
Omne . • • dulci implies a date before 29th August 1589, 
when Greene shortened his motto in Menaphon. In Sc. i 
St. James' Day comes on a Friday. This happened in 1 578, 



GREENK 265 

1589, 1595. I assign this play to 1589, c. March. It is 
a rival to Faustus of 1588, and was in turn parodied in 
Fair Em ; compare the title The Fair Maid of FressingJUld^ 
implied all through the play, with Fair Em, the Miller's 
daughter of Manchester. This latter repeats the plots of 
Bacon and of Tullys love so far as the wooing for a friend 
is concerned, and again of Bacon in the three suitors for the 
Fair Maid ; but offended Greene by the rejection of Manvile 
(i,e., Greene himself) after his inconstancy, which contrasts 
with the acceptance of Lacy. I have already pointed out 
that this was personal to Greene. Bctcon was revived 
with other Queen's plays by L. Strange's men 1 9th Feb. 
1 592 ; was retained by Henslow, and acted at the Hose ist 
April 1594 by the Queen's and Sussex' men, and by the 
Admiral's men at Court, with Prologue and Epilogue by 
Middleton, Christmas 1602. But from the ending in the 
1 594 edition, I judge that it had been acted at Court at an 
earlier date. 

6. The reign of King John (see under Lodge). 

7. 1 , 2 Henry 6 (see my Life of Shakespeare). 

8. The Scottish History of James 4, slain at Flodden, 
intermixt with a pleasant comedy presented by Oboram 
(Oberon) King of Fairies, has the motto Omne ttdit punctum, 
which Greene used from Aug. i 589 to c. Oct. 1590. Tlie 
character Ateukin is called Gnatho in ii. 2a ; iii. i , 2 (part) ; 
iv. I. This shows a second hand, which is confirmed by 
the satirical character of v. 4, a scene entirely independent 
of the rest of the play, and evidently by the principal author 
of The Looking Olass. In i. i5 Gnatho has been altered 
into Ateukin, but a dissyllable is required by the metre 
throughout the scene. In v. 2 we find " to them Ateukin 
and Gnatho/' which is quite incompatible with unity of 
authorship. I assign the scenes named to Lodge. The 



266 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

date is, I tliink, 1590; the company probably the Queen's. 
The parasites and lust of the King are said to be " much like 
our Court of Scotland this day ; " but the Doll Queen and 
the King's love for Ida remind us of the ever-recurring story 
of Greene's wife Doll and the Infida connexion, of which he, 
like James, repented. Greene's plays, as well as his prose, 
reiterate this repentance (see Bacon). Kote that all the 
plays for which Greene took sole responsibility, whether 
written entirely by him or not, are called ^' histories." The 
Induction of this play, some of the characters in which slip 
into the story presented by Bohan, is parodied in Peek's Old 
Wives' Tale. 

9. A Looking-glass for London (see Lodge). 

10. Selimxis (see Anon. 240). 
Grevile, Fulke. See p. 250. 
Gunnel, . (Plays.) 

In Herbert's OflBce-Book two plays by this author were 
licensed for the Palsgrave's men at the Fortune : — 

1. 1623, Dec. 4. The Hungarian Lion. 

2. 1624, April 17, The Way to content aU Women, 

or How a Man may please his Wife. 
Gwinne, Matthew. (Latin.) 

1. Nero,T., 1603, 1639. 

2. Vertu7nmut, C., 1607. 

Scholar of St. John's, Oxford, 1574; B.A. 14th May 
1578; Fellow; as master-regent, July 1582, he read the 
music lecture; physician; junior proctor 1588; Doctor 
of Physic 17th July 1593; went with Sir Henry Unton 
ambassador to the French Court 1595; Professor of Physic, 
Gresham College, March 1 596 ; admitted candidate of the 
College of Physicians 25th June 1604; physician of the 
Tower 1605; Fellow of the College at Physicians 22 nd 
Dec. 1605; relinquished his professorship Sept. 1607; 



HALINGTON. 267 

married. Died in Old Fish Street 1627 (Wood); was alive 
in 1639 (Dr. Ward). 

1. Nero, tragoedia nova, Matthoso Gvnnne, Med. DocL, Col- 
legii Divi Joannis prcecursoris ajnid Oxonienses socio ; collecta 
a Tacito, Suetonio, Dione, Seneca. Zondini; impensis Ed. 
Blounte, 1603, 1639. 

2. Vertumni^, sive Annus recurrens Oxonii xxix Augiisti 
anno 1 60 5 . Coram Jacobo rege^ Henrico principe, procerSnts. 
A JoannensHms in scena redtatus, db uno scriptus, Phrasi 
Comica prope Tragids senaHis. Zondini 1607; acted in 
Christ Church Hall before the sleepy King, who was over- 
wearied at St. Mary's (Nichols, James, i. 552). 

3. A dialogue of three Sibyls or Nymphs (personated by 
youths of St. John's), one for Scotland, one for England, and 
one for Ireland, was presented to the King, 1605 Aug., on his 
entering Oxford, in Latin, and then to the rest of the Boyal 
Family in EnglisL The verses allude to the identification 
of James and Banquo by the weird sisters as a recognised 
thing, and must, in my judgment, have been later than the 
earliest version of Macbeth, t.e., than 1601 (see my Life 
of Shakespeare under Macbeth, and for Gwinne's verses 
KicJwls, i. S4S). 

Habington, William. (Play.) 

I. 1640, April 2. The Queen of Arragon, T. C, 
1640. 

Son of Thomas Habington of Hendlip, Worcestershire; 
born there 4th or 5 th Nov. 1605 ; educated at St. Omers 
and Paris ; married Lucia, daughter of William Lord Powis. 
Died 30th Nov. 1654. 

I. Cleodora, the Queen of AiTogon, was acted at Court 9th 
April 1640, through the influence and at the expense of 
Piiilip Earl of Pembroke, then Chamberlain of the House- 
hold; also at Blackfriars by the King's men. It was 



268 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

published without the author's consent. In the Court per- 
formance the clothes and scenes were very rich and curious. 
Pembroke's own servants acted it at Whitehall before the 
King and Queen. Pembroke must have entered this play 
for publication while it was being prepared for Court pre- 
sentation, and the public staging at Blackfriars was pro- 
bably later still. 

Habington's poems to Castara (his wife) were published 
1634, and his Observations on History 1641. 

Hackst, John. (Latin.) 
I. Loycla^ C, 1648. 

Born in London ist Sept. 1592 ; educated at Westmin- 
ster School; entered at Trinity, Cambridge, 1608; Fellow, 
tutor ; ordained 1 6 1 8 ; chaplain to Williams, Bishop of Lin- 
coln, and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, 1621 ; chaplain 
to James I. and prebend of Lincoln 1623; rector of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn, and Cheam, Surrey, 1624. In 1625 
was named by theKing to attend the Ambassador to Germany, 
but did not go, his life being thought in danger on account 
of his treatment of the Jesuits in his play. His subsequent 
career does not concern us. He died i ith Oct. 1670. 

I. Loiola was acted before the King 19th Mar. 1622 
(the Prologue date, the 12th, is wrong; the play was put 

off), and previously before the University, 28th Feb. It 

was to have been acted on Ash-Wednesday, 26th Feb., but 

the King having sent word that the Ambassadors from Spain 

and Brussels meant to attend, it was put off on account of 

the subject, which would have been offensive to them. The 

scene is Amsterdam ; the time of action one day, " a ves^ 

pera ad vesperam.*' 

Halliwell, Edward. (Latin.) 

I. Dido J by a Fellow of King's, Cambridge, was acted 
before Queen Elizabeth in 1 564. Hatcher, MSS. collections 



HARDING— HATHWAY. 269 

in the Bodleian, says that the author was this Halliwell, 
admitted Fellow 1532. John Bightwise (admitted Fellow 
1 507) is too early in date, but doubtless he also wrote a 
play on this subject. 

Harding, Samuel. (Play.) 

I. SicUy and Naples, or The Fatal Union, T., 1640. 

Son of ^bert Harding of Ipswich; born 1618 ; sojourner 
of Exeter College, Oxford, 1634; B.A. 1638; chaplain to 
a nobleman. Died in the Civil War. 

I. This play was published by Philip Papillon, the 
author's fellow-coUegiau, with commendatory verses. Hard- 
ing also wrote an unpublished poem in praise of Browne's 
Britannia's Pastorals. 

Hathway, Richard. (Plays). 

Only known from Heuslow's Diary, Wrote for the 
Adniirars men at the Rose. 

1. 1598, April 1 1- 1 2. T/ie life and deaih of Arthur, 
King of England. 

2. 1 598, July 19. ValeTUiTU and Orson (with Monday). 
3,4. 1599, Oct. 16. I. 2. Sir John Oldcastle (with 

Drayton, Monday, Wilson ; see Drayton). 

5. 1 600, Jan. I o. Oiuen Tudor (with Drayton, Monday, 
Wilson). 

6. 1600, June 3, 14. I. Fair Constance of Borne (viith 
Drayton, Monday, Wilson). 

7. 1600, June 20. 2. Fair Constance of Borne (with 
Chettle, Day). 

8. 1 60 1, Jan. 3, II, 12. Hannibal and Scipio (with 
Rankens). 

9. 1601, Jan. 23, 26; Feb. 5, 8, 25; Mar. 6. Play 
wherein is Scogan and Skelton (with Rankens). 

10. 1 60 1, Mar. 24; April 4, 11, 16 [20]. The Con-- 
quest of Spain by John a Gaunt (with Rankens). 



270 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

11. 1 60 1, Oct 12, 22. I Six clothiers (with HaughtoD, 
Smith). 

12. 1 60 1, Nov. 3. 2 Six clothiers (with Haughton, 
Smith). 

13. 1601, Nov. 14; 1602, Jan. 17. Too good to be 
true, or The>^Northern man (with Chettle, Smith). 

14. 1602, Nov. 8, 17. As merry as may he (with Day, 
Smith). 

15. 1603, Mar. I, 7, 12. The Bosse of BiUingsgate 
(with Day). 

He also wrote for Worcester's men at the Hose. 

16. 1602, Nov. 24, 26; Dec. 20. r Black Dog of 
Nevjgate (with Day, Smith, Ac). 

17. 1603, Jan. 7, 10, 16, 19. The Unfortunate General^ 
a French History (with Day, Smith, Ac.), called wrongly 
The Fortunate General by Halliwell and Biog, Dram. 

18. 1603, Jan. 29; Feb. 3. 2 Blcu:k Dog of Newgate 
(with Day, Smith, &c.). 

1603, Feb. 21, 24, 26. Additions to the same were 
paid for to " the four poets," so that " &c." stands for one 
poet only ; perhaps Webster, but still more probably 
Chettle. 

Haughton, Harton, Haulton, or Hawton, William. 
(Plays.) 

3. 1600, Mar. 28, for Cuthbert Burby. Patient 

GrisselL 
1 . 1 60 1 , Aug. 3, for William White. A Woman will 

have her Will, 1616, 1626, 163 1. 
6. Lv^'s Dominion, 1657. 
9. (him the Collier of Croydon, 1662. 
I. IS97» Nov. 5; 1598, Feb. 18, May. A Woman 
will have her Will. Published 1601 ; but the earliest 
extant edition had been revised, for in i. 2 "the King's 



HAUGHTOK 271 

English " is mentioned ; it then, in 1 6 1 6, bore as its first 
title Englishmen for my money y which was dropped again in 
the 163 1 edition. 

2. 1599, Aug. 20, 25. The Poor Man's Paradise, 

3. 1599, Oct. [16]; Dec. 19, 26, 28, 29. Patient 
Grissell (with Chettle, Dekker). The entry of Dec. 26 is a 
receipt from Shaw for the total £6 to pay for this play in 
full, and probably includes the other payments. Henslow 
certainly did not pay ten guineas for any play at the Rose. 
On 1 8th March 1600 Henslow paid £2 to stay the print- 
ing of the play, which had been performed at the end of 
January, and entered S. R on 8 th March. It was published 
in 1603, not by Cuthbert Burby, but by Henry Rocket. 
Dekker, I think, mainly wrote the scenes in which Laureo 
and Babulo (the characters not found in the old story) 
enter, and Chettle the Welsh scenes ; Haughton the re- 
mainder, besides helping Dekker in his part. It is curious 
that V. I was evidently written in 1599, while in i. i the 
year is called "leap year," t.c, 1600. The duel in iii. 2 
between Emulo and Sir Owen is certainly the same as that 
between Brisk and Luculento in Jonson's JSvery Man out of 
his Humor^ iv. 4. See more on this point under Daniel. 
In i. I is an allusion to Loves Metamorphosis^ which was 
revived at Blackfriars by the Chapel boys in 1599. In 
ii. I we find David and Bethsdbe glanced at. In v. i the 
allusions to " pigmies " seem to me to refer indirectly to the 
Chapel children, whose patent was granted July 1 597. The 
play is one of the numerous shrew-plays of the time. The 
** terrible words " of Emulo, " complement, projects, fastidious, 
capricious, misprision, sinthesis of the soul," ii. i, are im- 
portant in the same way as the Marston words ridiculed by 
Jonson in The Poetaster. Jonson puts these same Emulo 
words into the mouth of Fastidious Brisk, t.e., Daniel. Sir 



272 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Owen, the Welsh Kuight, seems to be Lord Berkley, and 
Gwenthyan Lady Elizabeth Carey (Delia). See further 
under Jonson and Daniel. 

4. 1599, Nov. I, 14. John Cox of Collinster (Col- 
lumpton) was written (with Day). 

5» iS99i Nov. 21, 27; Dec. 5, 6. The tragedy of 
Merry^ or Beeches Tragedy (with Day). Compare Yar^ 
rington. 

6. 1600, Feb. 13. The Spanish Moors Tragedy (with 
Day, Dekker). No doubt the same play as LusCe Dominion^ 
or The Lascivious Queen^ published 1657 as Marlow's. In 
this play I think Haughton wrote the scenes in which 
Crab and Cole enter, Day that with Oberon and those 
with Emanuel, and Dekker the rest The scenes are 
absurdly arranged in the editions. I give here, however, 
my division according to them: Dekker, i. i— ii. i; v; 
Haughton, ii. 2—5; iii. 5, 6; Day, iii. 1-4; iv. But 
although the play as it stands dates in 1600, it was 
certainly founded on an older one. There is throughout 
an undercurrent of pre-Shakespearian work, and in ii. 6 
an alternative reading (a sure mark of alteration) left by 
accident : — 

'* He gone, thou'rt next ; 
Be sound in resolution, and farewell ! 
By one and one I'll slip you all to hell," 

was meant to be erased in favour of : — 

<< Spain, I will drown thee with thine own proud blood ; 
Then make an ark of carcases : farewell ! 
Revenge and I will sail in blood to hell ; " 

and again in iii. 2 " a bloody horrid tragedy " contains two 
alternative epithets ; ^' bloody " was intended to make way 
for " horrid." There is no reason why the original play 
should not have been written by Marlow for the Admiral's 



HAUGHTON. 273 

men c. 1588, or rather perhaps by Marlow and Dekker. 
There are continual echoes of Doctor Faiisttis and Taniber^ 
laine throughout. The " Old Cole, now look about " in 
Look about you, Sc. 28, 1600, alludes to this play, Fau- 
conbridge having apparently been played by the same actor 
as Cole in the present play. This shows that it was written 
before the pyhliccUum of Look abotit you. 

7. 1600, Mar. 1,2, 8. Tfie Seven Wise Masters (with 
Chettle, Day, Dekker). 

8. 1 600, Mar. 1 8. Ferrex and Porrex. 

9. 1 600, Mar. [May] 6. The Devil and his Dame [sic ; 
not Dam]. Published in 1662 as Oriniy the Collier of Croy- 
don. See the last lines, v. i, before the final Induction : — 

" If we deserve to name 
Thb play of oun The Devil and hi$ Dame." 

In V. I Drayton's Merry Devil is alluded to. I think Dray- 
ton is caricatured as Bobin Goodfellow. He wears a ''suit 
of leather," no doubt " to go invisible." Belphegor as the 
doctor, I think, is Lodge. 

9*. 1600, April 16, 24. The English Fugitives. 

10. 1600, May 17. Strange News out of Poland (with 
Pett. But Pett is not heard of elsewhere. Should it not 
be Chett, i.e., Chettle? The only Pett I know of as a 
writer is Peter Pett, who published Time's journey to seek his 
daughter Truth, in verse, 1599). A "shrew" play. 

11. 1600, May 27. Indies. See below. 

All these were written for the Admiral's men at the Bose. 
When they acted at the Fortune, Haughton wrote : — 

12. 1600, Dec. 20, 27; 1 60 1, Jan. 4, 13. Bobin 
Hood^s Pen'orths. 

13. 1 60 1, Jan. 29, Feb. 10, Mar. 10. 2 Blind Beggar 

of Bethnal Oreen (with the end of Thomas Stroud), or 

2 Thonuis Stroud (with Day). 

VOL. I. 8 



274 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

14. 1601, April 4, II ; May 2, 21 ; Aug. 5, 11, 26; 
Sept. I. The Corupiest of the West Indies (with Day, Smith). 
See 1600, May 27. 

15. 1601, May 20; June 4, 6, 8. Tfie Six Yeomen of 
tJie West (with Day), founded on Deloney's Thomas of 
Readbig. 

16. 1601, May 21; July 18, 25, 30. 3 Thomas 
Stroud (with Day). 

17. 1601, July 4, 14; Sept. 31 [Oct. i]; Nov. 9, 29. 
The Proud Woman of Antwerp. The Friar Bush, by Day, 
in the July entries was probably a separate play. Compare 
" his book," i,e,y Haugh ton's, in the later entries. 

18. 1 60 1, July 30; Sept. 3, II. 2 Thomas Dough 
[Qy. 2 The Six Yeomen of the West], (with Day). 

19. 1 60 1, Oct. 12, 22. I The Six Clothiers (withHath^ 
way, Smith). 

20. 1 60 1, Nov. 8. 2 Six Clothiers (with Hath way, 
Smith). Evidently not the same story as The Six Yeomen 
of tlie West, as usually asserted. 

The only other note worth mentioning on Haughton is 
thatHenslow, on loth Mar. 1600, lent los. "to release him 
out of the Clink." But see Day. 

21. 1602, Sept. 8. Cartwright, 

22. 1602, Nov. 8, 17. As vierry as may be (with Day, 
Hathway, Smith). 

Hausted, Peter, (University, English and Latin.) 

1. 1632, June 13, for Humfrey Robinson. The Rival 

Friends^ C, 1632. 

2. Senile Odium, C, 1633. 

Born at Oundle, Northamptonshire; M.A. of Queen's, 
Cambridge ; curate of Uppingham ; rector of Hadlam, Hert- 
fordshire; vicar of Gretton, Northamptonshire, before 13 th 
Mar. 1639; D.D. 1641 ; chaplain to the Earl of North- 



HAWKESWORTH— HEMING. 275 

ampton ; with him at Banbury, Oxfordshire, during its de- 
fence against the Parliament; died there, 1645. 

1. 1632, Mar. 19. The Rival Friends was acted before 
the King and Queen [by the scholars of Queen's College], 
Cambridge. It was " cried down by Boys, Faction, Envy, 
and confident Ignorance ; approved by the judicious, and now 
exposed to the public censure by the author." It is dedi- 
cated, in verse, " To the Bight Honourable, Bight Beverend, 
Bight Worshipful, or whatsoever he be, or shall be, whom I 
hereafter may call patron." It has a queer mythological 
Induction. The "boys crying it down" is alluded to in 
Bandolph's Jealous Lovers^ Act iv., performed at the same 
royal visit. I think Hausted is one of the poets in Ban- 
dolph's play. 

2. Senile Odium was performed by the Queen's College 
scholars. 

Hawkbsworth, . (Latin.) 

I. Labyrinthitis, C, 1636. Acted before King James, 
Shrovetide 1622, at Trinity, Cambridge. Hawkesworth 
was a Fellow of that college. S. B. 17th July 1635, for 
Master Bobinson. The author's name is from MS. Cantab. 
Ee. V. 1 6. Other MSS. are extant 

Hawkins, William. (Private play.) 

I. 1627, April 8, for Bobert Milborne. Apollo Shroving, 
composed for the scholars of the Free School of Hadleigh, in 
Suffolk, and acted by them on Shrove Tuesday, being 6th 
Feb. i626[-7]. 

Hawkins also published Eglogce Tres VirgUiarue, 1633 ; 
and Corolla Varia, 1634. 

Heming, William. (Plays.) 

2. The Fatal Contract j a French tragedy, 1653. 

3. The Jews' Tragedy, or their fatal and final over- 

throw by Vespasian and Titus, his son, 1662. 



276 THE ENGUSH DRAMA. 

Son of John Heming, the actor ; born in Aldermanbury ; 
baptized 3d Oct. 1602; student of Christ Church, Oxford, 
1 621; M.A. 1628; proved his father's will as executor 
I ith Oct. 1630. 

1. 1633, March. The Coursing of the Hare^ or The 
Madcap, was (according to Collier, Actors, p. 72) licensed 
for the Fortune Theatre (cf . Chalmers' Apology) 

2. The Fatal Contract was revived after the Restoration 
as Love and Bevenge, and a^ain in 1687 as The Eunuch. 
The allusions, iv. 3, to the Laureateship indicate a date c. 
1637. Note also "What house do you write for? Poet 
and actor both." 

3. The printing of The Jewi Tragedy was posthumous, 
1662. 

Hetun, Peter. (Latin.) 

Bom 29th Nov. 1599 at Barf ord, Oxfordshire ; educated 
at the Free School; entered at Hart Hall, cBtaiis 14; demy 
of Magdalen, cstatis 1 6 ; B. A. Oct. 1 6 1 7 ; Fellow 1 6 1 8 ; 
ordained 1623 ; was rapidly promoted till the Civil War; 
in poverty under the Commonwealth. Died 8th May 1662. 

1. Spurius, T., was written at Hart Hall, and acted 

in the rooms of Dr. Langton,' the president, c 
1615. 

2. Theomachiay C, was acted at Magdalen 1 6 1 8. 
Heywood, Thomas. (Actor and writer of Plays and 

Pageants.) 

13, 14. 1599, Aug. 28, for J. Oxonbridge and J. 
Busby. I, 2 Edward 4, vnth tlie Tanner of TamuHyiih 
and the history of Shore and his Wife, H., 1600, 1605, 
1613, 1619, 1626. 

1 7. How a man may choose a good wife from a had, 
C, 1602, for M. Law; 1605, 1608, 16 14, 1621, 1630, 
1634. 



HEYWOOD. 277 

IS, 19. 1604, Dec. 4, for N. Butter. The life and 
death of Cavaliero Dick Bowyer [The Trial of Chivalry], H., 
1605. 

29. 1605, July 5, for N. Butter, [i] If you know rtir 
not you' know nobody, H., 1606. 

29. 1605, Sept 14, for K Butter. 2 If you know me 
not, &c., with the Building of the Exchange [which belongs 
to Part i.], H., 1609, 1633, 1639. 

18, 31. 1606, Mar. 12, for J. Trundle. Nobody and 
Sonitbody, n.d. 

27. A Woman Killed with Kindness, C, 1607, ^7 W. 
Jaggard; 1607, sold by J. Hodgetts; the first publication 
with Hey wood's name as author; 161 7, third edition. 

30. 1608, June 3, for J. Busby and N. Butter. The 
Rape of Lucreeee, H., 1608 (for I. B[usby]); 1609; 
n.d., "with sundry songs before omitted now inserted;" 
1630 (fourth edition); 1638 (fifth impression; for N. 
Butter). 

2. 161 1, Oct. 14, for W. Barrenger. iTie Golden Age^ 
with the loves of Jupiter and Saturn, 161 1. 

3. The Silver Age, Prodesse solent aut ddectare, 161 3. 
Printed by K Okes ; sold by B. Lightf oot. 

4. The Brazen Age, 161 3, by N. Okes for S. Band. 

I. The Four Prentices of London^ 161 S, for J. W[right] ; 
1632. 

25, 26. 1630, Feb. 26, for J. Grove. Hoffmann, the 
Bevengefvl Father, T., 1631 (by J. N. for Hugh Perry). 

33, 34. 163 1, June 16, for R Eoyston. i, 2 Fair 
Maid of the Westy 1631. 

5. 6. 1,2 The Iron AgCy by N. 0[kes], 1632. 

24, 36. 1633, J^y IS> ^for N- Okes. The English 
Traveller, C, 1633, by R Eaworth. 

II, 38. 1634, June 25, for N. Okes. A Maidenhead 



278 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

well lost, C, 1634, by N. Okes for J. Jackson and J. 
Church. 

41. 1634, Oct. 28, for B. Fisher. The WUches of 
Lancashire, C, 1634. 

7, 8, 9. 1635, Aug. 29, for B. Hearne. Dialogues and 
Dramas (including Prologues), 1637. 

39* i^SS* Sept 30, for J. Grouch. The Queen's Mask, 
or Love's Mistress, "by Master Haywood," 1636, 1640 
twicCi with variations). 

44. 1636, June 17, for R Eaworth. A Challenge for 
Beauty, C, 1636. 

20, 40. 1637, Mar. 2 5, for J. Beckett. The Boyal King 
and the Loyal Suiject, C, 1637. 

28. 1638, Mar. 12, for H. Shepard. The Wise Woman 
of Hogsdon, C, 1638. 

32. Fortwiie hy Land and Sea, C, 1655, lor J. Smeeting 
and B. Pollard. 

10. The Thracian Wonder, C, 1661, for F. Kirkman. 

35. The CaptiveSy C, MS. 

Pageants. 

45. 163 1. London's J7isJIo7U)rarium,i6^iyhj]S. Okes, 

46. 1632. Londini Artium et Scientiarum Scaturigo, 
1632. 

47. 1633. Londini Emporia, 1633, by N. Okes. 

48. 1635. Londoni Sinus Salutis, 1 63 5, by B. Baworth. 

49. 1637. Londini Speculum^ 1637, by J. Okes. 

50. 1638. Porta PietatiSy 1638, by J. Okes. 

51. 1639. Londini Status PacatuSy 1639, by J. Okes. 

Non-Dkamatio Wobks. 

Sallusl, translated 1 608 for J. Jaggard. 

1608, Dec. S, for W. Jaggard. Troia Britannica, or 



HEYWOOD. 279 

Britain's Troy, in 17 cantos, with a Chronicle from the 
Creation till these present times, 1609. Printed very 
negligently (Apology for Actors). 

An Apology for Actors, Et prodesse sclent aiU ddectare, 
161 2, for K. Okes. This contains Heywood's complaint of 
the negligent printing of the Troia B,, and also of W. Jaggard's 
having in 161 2 (not in 1599, as W. C. Hazlitt says) incor- 
porated his Love Epistles into The Passionate Pilgrim in that 
year. Reissued as The Actor's Vindication, n.d., by 6. E. 
for W. C. [c. 1633, Oct. See The English Traveller] ; 1658. 

1 6 1 2, Dec. 23, for W. Welby. Funeral Elegies on Prince 
Henry, 161 3 (with Tourneur and Webster). 

161 3, Feb. 15, for J. Trundle. EpUhalamion on Z. 
Eliadbeth's marriage, 1 61 3, for E. Marchant 

1614, Jan. 3, for T. Purfoot, junior. The Life andDecuh 
of Hector, 1 6 1 4, a modernisation of The Destruction of Troy 
into sextains out of heroics (30,000 lines), is attributed to 
Hey wood, but " cited by Fuller, Winstanley, and others as 
Lydgate's " (Lowndes). 

Oynaikeion: 9 books of the History of Women, 1624, by 
A. Islip. 239 Leaves. Aut prodesse^ &c. 

1625, April 4, for R Redmer. Elegy on James i, 1625, 
for T. Harper. 

163 1, April 26, for P. Waterhouse. England's Elizabeth 
during her minority, 1632. 

1635, May 26, for J- Crouch. PhUocothonista, or The 
Drunkard anatomised, 1635, by R Raworth. 

The Hierarchy of the blessed Angels, 1635, by A. Islip. 

1636, Jan. 1 1, for M, Walbank. Verses (with 30 others) 
to Dover's Annalia DuhrensxcL, 

1636, April 8, for J. Okes. The 3 wonders of this age, 
J. Hudson, W. Evans, and T. Parr, " by Master Haywood." 
[The discourse of R Famham and J. Bull, by T. H., 1636, 



28o THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

for T. Lambert, I do not think to be Heywood's. His 
publications at this time are signed in full and entered S. R 
with his name (cf. S. R entries for J. Okes 1636, June 7, 
and for F. Smith 1636, June 17). Was this by Sir T. 
Hawkins, a translator of this period? (see S. B. 1635, 
Sept. 12.] 

1636, Nov. 1 8, for J. Okes. Mistakes, ClineJies, Tales, &c., 
" by Master Haywood," the same form of entry as for The^ 
3 vx>iid€TS, &C., supra, and for the unquestioned Queen's 
Mask. 

1637, Jan. 25, for J. Okes. The Phoenix of this time, 
Henry Welby, 1637 (two editions). 

1637, Sept. 1 5, for J. Okes and J. Aston. His Majesty's 
royal Ship built 1637 at Woolwich, 1637, by J. Okes 
for J. Aston. Reprinted with additions (not Heywood's) 

1653. 

1639, Sept 19, for R. Roiston. Lives and acts of nine 

the most worthy womtn, &c., 1640, "by Master Thomas 

Heywood." 

Verses prefixed to James Torke's Union of Honor (with 
arms of Lincolnshire Gentry), 1641, by E. Griffin. 

" Header, here you'll plainly see Judgment presented hy these 
three, A priest, a judge, a patentee'* (i.e., Archbishop Laud, 
Lord Finch, Alderman Abel) ; 1 64 1 : (see also W. C. Hazlitt, 
Dict.^ under Projectors.) 

The Life of Merlin (with annals), 1641, by N. Okes for 
J. Emery. 

[-4 preparative to Study, or The Virtus of Sack, 1641, is, 
I think, not Heywood's.] 

The Gmeral History of Women, "by T. H., gent.,'* 1657, 
by W. H. for W. H., a posthumous publication, and there- 
fore we must not necessarily expect the name in full. 

The lives of all the Poets, mentioned as intended in Braith- 



HEYWOOD. 281 

waite's Scholar's Medley ^ 1 6 1 4, as in progress in Oynakeion, 
1624, and again in The Hierarchy, &c, 1635, is not extant 
Thomas Heywood, gentleman, was bom in Lincolnshire. 
See his verses to Yorke's Union of Honor, 1 640, and Megy 
on Sir George St, Poole, of Lincolnshire, " my countryman," 
in his Dialogues and Dramas, 1635. He resided at Gam- 
bridge, and saw '' tragedies, comedies, histories, pastorals, and 
shows publicly acted " by the graduates, of most of which 
we have no record ; but as he was Fellow of Peterhouse (see 
the Dedication of Gartwright's edition of his Apology for 
Actors), and was in London certainly by 1 594, and perhaps 
earlier, I cannot place his birth-date later than c. 1 572. In 
his Dedication of The English Traveller, 1633, he mentions 
that Sir H. Appleton used to call Edmund Hey wood " mine 
uncle/' by the title of father, and acknowledges his obliga- 
tions to Sir W. Eluish, also of Lincolnshire. From 1594 
onwards he was actor and playwright, first for the Admiral's 
men at the Eose, where, on 25th Mar. 1598, he engaged 
himself as "a covenant servant," under a forfeiture of ^40, 
to play nowhere else for two years; he is supposed to 
have left them and joined Derby's men in 1599, but see 
infra. In 160 1— 2 he went to Worcester's men (afterwards 
Queen Anne's, and, when she died, the Bevels company) ; 
when they broke he became a member of the Lady Eliza- 
beth's company (afterwards Queen Henrietta's) ; and finally, 
in 1634, of the King's. He appears as an author of non- 
dramatic works as early as 1608, and the list of these 
already given shows that from 1635 onwards he could have 
had little time, if any, for dramatic work. As an actor I 
cannot trace him later than 1622. In 1634-5 he ceased 
to wi^ite for the stage. According to his own statement, in 
1633 The English Traveller, "(being one reserved amongst 
two hundred and twenty, in which I have had either an 



282 THE ENGLISH DRAMA, 

entire hand, or at the least a main finger/' [sic^ there is no) 
to match the first one], came to the press. If my former 
conjecture be wrong, and I find it generally disapproved, I 
suggest that these 220 included the plays in which Hey- 
wood had acted during nearly thirty years. He had no doubt 
inserted " gag " in most of them, and recommended altera- 
tions in many. This would be enough to justify his '' main 
finger,'' and would dispose of 180 out of the 220. The 
remaining 40 are, in my judgment, the utmost we can admit 
as written by him in our sense, which is what he means, I 
think, by " an entire hand." He did not, except for Wor- 
cester's men 1602-3, write often in conjunction with others, 
as far as we know. From the exact similarity in many 
entries S. R. of " Master Haywood " the author and " under 
the hands of Master Haywood," 163 3-1 637, I fancy it 
would be worth while for some one more conversant with 
such matters to ascertain whether he was one of the master 
stationers. He died, probably, c. 1641. 

I. Tfie Four PrerUices of London, with the Conqtust of 
Jerusalem, H. Acted before 161 5 at the Red Bull by 
Queen Anne's men. The Address to the Prentices mentions 
as quite recent the revival of arms practice in the Artillery 
Gardens. This was in 16 10 (Stow, p. 997). The first 
edition then, c. 1 6 1 o, is not extant ; and Hey wood also says 
the play was written fifteen or sixteen years ago, in his 
infancy of judgment and first practice. This takes us back 
to 1594. From that year, July 19, till 1595, Sept 16, 
The second part of Godfrey of BiUloigne was acted at the 
Rose by the Admiral's men ; and in 1 594, June 19, [The first 
part of] Godfrey of Bvlloigne, " with the Conquest of Jeru- 
salem," an enterlude, had been entered S. R. for J. Danter. 
I have no doubt that the July 1 9 play is the same as Tfie 
Four Prentices, It appears from the Prologue, spoken by 



HEYWOOD. 283 

three in black cloaks, that it was also called True and 
Strange, Jerusalem is also mentioned as the Scene ; and 
the last line, " Now Sion and Jerusalem are one," justi- 
fies the second title. In The Knight of the Burning Pestle 
(acted 1610), iii I, " read the play of The Four Prentices of 
London^ where they toss their pikes so " (cf. Sc. 6), proves, 
in spite of Dyce's recalcitration, that the publication was in 
1 6 10 at the latest. Tasso's Jerusalem was translated by 
E. Carew in 1594 (see S. B. 1594, Jan 26). 

2. The Golden Age, or The lives of Jupiter and Saturn, 
^' with the deifying of the Heathen gods," was acted [at the 
Red Bull by Queen Anne's men] before Oct. 161 1, and 
after Oct 16 10 (cf. Dekker's If it be not good the Devil's 
inX L I, "The Golden Age is moulding new agaiu," which 
shows that it was a revived play). I have no doubt that the 
original form was Seleo (Coelo) et Olympo, acted at the Rose 
1595, Mar. 5. The play is presented by Homer with 
Dumb Shews ; in the last of these '^ Jupiter draws Heaven," 
and directly after "To Jupiter doth high Olympus fall." 
lo is mentioned iv. 2 as '' already deflowred." I suppose 
the Jupiter and lo published in the Dramas of 1635 had 
already been written. The motto. Tarn robur, tarn rchor, 
in* [sic] colis arbor Jams, is not Heywood's, but Nicolas 
(ni'colis) Okes' (arbor Jovis, oak). 

3. The Silver Age, "including [i. The fortunes of Per- 
seus, 2], The love of Jupiter to Alcmena, [3] The birth of 
Hercules, [4] The Rape of Proserpine, [5] The Arraignment 
of the Moon." Au^ prodesse soUnt avi delectare. This is, in 
fact, Five plays in one, of which the first, though not in the 
title, is enumerated in Homer's last speech in The Golden 
Age ; but in the Address to the Reader Hercules' birth and 
life is spoken of as the main subject here, his honour and 
death as that of The Brazen Age. In the last presentment 



284 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

the two plays together are called " The Acts of Hercules." 
From the Address it appears that The Iron Age also dates 
earlier than 1613. These two Hercules plays are evidently 
those acted at the Bose 1595, May 7 and May 23. In ii. 
4 " errors " is used technically to indicate mistaken identity, 
as in Shakespeare's 1594 play. In iv. i, v. i, lo is again 
alluded to ; and in i. 3 the unusual word " harpe " (sword) 
occurs, which may be the right word in The two ffarpes. 
For the forged entry concerning a supposed performance of 
this play 161 2 Jan., see my History of the Stage, p. 178. 

4. The BrcLzen Age, " containing i . The death of the Cen- 
taur Nessus ; 2. The tragedy of Meleager ; 3. The tragedy of 
Jason and Medea ; 4. Vulcan's Net ; 5. The labors and death 
of Hercules." The second title is The Brazen Age, " con- 
taining the labors and death of Hercules." Compare " Her- 
cules' acts " in Homer^s first presentation. In Hey wood's 
Address he complains that one Austin, a pedagogue at Ham 
(which Ham ?), had borrowed of him his translations of 
Ovid's Art of Love, made in "his juniority," and shown 
them as his own. All this play is founded on Ovid's Meta- 
morpfioses. i, 2 Hercules were bought of Martin Slaughter 
[who represents the company, I think, as Allen does else- 
where in similar instances] 1598, May 18. 

5, 6. I, 2 The Iron Age were published in 1632, with 
dedications to T. Hammon, of Gray's Inn, and T. Manner- 
iug. The presentation by Homer and the " five plays in one " 
arrangement are given up ; and in the Address we are told 
that these plays (i,e., the two parts of The Iron Age, not the 
preceding plays) were "publicly acted by two companies 
upon one stage at once, and at several times thronged three 
several theatres." In iii. i, 2 there are thirty actors on the 
stage together, which at that date would require two com- 
panies. The theatres with which Heywood had been con- 



HEYWOOD. 285 

nected were — i. The Bose; 2. The Curtain; 3. The Sed 
Bull; 4. The Cockpit (at which he did not act, but for 
which he wrote). I think the first three must be the 
theatres he means. The onlj time known to me of two 
companies playing together at these houses is when Pem- 
broke's and the Admiral's men played at the Bose. 15 97, 
Oct. In Henslow's Diary ^ P* 9ii the names of some of the 
plays then acted have dropped out ; among these may have 
been i, 2 Iron Age^ the second part being a new play. The 
first part was probably the same as Troy^ first acted 1596, 
June 3. ' At the close of 2 L^an Age we find, ^' Here ends 
the whole history of The destruction of Troy," which shows 
that this was a second title for the i, 2 Iron Age taken 
together. It was founded partly on Lydgate's De^ruction of 
Troy, the modernisation of which (printed 1614, but per- 
haps written much earlier) has been attributed to Heywood 
(see mpra). Thersites usually speaks in verse, but some prose 
bits, notably the Sneak's noise bit in iii. 4, are insertions 
made after Shakespeare's Troylus and Cressida in its com- 
plete form, 1 609. Note also Thersites' " politician " allu- 
sions in i 2, iv. 2 ; and again Part 2, i. 3. 

As- to the second part, which in the added title is 
specially called The Destruction of Troy, the first part 
being The Siege of Troy, I may here note some dates. 
Heywood's last appearance in Henslow's Diary previous to 
his leaving the Admiral's men (for Derby's ?) is 1 599, Feb. 1 2. 
On April 7 Dekker and Chettle get their first payment for 
TroUus and Cressida (afterwards Agamemnon), Is it not 
probable that Heywood took umbrage at their being ap- 
pointed to write a play founded on a subject so peculiarly 
his as far as the Admiral's men were concerned ? He left 
(if he did leave) probably at quarter-day, Mar. 25, when 
Dekker's play would certainly have been plotted. 



286 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

In mj History of the Stage, p. 114, will be found a list 
of properties, 1598, which can be referred to no extant 
plays but the three first Ages. I have not traced any to 
The Iron Age, but the absence of such does not disprove 
their existence at that time ; it is only here and there that 
Henslow mentions characters by name in this list. 

7. Five plays in One, acted at the Rose 1597, April 7, 
suggests by its title the same authorship as The Silver and 
Brazen Ages, both built on this plan ; and this is confirmed 
by the fact that we have five short plays of Heywood's, 
just enough to make up an afternoon's performance. These 
are: — 

1. X)eorum judicium. A Dialogue (the judgment of 

Paris), 14 pp. in reprint. 

2. Jupiter and lo. A Drama, 22 pp. 

3. Apollo and Daphne, A Drama, 15 pp. One 

character is named Amphrisus. 

4. Pelopcea and Alope, or Amphrisa the forsaken 

Shepherdess. A Drama, 1 1 pp. 
These four were printed in Dialogue and Dramas, S. li. 
163 s, Aug. 29. 

5. Either Tim£s Triumph \^Timon^ see No. 8] or 

Cupid and Psyche, the original form of Love's 
Mistress (which see below), without the clown, 
Ac., about 40 pp. ; S. R. 1635, Sept. 30. 
This would malce about 100 pp. for the five, but the 
Cupid play was no doubt much enlarged. Heywood*s early 
plays are about 80 pp. each. In the 1598 inventory is 
an Argus' head. Such a property is needed in Jupiter and 
lo^ but in no other play I know of. These mythological 
plays are a specialty of Hey wood's. Cupid's bow and quiver 
is also mentioned, but this may have been for Dido and 
JEneas. 



HEY WOOD. 287 

8. On 1597, April 13, Time's Triumph was played as 
an introduction to Dr, Faustris, which is very short. This 
was not marked as a new play, and may have been one 
of The Five plays in One, perhaps Timon or Misanthrapos, 
translated from Lucian (see under Fletcher, Four Plays in 
One). 

9. 1 596, c. Oct., Henslow lent the men " 30s. for Hey- 
wood's book." This shows that, as I have said already, 
the plays at this time belonged to the company. The 
" book " must have been some play acted soon after the re- 
opening in Dec. (Stage History, p. 100), possibly the Five 
plays in One, acted 1 597, April 7. 

10. 1598, Dec. 6; 1599, Jan. 26. War without "blows 
and Love without suit ("without strife" in the second 
entry). This is the same play as Hie Thracian Wonder ; 
cf. in i. 2, "You never shall again renew your suit;" 
but the love is given at the end without any suit; and 
in iii. 2, " Here was a happy war finished without blows." 
It was probably, like many other of Heywood's plays, 
revived for the Queen's men c. 1607, when "W. Eowley 
and "Webster were writing for them ; whence the absurd 
attribution of the authorship to them by Kirkman. 

11. 1599, Feb. 10, 12. Joan as good as my Lady 
(see 38). 

Plays for Derby's Men [at the Curtain]. 

All these are of very doubtful authorship. 

12. The Bold BeacJiams, attributed to Hey wood by the 
author of the surreptitious 2 Hudibras, 1663, along with 
The Grecian Wars (ie.y The Iron Age, which Gay ton calls 
The Greeks and Trojans), was probably acted by the same 
company as Guy Earl of Wartoick (q.v,). It is alluded to 
as on the stage (Query at the Bull) in 1609-10 in The 



288 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Knight of the Burning Pestle^ along with Jane Shore, which 
certainly means the Edward 4 play. 

13. I Edward 4, ''containing i, his pastime with the 
Tanner of Tamworth (So. 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 21, 23); 

2, his love to Mrs. Shore (So. 8, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22); 

3, the Siege of London (So. i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 
1 5)/' which make up the whole play. The Siege is men- 
tioned only in the second title. Assumed to be Heywood's 
by Collier, Halliwell, Biog. Dram,^ Gildon, &c, I' know 
not why ; unless it be that in Sc. 1 1 Hobs the tanner says, 
" Dost thou not know me ? Then thou knowest nobody." 
But this common phrase is as old as Gascoigne, il 34, 
There is no " Clown." Hobs talks in doggrel mixed with 
prose. This play was published S. B. 1599, Aug. 28. 
It is founded on the ballads of Jane Shore and Hie Tanner 
of Tamworth, and the Admiral's play of The Siege of 
London, which was an old play of c. 1590, revived I594> 
Dec. 26. 

14. 2 Edward 4, containing i, his journey into France 
(S& 1-7); 2, a chorus (Sc. 8); and 3, the prosecution of 
the history of the Shores to their deaths (Sc. 9-23)^ is evi- 
dently of the same date and by the same author. The 
plotting reminds me strongly of Rohin Hood. In 1603, 
May 9, Chettle and Day undertook a play for Worcester's 
men " wherein Shore's wife is written ; " otherwise described 
as •* The book of Shore, now newly to be written " (Henslow, 
Diary, pp. 1 14, 25 1). The " rewriting " means, I think, the 
extracting of the Shore part and making one play of it. 
If this be so, are these Edioard 4 plays Hey wood's at all ? 
They are far better than his other early work. I show 
in my History of the Stage, p. 103, that Day sold a play to 
the Admiral's men in 1 598, July, which Chettle refashioned ; 
and he joined them himself 1 599, Nov. If Edward 4 was 



HEYWOOD. 289 

produced at tbe Curtain (and a play acted in the provinces 
would hardly haye been published), it must have been after 
I599» Jan.-Mar., when the Chamberlain's men vacated the 
Curtain and Derby's occupied it. But Heywood was at this 
very time bound, under a heavy penalty (;£^4o), not to leave 
the Bose, and there is no other trace of his having broken 
this bond. No importance can be attached to the absence 
of his name in Hensldw's lists of Admiral's actors; for, 
singularly enough, his name occurs in no one of them. He 
was not a sharer ; only a hired man. His not writing between 
1599, Mar., and 1600, Mar., may have been accidental — 
through illness, perhaps. It is possible that Chettle and 
Day began these plays together, with the intention of offer- 
ing them to Henslow, c. 1 598, Christmas ; but Derby's men 
opening at the Curtain c. 1 599, Mar., Day sold them to that 
company. At any rate, the question is doubtful, and should 
be investigated. 

15. The Tried of Chivalry, H., with the "life and deatl 

of Cavaliero Dick Bowyer," is certainly by two authors, one 

of whom writes "sentinel," iii. i, 3 ; the other "sentronel," 

iL I, 3. These may be the same authors as those of Edward 

4 (see AnoB. 24^). 

f 

Fob the Admiral's Men at the Fortune, 1602-3. 

16. 1602, Dec. 20 ; 1603, Jan. 7. Tht London Floren- 
tine. But 1602, Dec. 17, 22, the same play is entered as 
Chettle, " his play." 

Plats for Worcester's Men, 160 1-3; Queen Anne's, 

1603-8. 

1 7. Sow a man may choose a good wife from a had, C. 

Published without author's name 1602. Not in S. £. 
VOL. I. t 



290 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Ascribed, without reason assigned, to a Joshua Cooke* 
Founded on Cynthio's Novels^ iii. 5, and a story, which is 
also related in Love in the Orave^ in Hi^ Pleasant Comr 
panion. As this play is not in Henslow's 1602-3 ^^^^ 
of Worcester's men's plays, it must date earlier — 1601. 
Certainly iti. is by the same author as The Wise Woman of 
Hogedon (W. W.). Compare : " I by the finger wrung," i. 3 ; 
'* I wrung twice by the finger," W. W., v. 3 ; " Whip me 
upon the gwid est fframmatiea" ii. i ; '' Quid est gram' 
mcUica t grammatica est ars" W. W., iv. i ; " Qua^ marilms, 
that loves marrowbones," ii. i ; '' Quas marihus . . . those 
marrowbones/' W. W., iv. i ; " Iste, ista, istud . . . until 
he fetcht blood/' iii. i ; " Hie, ilia, Ulvd, until I fetch 
blood /' W. W., iv. I ; the allusions to Gascoigne's " I wail 
in woe, I plunge in pain," ii. 3, and W, W., v. 3 ; ** Quomcdo 
vales, come out of alehouse " (i^., quom od ov ales), ii. i ; 
" Qvamodo vales, go with you to th' alehouse," W. W., ii. i, 
&c., &c. Perhaps a refashioning of lA Wonder of a Woman j 
the Admiral's play of 1595, Oct. 15. The Thomas lately 
come from beyond sea, ii. 2, is an equivoque on the char- 
acter in the play and Thomas Blackwood, the actor, who 
had returned from abroad 1 60 1 • The " one Thomas " below 
is Hey wood himself. Dr. Dee is mentioned ii. i. This 
play was not published by Hey wood. Performed, I think, 
at the Curtain. 

18. 1602, Sept 4. Albert OaUes (with Smith). Query 
Archigallus. See tn/ra, Nobody and Somebody. 

1 9. 1 602. Sept. 2. Additions to Cutting Dick, £1. This 
play must have been written before Worcester's men joined 
Henslow. 

20. 1602, Sept. 20, 30. ]lfarshai08rie(wiih Smith). 
See The Boyal King and Zoyal Subject. 

21. 22. 1602, Oct 15, 21. I Lady Jane^ Oct. 27; 



HEYWOOD. 291 

2 Lady Jane (with Chettle^ Dekker, Webster). See Sir 
Thomas Wyaii. 

23. 1602, Nov. 2, 23, 26. Chridmas comes hU once a 
year (with Chettle, Dekker, Webster). 

24. 1602, Nov. 24, Dec. 15 ; 1603, J*^- 7- ^'^ Blind 
eats many a fly (see The Ihiglish Traveller). 

25. 1603, Jan. 14. A plaj (with Chettle), Like quits 
like, in the otherwise exactly corresponding entry to the 
Admiral's men at the same date, was pronounced by Dr. 
Ingleby to be a forgery. Bat the play was no doubt Soff- 
m^ann (see Chettle). 

26. Hoffman, or A Bevengefor a Father, was published 
1 63 1 by Hugh Perry, who had happened on it, or rather 
purchased it of F. Grove, who had entered it 1630, Feb. 
26, as HiA Revengeful Faiher. Vetij dedicated it to B. 
Eilvert because it had no " parent to own it." In no in- 
stance did Heywood sanction the publication of plays not 
entirely his. It was acted at the Phoenix, but originally 
by Worcester's men. Hey wood's share is iii. 2, iv. 3, in 
which Charles and Sarlois occur instead of Otho. 

27. 1603, Feb. 12, Mar. 6. A Woman KiUed with Kind- 
ness. Published with Heywood's name, but no company or 
theatre mentioned. Prologue and Epilogue, but no Dedica- 
tion or Dram, Pers. 

Henslow's entries end here. Worcester's player^ become 
Queen Anne's, and act at the Curtain. 

28. The Wise Woman of Eogsdony C, has no theatre or 
company mentioned, but was certainly acted c. 1 604, Feb. 
(see iii. 3 for the month). In iii 3, '' We shall have thee 
claim kindred with The Woman Killed with Kindness." 
Many plays, of which this is the latest, are alluded to ; e,g,^ 
The Devil and his Dam^, Mother Bedcap, Cutting Dick, Jack 
Drum, Too good to he true, &c. This may be the same as 



292 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

How to learn of a woman to woo, acted before tlie King 
1 604, Dec.'30, according to the forged, but generally truthful, 
document of P. Cunningham. A Pill to purge Melancholy 
is mentioned v. 3, but Lowndes gives this as n.d., and I 
liave not found it in S. B. Sencer, i^. i, says he was of 
Teierhouse. Hey wood probably acted this character. In 
iL I wizard is used as a feminine, which removes a difficulty 
in Macbeth ; and in iv. 2 the way in which " live and die " 
is used solves another crux in Measure for Measure, 

29. I, 2 If you Know not nxe you Know Nobody, or Hie 
Trotibles of Qu^een Mizabethr—" Part i in her minority ; Part 
2 afier her accession" — was published 1605 ^7 N* Butter 
from "a plot" drawn "by stenography; scarce one word 
true." So Heywood, in a Prologue to the play of Queen 
Elizabeth, as it was last revived at the Cockpit, when the 
play was more than of age in Charles' reign, probably c 
163 1, when Heywood published his prose account of Eliza- 
betli. It was acted in rivalry to Dekker's Whore of Babylon, 
as revived by Prince Henry's men c. 1 604. It has a clown 
and Dumb Shows. In Sa 5 " a virgin and a martyr both " 
indicates, I think, that Dioclesian was still on the stage. In 
Part 2, Sc. II, &C.J Tawnycoat's name is John Bowland, but 
in Sc. 7 it was John Goodfellow. This shows alteration. 
Knglishmen for my money, Sc. 1 2, and Joan as good as my 
Lady, Sc. 14, are alluded to. Hey wood's complaint of in- 
correctness seems groundless as to Part 2. The ending was 
greatly altered at the last revival, and a Chorus inserted. 

30. The Rape of Lucrece, " a true Boman Tragedy," was 
the first play published by Hey wood's consent " in his native 
habit." He says the preceding publications were ^^ corrupt 
and mangled, copied only by the ear." I cannot fix the date 
of performance closer than c. 1605, but it was after James' 
accession (see the " King's head " in the song Sc. 7). It was 



HEYWOOD. 293 

revived 1628, Weduesday, Aug. 7 (see the Isbam letter in 
The Athenccum, i8th Oct. 1879). 

30*. How to learn of a woman to woo was acted at Court 
1604, Dec. 30, by the Queen's men before King James. 
Bat see under 28. 

3 1. Nobody and Somebody, " with the true Chronicle His- 
tory of Elidure, &c.," was entered S. R 1606, Mar. 12, for 
J. Trundle (who had entered The Picture of Nobody 1 606, 
Jan. 8) ; sold " in Barbican at the sign of Nobody." 
Acted by Queen Anne's servants before and after 1604, 
Mar. 19, when James assumed the title of King of Great 
Britain. England has been altered into Britain in many 
places, but left in as many others ; and the occurrence of 
both names in Sc. i o shows that this was not due to dififer- 
ence of authorship. That Heywood was the author, and 
that the play was printed from a copy, and not obtained by 
stenography, as he would have us believe was the case in 
plays not published by him — of which this was one, for it 
has no dedication or author's name — is evident from the spell- 
ing " ey *' (for ay or I), which is, as far as my knowledge 
extends, peculiar to him. But how long before 1 604 this 
play was acted in some form I cannot at present tell. The 
1620 German translation differs essentially in the action, 
and is, I think, from a play of c. 15 90. Simpson's objec- 
tion as to Elidure's being therein King of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland will not hold. According to the English 
mythical History from Dunwallo onwards the Kings were of 
Britain, not England only. The determination of this ques- 
tion depends on the identification of Lord Sycophant, who, 
as Simpson says, is certainly a noble of the Court of Eliza- 
beth ; perhaps Henry Lord Cobham, called by Essex " the 
Sycophant even to the Queen herself" (Wotton) ; but Simp- 
son is quite wrong in making 'Hhe Southern Isle" of i. i 



294 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

the Cinque ports. It is clearly the Isle of Wight, of which 
George Carey's government was complained of in 1588. 
George Carey's mother was a daughter of Sir T. Morgan, 
and the claims in i. i turn on a title by inheritance on 
Morgan's part, and one by the jointure of ** Lord Morgan's 
mother" on Malgo's. A more intimate knowledge of the 
history of this island than I possess would, no doubt, clear 
up the allusions. ** 'Tis a mad world. Master/' Sc. 4, must, 
I think, fix the final alterations to 1606, Mar., just the 
time of publication ; but the " England " version may have 
been the 1 602 play of Albert Galles, by Hey wood and Smith, 
mentioned above. Henslow might easily mistake some such 
name as ArchigcUle'a three sons for Albert OcUles. Note that 
Somebody, represented in the picture as nearly all body 
would be no bad caricature of Henry Lord Cobham, the 
Falstaff of Shakespeare (see my Land of Shakespeare on this 
point). The playhouse-yard, Sc. 1 4, merely means the pit, 
which is so called in the indentures for building the Globe, 
and does not signify an inn-yard. The Clown parts, Sc. i, 
1. 98-163 (Simpson's numbering), 2, 4, 9, 11, 14 (part), 
and the final revision, are by Hey wood ; Sc. i (the rest), 
3, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13, 14 (part), by another hand. Query 
Smith's. 

32. Fortune by Land and Sea, T. C, was published 165 5 
as by T. Haywood and W. Rowley. Acted by the Queen's 
servants. Although I cannot trace Bowley's hand in this 
play, the ascription of authorship must, I think, point to a 
date when he and Hey wood acted together as Queen's men. 
Bowley never belonged to Queen Henrietta's company; but he 
and Hey wood were of Queen Anne's in 1 607—9, and in 1 609 
the public were excited about pirates (see The Christian turned 
Turk, by Daborne). The plot is partly from the verse account 
of the pirates, Clinton and Tom Watton the Purser, S. K. 



HEYWOOD. 295 

1 586, Aug. 1 5, for which see Shak. Soc* Papers^ iiL 2. On 
1638, Feb. 15, John Okes entered S. B. The Martyred 
Soldier, " with the life and death of Purser [and] Clinton." 
As Wotton and Clinton have nothing in common with 
Belisarius, the martyred soldier, this must be an instance 
of the not unusual bookseller's trick of that time of getting 
two plays entered for one payment An expression, " hand 
to hand in single opposition/' ii. 4, occurs also in The 
Thradan Wonder. Heywood constantly repeats himself. 
I may add that there is no decisive instance of his writing 
as coadjutor after leaving Henslow in 1603. 

Plays at the Cockpit, i 622-1634. 

33, 34, I, 2 The Fair Maid of the West, or A Oirl 
worth Gold, C, published 1631, June 16, S. R., as "lately 
acted before the King and Queen " [probably at Christmas 
1630] by Queen Henrietta's men, has a list of the 1630 
actors, Dedications to T. Hammon and J. Othow of Gray's 
Inn; one Prologue and one Epilogue, both for the Court; 
and Addresses, the second of which, I think, alludes to 
Fortune hy Land and Sea^ not then published. These plays 
have Chorus and Dumb Show ; v. 2 begins thus — 

'* It 18 not now as when Andrea lived I 
Or rather Andrew, our elder journeyman." 

Cane, the Andrew here alluded to, had been an actor at 
the Cockpit in 1622, and perhaps later, but before 1630. 
Apparently he left that company ; he was a member of Prince 
Charles' men in 1632, Jan. The date of the action is 1 597 ; 
that of the first production of the play uncertain ; but it is 
quite certain that the ballad which assigns it to the Lady 
Elizabeth's men at the Cockpit before 1 6 1 7 is a forgery of 
Collier's. The Greenstreet papers show that Heywood was 



296 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

then a Queen's man at the Bull. I have thus a full con- 
firmation of my reiterated denunciation of this most im- 
pudent of all fabrications ; it is printed in Collier's Annals, 
i. 403. The only guess I can make at the date is that 
the end of Part 2, which surely has a by-reference to the 
Queen of Bohemia — 

^ And you the mirror of your sex and nation, 
Fair English Elizabeth, as well for virtue 
As admired beauty," 

must have been written about 1622, ''ere you depart our 
Court." This would agree with the reference to Andrew 
Cane. The text of the latter portion of Part 2 is very 
corrupt. As to the date of original production, The Proud 
Maid, acted at Court by the L. Eliz. men 161 2, c. Mar. 
(and absurdly identified with The Maid's Tragedy by some 
critics), was probably founded on the ballad of The Proud 
Maid of Plymouth, S. E. 1595, Oct. 15, and this Proud 
Maid of Plymouth was probably Bess Bridges; but this cottld 
not have been Heywood's play, as he was then writing for 
Queen Anne's men. 

35. The Captives, or The Lost recovered^ C, was licensed 
by Herbert 1624, Sept. 3, for the Cockpit Company (L. 
Elizabeth's), and published from the MS. by Mr. A. H. 
BuUen. Heywood's name then appears for the first time in 
Herbert's 1623-4 list, so that he could not have been writ- 
ing some six plays a year, as commonly supposed ; but that 
he was acting we know from the Greenstreet MSS. (see my 
History of the Stage^ P* 293 seq). One Gibson, otherwise 
unknown, appears as an actor v. i ; this MS. was therefore 
a stage copy. The "French monster," scored out in i. i, 
shows, I think, that this copy was still used after the mar- 
riage of Charles I. With the "pen, ink, and paper" so 
carefully enumerated iii. i, compare The Trial of Chivalry, 



HEYWOOD, 297 

y. i In iii. 2 6ib[90ii] and Stage Taylor are marked in the 
margin to be ready to enter (Query as *' country fellows "). 
In iii. 3, " Anythmg for a quiet life " alludes to Middleton's 
play, and is not merely a " proverbial expression." In v. 3 
Mildred says it is " not leap year," but 1624 was Leap-year. 
This new piny may have been an old one refurbished. The 
main plot is from Plautus' Budens. For the friars' part 
compare The Jew of Malta, and for the spelling Sarleboys 
Hoffman and The Trial of Chivalry, v. 2. This MS. has 
many passages scored out, not by the Master of the Bevels, 
but to shorten it for the stage. 

36. The English Traveller, T. C, was published 1633, as 
acted by Queen Henrietta's servants, with a Dedication to 
Sir H. Appleton, and Address by Hey wood. This play, too, 
is indebted to Plautus, the Lionel part being taken from the 
Mostellaria, Compare also Jonson's AlchemisL But the 
Geraldine story is said by Haywood, in his posthumous 
History of Women, to be absolute fact. , If so, Geraldine, 
who had visited Jerusalem and discoursed on the ** propor- 
tioned distances of the towns in Palestine ; " who had been in 
the [Turkish] Empire, Italy, Greece, and Palestine, must 
have been a well-known traveller. He was, I think, George 
Sandys, whose travels in all these parts were published in 
1 6 10. I do not know if Sandys, like Geraldine, had visited 
Spain. In iv. 6 the statue-picture of Fortune before the 
(rebuilt ?) Fortune playhouse is mentioned. In the Pro- 
logue the play is described as bare lines, without Drum, 
Trumpet, Dumb Show, Combat, Marriage, Song, Dance, or 
Mask, all " still in frequent use," to bombast it out. But, 
as usual with Heywood, he uses two plots not interwoven, 
but scarcely touching, to bombast his own play. The date 
is, I think, soon after Charles' accession, c. 1627. Compare 
tlie Anno Tertio in i. 2. 



298 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

37. The Jew of Malta, by Mario w, was acted by Queen 
Henrietta's men before her and King Charles at the White- 
hall Theatre, and was also revived at the Phoenix, before 
it was entered for N. Vavasor S. K. 1632, Nov 20. This, 
the earliest edition we have (although it was entered for 
T. Millington 1594, May 17), was published by Hey wood, 
with Dedication to Thomas Hammon of Gray's Inn, Pro- 
logues, and Epilogues. He says he presented it ; probably 
about Christmas 163 1. In his Dialogues he again printed 
the Prologues and Epilogues, and says that Perkins acted 
the Jew. In the Court Epilogue, " what others write," I 
think, indicates a second author ; and I have no doubt that 
the Bellamira part was inserted by Heywood to bombast 
out Harlow's short play. This is iii. i ; iv. 4, 5 ; v. i. 
The prose shows it not to be Marlow's, and the story is that 
of the friars in The Captives, 

38. ^ Maidenhead tvell lost, C, was acted by Queen 
Henrietta^ men before June 1634. It has Dumb Shows 
and a clown. It was published by Haywood, with Address, 
Prologue, and Epilogue. He seems to have valued it slightly, 
as there is no Dedication. I should take its date to be 
earlier than some of the plays already mentioned. Note 
" snapsack," ii i . Heywood usually writes '' knapsack " in 
his later plays. Query, an alteration of 11. Joan as good 
as my Lady. 

39. Love's Mistress, or The Queen's Mask, was played 
before the King, Queen, and sundry foreign Ambassadors 
three times within eight days. Publicly acted by Queen Hen- 
rietta's men. Published by Heywood 1636 (S. E. 1635, 
Sept. 30), with Dedication to the Earl of Dorset and Address. 
The second " Boyal view " was at the Queen's entertainment 
to the King on his birthday at Denmark (Somerset) House. 
Inigo Jones then changed the stage on every occasion almost 



HEYWOOD. 399 

to every scene. It was " fresl^ and new " when presented 
publicly. This was in 1633; the birthday was 16341 
Nov. 19 (Wednesday), before the S. E. entry, and after 

1633, Nov. 19, when The Yining Admiral, by Shirley, was 
acted at St. James'. The title of Queen's Mask was given it 

1634, Nov. 19. From the 1633 Prologue it appears that 
Cupid " descended in a cloud " on the public stage. Scenery 
was therefore used. In the Denmark House Prologue andEpi- 
logue Cupid mentions and points to " the Planets." The Sun, 
Mercury, and Venus appear in the play ; but the Moon and 
Jupiter are also mentioned, and I suppose Mars and Saturn 
must have joined in the final dance. A Prologue ** at the 
second time the same week" (the first presentation must have 
been, then, in the preceding week, on Saturday, and this, the 
third, on Saturday, Nov. 22) strangely gives as second title, 
not The Qtieen's Mask, but the original name, Cupid and 
Feyehe (see above, 7. Five plays in One). The original play 
evidently contained merely their story ; the Clown scenes, 
ii. 3, iiL 2, iv. 2, v. 2, were, I think, added at the 1633 
public representation ; and the Apuleius allegory before, be- 
tween, and after the acts at the Boyal view. The scene 
is Arcadia. Shirley's Arcadia, which preceded it, 1632, 
Nov. 19, should be read with this mask, and his Tritmvph of 
Beauty, 1639-40. All the new part is personal. Apuleius, 
I doubt not, is Hey wood ; Midas I guess to be Christopher 
Beeston, and his son Corydon, the clown, William Beeston. 
Midas prefers the song to Pan, the Arcadiaii god (Shirley's 
Arcadia), to Hey wood's song to Apollo (perhaps an intended 
revival of Apollo and Daphne), (a song in which ''semel 
in anno redet Apollo'^ is alluded to in iii 2). Midas is 
the White boy of Arcadia, v. 2. All the pastoral names, 
Coridon, Colin, Dickon, Hoobinol, are Spenserian, and the 
allusions to Midas, Phaon, &c., from Lyly. The transfer- 



300 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

mation of Apuleius had been represented in The Ghlden Ass, 
Cupid and Psyche, 1600, May, bj Chettle, Day, and Dekker, 
(when Heywood had left the Admiral's men for Derby's 7) ; 
and I have little doubt that in this Apuleius Heywood bad 
been caricatured as the mythological playwright, *' with an 
ass head of his own," i. i. Compare A Midsummer Night's 
Dream^ iii. i, 119, and Tiodfih Nighi, v. 212, where Ague- 
cheek is perhaps the same as Apuleius here. The " ignorant 
ass " in i 7 I take to mean Shirley. I have not space to 
note all the allusions, but for one that is important see 
Pallantus and Eudora. 

40. Hie Royal King and the Loyal Subject was acted 
by Queen Henrietta's men, after the first production 
of Cupid and Psyche, probably a Christmas 1633, the 
Planets and Furies of that mask being referred to in the 
Prologue to the Stage. The Epilogue to the Beader was 
also printed in H. Shirley's Martyred Soldier, and probably 
belongs to neither, being a stock paragraph belonging to 
the company, applicable to any old play. Its insertion, 
however, shows that this was old. It was, I feel sure, 
the Marshal Osric of 1602, Sept., by Heywood and Went. 
Smith, rewritten in consequence of the revival of Iletcher's 
Loyal Subject, 1633, Nov. The marks of alteration are 
numerous, besides the removal of rhyming words (which 
can be easily restored) by alteration and transposition, the 
substitution of the name Katharine for Margaret, the trans- 
ference of the name Cock from the Corporal to the Clown, 
and the expunging of Lord Lacy altogether. All this we 
learn from the Dram. Pers,^ which have not been rewritten. 
The parts of the play which have been entirely replaced 
by new, as shown by the absence of changed rhymes, and 
which, therefore, I assign to Smith, in the early version, are 



HEYWOOD. 301 

i. I, 2, 3, 4, 5 ; ii. 2 ; V. I, at the least. He wrote lialf, and 
was paid half, £3. 

The bar and scaffold "for the play of Berowne" are 
entered in Henslow immediately after this play. In v. 2 
"a bar" Ls set out, and the King calls for "a scaffold," 
which was no doubt set out also to increase the comedy 
of the ending, where a tragedy was expected. There is 
no note of ''Berowne" in Malone's trustworthy extracts 
(Variorum, iii. 327). Is this another forgery of Collier's? 
Note the four prisons in iiL i ; the word " condog," iii. 2, 
for which Lyttleton's Dictionary has been so abused ; the 
" Key of office " in i. 2, which explains The Tempest , L 2, 
85 ; and the duplicate reading in ii i : — 

{She died some three months since ; 
Qood lady, she's now gone ; 

an infallible sign of alteration. 

40*. Love's Masterpiece, C, S. B. 1640, May 22, for J. 
Okes. Not published. 

Plays Eevived by Brome for thb King's Men, 

1634-5- 

41. Tfie late Lancashire Witches, C, was acted at the 
Globe in 1634, shortly before publication S. B. Oct. 28, 
when the witches had not yet been pardoned. Compare 
[Brome's] Epilogue with Mrs. E. L. Linton's excellent 
Witch Stories, p. 230. The play was "written by T. 
Heywood and R. Brome," but evidently Haywood's part 
is founded on The Witches of Lancaster, by T. Potts, 161 3 
(tried 161 2, Aug. 17). The northern dialect is that of 
Brome's Northern Lass; and the Seely part, i. 2 ; iii. i, 3 ; 
iv. 3 ; V. 1 , 5 (part), should be compared with The ArUi^ 
pedes, which repeats the Erewhonian inversions of position. 



302 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Although Hejwood's motto (from the old play, I suppose) 
appears on the title-page, there is no Dedication, and he 
did not publish it The story of Nan Generous, i. i ; ii. 
2, 5 ; iii. 2 ; iv. 2, 4, 5 ; v. 2, 3, 4, 5 (part), is Heywood's, 
but considerably accommodated by Brome ; while in the witch 
scenes, ii. i, 3a, 4 ; iv. i, we get positive proof of altera- 
tions made by him. In ii. i the witches are Maud (Har- 
grave, 1633), Meg (Johnson, 1633), Gil (Goody Dickenson, 
1633), and presumably Mall (Spenser, 1633); for only 
three witches speak, though four are mentioned in the 
stage directions. But in iv. 5 we find "Call Meg and 
DoU, Tib, Nab, and Jug ; " and in v. 2 " Moll, Nab, Jug, 
and Peg/' Before alteration v. 2 must have been "Doll, 
Nab, Jug, and Tib." Meg, however (if five witches, 
making up the orthodox number of six with Mrs. Generous, 
be admitted in the older play), may be Margaret Pearson, 
161 2. I rather think, as Hey wood does not give the 
true Christian names, that the iv. 5 line was written " Call 
Doll and Tib, and Nab and Jug," and that it was imper- 
fectly altered. The familiars are to be assigned thus: 
Suckling to Gilian Dickenson, Puggy to Mary Spenser, 
Mamillion (from the 1634 trial) to Margarget Johnson, 
and Puckling to Maud Hargrave. The turning Bobin into 
a horse (and therefore the Mrs. Generous story) dates 
1634 (see the trial). In ii. 3 the "invisible spirit" (acted 
by F. Adson, unknown elsewhere), " with a brace of grey- 
hounds," is also from the 1633 story, but it is mixed up 
with the boy and greyhounds, ii. 4, which is taken from 
the 1 612 trial. The boy of the 1634 play is Edmund 
Bobinson, the chief witness in the trial, who afterwards 
confessed his imposture. These witches were pardoned, 
but twelve of the 161 2 batch were hanged. The pre- 
judgment implied in this play was a cruel pandering to 



HETWOOD. 303 

popular prejudice, iv. i, the witches la the barn is from 
the 1634 trial. There are allusions to jdacbeth, "The 
Scottish wayward sisters,** ii. 2 ; the late counterfeit coin, 
ii. 3 ; Prynne, ii. 3 ; and a man " who flew to Paris and 
back to London in a day/' iii. i . 

42. The Apprentice* PHzej and 43. The life and death 
of Sir Martin Skink, " with the wars in the Low Countries," 
were entered S. R 1654, April 8, as by B. Brome and T. 
Hey wood. These must also date 1634, the only year in 
which these authors wrote for the same company. 

44. A Challenge for Beauty was acted at the Blackfriars 
and the Globe before 1636, June 17 (probably in 1635), 
when it was published with a Prologue (characterising the 
dramas of various nations) and an Epilogue, but no Dedica- 
tion. The company issued it just after the plague began. 
In iii. 4 there is an allusion to Prynne's punishment^ 1634, 
May. It contains a song from The Bape of Lucreece, and 
was Heywood's last production for the stage that has 
reached us. 

Prologues and EpiLOouEa 

In his Dialogues and Dramas Heywood published a 
number of these, of which I here give a list from 
Pearson's reprint : — 

1. [1630], Nov. 19, at Somerset House. The Queen 
feasting the King on his birthday. "Little Charles" 
recently bom. 

2. [1630], at the new Theatre at Whitehall. To the 
King and Queen at the first play there by the Queen's 
men. 

3. 1 63 1, Jan I. To the King and Queen. Two-faced 
Janus, with a key. Only " an heir," but a second child hoped 
for. 



304 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

4. [163 1.] To the King onljy the Queen being great 
vfith child, in the seventh year of their marriage. 

5. [1634,3 At Whitehall, to the King and Queen, 
after 1633, Nov. 17 (see my History of the Stage^ p. 315). 

6. [1634.] At Hampton Court, to the King and Queen. 
Frynne alluded to ; also Apollo and Daphne and the Planets 
[as in The Silver Age, not as in The Queen's Made]. 

7. [1635.] At Whitehall, to the King and Queen. 
Nestor and the Heroes alluded to [as in Hie Brazen Age\, 

8. [ 1 63 5.3 On the like occasion, to the King and Queen. 
The Queen's men presented four plays at Hampton Court and 
five plays at Whitehall in 1635, for some of vhich Hey wood 
may have written Prologues, although he had left that com- 
pany. But, query, were these all presented in 1635 ? 

9. [1636], Jan. I. To the King on a New Year's Day. 
The Queen, it seems, was not present. P. Elizabeth was 
born J 63 5, Dec. 28 (of. 4). 

10. [1636.] To the like purpose, at the Court. Pan and 
Apollo [Shirley and Hey wood] alluded ta 9 and 10 were, 
I think, for King's men's plays. The Queen's men had 
been performing Shirley's plays at Court, 1636. 

The dates of the births of Charles' children, &c., being 
incorrectly given in many histories, I here append them. 
Tliey are needed in determining these Prologue dates : — 

1 600, Nov. 1 9, King Charles' birthday. Queen Henrietta's 
birthday was Nov. 16. 

1625, Mar. 27, their marriage. 

1628, Mar. 1 8, first child, Charles, bom. Died the same 
day. 

1630, May 29, Charles II. born. 

163 1, Nov. 4, Mary born. 
1633, Oct. 13, James born. 
1635, Dec. 28, Elizabeth born. 



HETWOOD. 30s 

1637, Mar. 17, Anne born. Died 1640, Dec. 8. 

1640, July 8, Henry bom. 

1644, June 16, Henrietta Maria born. 

I have every reason to suppose that Hey wood gives these 
Prologues in chronological order. He next passes to a group 
at Henry Carey the Earl of Dover's houses : — 

1. [1634-5], Christmas. At Broadstreet The Speaker 
Hospitality " at a play." 

2. [1635], Candlemas. At Broadstreet Carey had 
" begun to grace the City " with his presence. 

3. [1636], last New Tear's night At Hunsdon, before a 
mask of 9 ladie& The Dialogues were entered S. B. 1635, 
Aug. 29, but added to up to 1636 (see infra). 

[1635], a Prologue for a young lad playing Richard 3 
at the Bed Bull. 

i^SSi Nov. 19. ''On his Majesty's last birth-night, he 
being then 3 5 years of age, and the Queen great with child." 
This proves additions after 1635, Aug. 

1 63 $9 Nov. 22. To the Palsgrave on his first coming 
over, in the presence of His Majesty. 

For the Prologues to The Rich Jew of Malta, The Fair 
Maid of the West, and The Qtieen's Mask see under those 
plays, supra. 

All these Prologues date, then, between 1630 and 1636, 
and Collier is quite wrong in saying they were written " at 
remote dates." 

Pageants. 

4$. 1 63 1. London's J118 Honorarium^ for 6. Whitmore!s 
Mayoralty. Haberdashers' Society. There are dragons in it 
spitting fire. Gerald Christmas " exprest the models." 

46. 1632. Zondini Artium et Scientiarum Scaturigo, 

London's Fountain of Arts and Sciences, for N. Baynton's 
VOL. L V 



3o6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Majoralty. Haberdashers' Company. Note Katherine the 
Virgin Martyr, their patron saint, who has nothing in com- 
mon with Massinger 8 play. 

47* 1^33- Zandini Emporia, or Zondon's MerccUura, 
for B. Freeman's Mayoralty. Clothworkers' Company. 

48. 1635. Landini Simi8 SaltUis, or London's Harbour 
of Health and Happiness^ for C. Clethrowe's Mayoralty. 
Ironmongers' Company. The choice of Paris is alluded 
to by the three goddesses. J. and M. Christmas fashioned 
the structures. 

49. 1637. Londini Speculum, or London* $ Mirror, for 
B. Ficnn's Mayoralty. Haberdashers' Company. J. and M. 
Christmas were '' the artists and directors." 

50. 1638. Porta Pietatis, or The Port or Harbour of Piety, 
for M. Abbot's Mayoralty. Di-apers' Company. " A shep- 
herd with his scrip and bottle " in the first show. John and 
Mathias Christmas '' composed the pieces." 

51. 1639. Londini Status Pacaius^ or London* s Peaceable 
Estate, for H. Garway's Mayoralty. Drapers' Company. With 
birds and beasts in Show 3 ; Jason and the Golden Fleece, 
drawn by Cammels, ** amongst us rarely seen," in Show 4 ; 
a ship in Show 5. These shows of 1638 and 1639 are 
ridiculed by Shirley in his Triumph of Beaviy. J. and M. 
Christmas " contrived the Models." 

Holiday, Dr. Bartbn. (University.) 

I. 1 61 8, April 20, for John Parker. The Marriages 
of the Arts, Cy 161 8, 1630. 
Son of Thomas Holiday, tailor ; bom in All Saints parish, 
Oxford; entered at Christ Church under Dr. Bavis, his 
patron and relation ; B. A, M. A. ; took holy orders in 1 6 1 5 ; 
was popular as a preacher and got two good Oxfordshire 
livings. In 161 8 went as chaplain to Sir Francis Stewart 
to Spain with Gondomar ; on his return was made chaplain 



HOWABD— D^GELAND. 307 

to Charles L, and was Archdeacon of Oxford before 1626. 
The rest of his career does not concern us. He died i66i. 
I. Teehnogamiaj or The Marriages of the Arts, was acted 
in Christ Church Hall 1 3th Feb. 1 6 1 8 by the students ; 
and Sunday, 26th Aug. 1621, before the King at Wood- 
stock. On the King's impatience with it see Nichols, 
James, iiL 713. 

Howard, Sir George. (Mask.) 

I. The Triumph of Cupid. 
Hughes, Thomas. (Court Show). 

I . Certain Devices and Shows presented to Her Majesty 
by the Gentlemen of Gray's Inn ... at Green- 
wich 28th Feb: iS87[-8]. Printed by Robert 
Bobinson 1587. 
I . The Misfortunes of Arthur. " Uther Pendragon's son 
reduced into tragical notes by Thomas Hughes of Gray's 
Inn." He was assisted by William Fulbeck (two speeches), 
Nicholas Trotte (Introduction), Francis Flower (Choruses, 
i. ii.), Christopher Yelverton, Francis Bacon, and John 
Lancaster (Dumb Shows). A play on the Seneca model. 
Ingeland, Thomas. (Interlude.) 

I . IS 64, Sept-Oct., for Thomas Colwell. A picture 
of a child. 
Ingeland was student of Christ College, Cambridge. 
I . The IXsobedient Child (a revived interlude of the time 
of Edward YI.) was probably acted at Court 6th March 
1 560-1 ; (Ralph BoysteTj which in my History of the Stage I 
assigned to that date, being more likely acted 1 561-2.) If 
so, it was acted by the Paul's boys ; and 2. The Nice Wanton 
whose author is not known, may also have been written by 
Ingeland. There is no evidence that interludes of the 
morality species were ever acted at Court by men players. 
See my History of the Stage, pp. 57, 58. 



3o8 THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

Jaquis, Fbancis. (Play). 

I. Brit Mas. M8. Larnxd. 807. Tht Quern of Cornea, 
T., 1642. Probably not acted. 
JsFFBXT, John. (Play). 

I. The Bugbears, C, tempore Elizabeth. Brit Mus. MS. 
Laned. 807. Translated from the Italian. One character 
is named Biondello. At the end ** Johannes Jeffere aeribebat 
hoe!* Jettrej may be the scribe, may be the author. 
Johnson, William. (Latin.) 

1. Valetudinarium, C, by W. Johnson, student of Sang's, 
Cambridge Acted 1638. Scene, St. Bartholomew's Hos- 
pital. MSS. common. See Zeander. 

2. Iieander was acted at Cambridge in 1598 and in 
1 60 2. MSS. common. On that in the Bodleian, MSS. 
Baui. Miee. 341, the name W. Johnson occurs on the fly- 
leaf, but the date is too early for this W. Johnson's author- 
ship. 

JoNXS, Inioo. (Architect and Mask-plotter.) 
Inigo, son of Inigo Jones, dothworker, was christened at 
St Bartholomew the Less, West Smithfield, 19th July 1573. 
The father's will, made 14th Feb. IS97> was proved sth 
April. The son had probably served his apprenticeship as 
a joiner. His skill in landscape had been noticed by a 
Lord (Arundel or Pembroke ?), who sent him to Italy. He 
next became architect to Christian lY. of Denmark. On his 
return to England he took to architecture, c. 1604. On 
1 6th June 1609 he was paid for ''carrying letters into 
France." He was Surveyor of the Works to Prince Henry 
from 1 6 10, Jan. 13, to 161 2, Nov. 5, when the Prince died. 
He then went to Italy ; was there 1613, Sept 23, to 1614, 
Aug. 13. Back in London 161 5, Jan. 26, and succeeded 
Simon Basil as Surveyor of the Works to the King as from 
161 5, Oct I. The Banquetting House at Whitehall was 



JONES. 309 



burned 12th Jan. 1619; Jones rebuilt it 1619-1622. 
career as an architect is out of my purview, except the laying 
out of Ck>vent Garden 1631-1638, which is alluded to in 
several plays. He died 21st June 1652 His masks were 
the following :— ^ 

1. 1 60s, J&x^* 6* BlaeknesSy with Jonson. A QueenV 
mask. 

2. 1605. Aug. 28, Alba; 3. Aug. 29, Jjax Flagdlifer; 
4. Aug. 30, Vertumnus (by Gwynne), were acted at Christ 
Church, Oxford, before the Court, with Jones' devices, where- 
in ''the stage varied three times," by means of turning 
pillars, which, of course, were triangular, as on the Greek 
stage. 

5. 1606, Jan. 6. Hymen, with Jonson. For the Earl of 
Essex* marriage. 

6. 1608, Feb. 9. The Hue and Cry after Cupid, with 
Jonson. For Viscount Haddington's marriaga 

7. 1 609, Feh 2. Queens, with Jonson. A Queen's mask. 

8. 1 6 10, June 5. Tethyi Festival, with Daniel A 
Queen's mask. 

9. 161 3, Feb. IS. [Plutus] The Middle Temple and 
Lincoln's Inn mask, with Chapman. For the Princess Eliza- 
beth's marriage. 

10. 1623, Jan. 19. Time vindicatedy with Jonson. A 
Prince's mask. 

11. 1624, Jan. 6, prepared, but put off; i62Sf Jan. 9, 
represented. Neptune's Triumph, with Jonson. 

12. 1624, c. June 5. Pan's Anniversary^ with Jonson. 

13. 1630, Jan« 6. Love's Triumph through CaUipolis, 
with Jonson. A King's mask. 

1 4. 1 630, Shrovetide. Chloridia, with Jonson. A Queen's 
mask. For the quarrel ensuing hereon see Jonson ; as also 
for Jonson's earlier quarrels with and satire of Jones. 



3IO THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

15. 1632, JaiuS. Album's Triumph, with Townaend. 
A King's mask. 

16. 163 2, Feb. 1 3. Tempe JRestared, with Townsend. A 
Queen's mask. 

17. i634,^reb. 3. The Triumph of Peaee^ mtii SiMej. 
Presented by the Inns of Court. 

18. 1634, Feb. 18. Codum Briiannieumy with Carew. 
A King's mask. 

1 9. 1 634, Nov. 1 9 Zove*$ Mtriress, with Heywood. A 
Queen's mask. 

20. 1635, Feb. 10. The Temple of Love, with Dave- 
nant. A Queen's mask. 

21. 163S) Dec. 21. Florimine (in French). A Queen's 
pastoral. 

22. 1638, Jan. 7. Britannia Triumphans, with Dave- 
nant. A King's mask. 

23. 1638, Feb. 6. LumtTialia. A Queen's mask. 

24. 1640. Jan. 21. Salmacida SpoKa, with Davenant. 
King and Queen's mask. 

For all these see under their authors' names. 

In the Shakespeare Society Life of Inigo Jonee a number 
of his drawings for mask costumes are faaimiled, and 
much nonsensical rubbish is appended to show that they 
were meant for actors in Shakespeare's plays. I therefore 
give here a list of such of these as I have identified. They 
were all drawn for masks. 

20. The Tooth-Drawer; 21. The Comcutter (Plate xi.), 
are for Pan's Anniversary, 1624. 

3. The Airy Spirit; 4. Skogan; 5. Skelton; 6. A 
brother of the Bosy Cross (Plate iii.), are for The FortU' 
nate Ides, 1625. 

2. Cade (Plate ii.) ; 7. Harlequin ; 8. Mountebank (Plate 
vi.); 12. Kett (Plate vi.) ; 16. (Damsel); 17. Dwarf (Platct 



JONES— JONSON. 311 

X.); 19. Giant (Plate zi.); 22. Scraper; 23. Gridiron; 24. 
Ballad. Singer (Plate zii.) ; 25. Knackers; 26. Tongs (Plate 
xiii.) ; 27. Armed Head (Plate xiii.}, are for Britannia 
Triumphans, 1638. 

9. English; 10. Irish; 11. Scotch (Plate v.), are for 
Salmaeida Spolia^ 1 640. 

I. Pilgrim (Plate i.) ; 14* Morisco (Plate viii.); I5- 
Torchbearer (Plate ix.); 18. Lanier (Plate x.), &re too in- 
definite to assign to any particular mask. 

13. Kniperdoling (Plate vii.) I have not met with. 

I should have liked to pursue this investigation further, 
and wrote to the Duke of Devonshire, the patron of Collier, 
for permission to examine the other drawings of Jones in 
his possession, but did not get even the courtesy of a 
reply. 

Jokes, John. (Play.) 

I. Adrada, or The Woman* s Spleen and Love^e Can* 
quest, T. 0., 1635. 

Founded on Boccaccio's Decameron^ viii. 8. Befosed by 
the actors. Never acted. 

JONSON, Benjamin. (Actor, playwright, Mask and Enter- 
tainment writer, poet, &c.) 

6. 1600, April 8, for W. Holme. Every Man out of his 
Humor y "a comical satire,** 1600; "as it was first com- 
posed by the author, containing more than hath been publicly 
spoken or acted, with the several character of eveiy person." 
1 600 lis, for N. Ling, " by the author, B. J." 

5. 1600, Aug. 14, for C. Burby and W. Burre. Every 
man in his humor , C, 1601, "by Ben Johnson," as "acted 
by the Lord Chamberlain his servants." This had been 
'^ stayed " 1 600, Aug. 4, with three of Shakespeare's plays, 
all entered for different publishers. 

9. 1 60 1, May 23, for W. Burre. Narcissus, or Tlie 



3ia THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Fountain of Sdf-Love; i6oi. ''or Oyntkia*$ Bevels, written 
by Ben Johnson." 

lo. 1601, Dec 21, for M. Lownes. Poetaster, or His 
[the],Arraignment, 1602, ''a comical satire.** 

29. 1604, Mar. 19, for R Blunt Part of King James* 
Entertainment in passing to his Coronatiany 1604, Mar. 1 5, 
Arches i. v., ** by Benjamin Johnson;" 1604, "B. Jon." 
[with changed spelling]. With the Paneffyric on James and 
the Untertainment at Altharpe. 

14. 1604, Nov. 2, for R Blunt. Sefanus, T., by B. 
Johnson; 1605, by G. Elide, for T. Thorpe, ''Sganus his 
fall, written by Ben Jonson." 

34. ffymenceij i6o6j by V. Sims for T. Thorpe, at Essex' 
marriage, Twelfth Night, '' by Ben Jonson." 

16. Ben Jonson, his Volpone, or The FoXy i6o7i for T. 
Thorpe ; " 1 1 th Feb. 1 607, from my house at Black- 
friars." 

1 608, April 2 1 , for T. Thorpe, The character of tv>o Royal 
Masks, invented by Ben Johnson. 

35. Blackness and Beauty, ''by Ben Jonson." [1608.] 

36. Mask at ffaddington*s Marriage, 1608, Shrove Tues- 
day. [1608, for T. Thorpe.] 

4. 1609, ^^^- 26, for H. Walley and R Bonion [and 
B. Sutton, 1609, ^^^y 20]. The ease is aiteredy C, 1609, 
for B. Sutton, ** B. Jonson, His case is altered," and a second 
title-page, <' The Case is altered:* 

37. 1609, Fet)- 22, for R. Bonyon and H. Walley. The 
Mask of Queens, celebrated '^ by Benjamin Johnson'; " 1609, 
by N. Okes for R Bonyon and H. Walley. 

18. 1 6 10, Sept 20, for J. Browne and J. Busby, junior, 
Fpicoene, or The Silent Womany C, " by Ben Johnson ; " 
1609 [?]f 161 2, 1620. 

19. 1 610, Oct 3, for W. Burre. The Alchemist y C, "by 



JONSON. 313 

Ben Johnson;" 16 12, T. Snodbam for W. Burre; sold by 
J. Stepneth. 

20. Catiline, his conspiracy , T., by Ben Jonson, 16 1 1, for 
W. Burre ; 1635. 

16 1 2, May I S> for J. StepnetL Ben Jobnson, his Ilpi- 
grams. Not known. 

161 5, Jan. 20, for W. Stansby. Certain masks at the 
Court never yet printed, written by Ben Johnson ; i,e.y iJl of 
the 1 6 1 6 Folio (by W. Stansby) which had not previously 
been published. 

48. Lovers ma Men [Gifford's LetKel, A mask at L. 
Hay's 16 1 7. No place, printer, or publisher given. 

161 8, June 14, for M. Sparkes. A discourse of Love^ or 
SoTigs, Sonnets, and Elegies hettoixt Withers and Johnson, 

53. The mask of Augurs, presented Twelfth Night, 
1 62 1 [—2], sine ulla nota, 

Ben Jonson, his Motives {re Inigo Jones), 1622 (Wood, 
Ath. Oxon.) ; but should not the date be 1633 ? Not now 
known. 

1623, Oct 2, for Blount Barclay's Argennis, translated 
by Benjamin Johnson. Not now known. 

56. 1624, Dec. 29. "For the Palsgrave's company [at 
the Fortune], a new play called The Masque. The Masque 
book was allowed of for the press, and was brought me by 
Mr. Jon [son] the 29th Dec.;" so far Herbert The For- 
tunate Isles and their union was meant to be performed at 
Court 1624, Jan. 9. It was afterwards altered into Nep- 
tune's Triumph, which, after the mask had been put off on 
1624, ^l^&o- 6} ^^ presented 1625, Jan. 6 (see Nichols, iii. 
pp. 1026, 1027). Gifford is hopelessly wrong. It was 
published sin^ vUa nota [in 1624], and as no other mask 
was then published, must be the one mentioned by Herbert. 
A copy in Brit Mus., Geo. III. collection, catalogued under 



314 THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

'^ Ida " (Nichols), and so mentioned in the Trustees' Cata^ 
log%u of books before 1640. 

24. 1 626, April 1 4, for J. Waterson. The Staple of News, 
C. [not then published]. 

59. Zove*8 Triumph through CcUlipolis, 1630. 

60. Chloridia [1630], for T. Walkley. 

25. 163 1, April 17, for T. Alchome. The New Inny 
C, by Ben Johnson; 1631, by T, Harper for T. Alchorne, 
with second title, The light Heart. 

1639, Dea 16, for J. Benson. The Execration against 
VtUcany with Epigrams, never published before; 1640, by 
J. 0. for J. Benson. This volume contains 52. The mask 
of the Gypsies, 1 640, Feb. 20 ; Horace's Art of Poetry, S. E. 
1640, Feb. 8; and The ode. Underwoods^ 68 (88). The 
second Folio making up *'the works," 163 1— 1640, for W. 
Stansby, sold by B. Meighen; 163 1 -41, by R Bishop, 
sold by A. Crooke; 1641, 1692. 

See also The Widow, The Spanish CuratSy The City 
Madam, Byron^ Julius Caesar. 



Verses Prefixed by Jonson 

1600, Aug. 22, PasguiCs Swollen [Sullen] Humors; 
i.e., N. Breton's Melancholic Hunumrs (Gifford's Under- 
woods, 23). 

1 60 1, (affixed) with verses by Vatum Chorus,Ignoto, Shake- 
speare, Marston, Chapman. Forest 10, 11, and perhaps The 
Phoenix Analysed and TJie Ode (Hotten's edition, iiL 269). 

1 60 1, June 12, T. Wright's Passions of the Mind 
(U. G. 25). 

1600-9, C. Edmonds' Cassar (with verses by Camdeo, 
Daniel, Sylvester) (Epigrams no, 1 1 1 ). 

1603, Aug. I, To Pancharis, "Ode allegorice" (iii. 529) 
on Owen Tudor and the Queen. 



JONSON. 3 IS 

1605, J. Sylvester's Dubartas {Epig. 132). 
1 609, J. Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess (U. 6. 1 4). 
1609, Feb.^i, A. Ferrabosco's Airs {Epig. 130, 131). 
161 1, April 15, W. Ealegh's History of the Worlds 
(U. G. 42). 

1 6 1 1 , June 7, Coryat's Crudities (with a character of 
the author) 

161 2, April 29, Farnaby's edition of Juvenal (iii. 466). 

1 61 3, J^ Stephens' Cynthia's Revenge (U. G. 19). 
Printed by Cunningham, iil 525, as "supplementary." 

1 6 14, July I, P. Hannay's Husband (U. G. 24). 

1 614, July 14, J. Selden's Titles of Honor, (U. G. 31). 
16 1 6, W. Browne's Britannia! s Pastorals, Book ii. (U. 
6. 18). 

161 8, Mar. 14, G. Chapman's Hesiod (U. G. 20). 
1623, Nov. 8, W. Shakspeare's plays (XJ. Q. 11, 12). 

1626, April 18, T. May's Lucan's Pharsalia. 

1627, April 16, M. Drayton's Agincourt, &c. [written, 
no doubt, considerably earlier]. 

1629, June 2, J. Beaumont's jx>em« (U. G. 13). 

1629, E. Filmer's Court Airs (U. G. 27). 

1630, T. Warre's Touchstone of Truth (U. G. 26). 
1632, Mar. 24, R. Brome's Northern Lass, (XJ. G. 28). 

1634, Mrs. Sutcliffe's Meditations [with verses by 
Wither]. 

1635, Jan. 19, Butter's Shepherd's Holiday (U. G. 22). 
1635, Sept. 12, StaflTord's Female Glory (iii. 527, 

Hotten's edition). 

1636) Jan. iiy R Dover's Annalia Duhrensia (iii. 
466). 

1637 (Amsterdam), T. Morton's Tfie New English Canaan 
(iii. 525, with date 1627). 

These publication dates are necessarily somewhat later 



3x6 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

than the dates of writing, which fact must be borne in 
mind in making inferential use of them, especially for the 
last noticed* 

Even the smallest indications of Jonson's career are so 
important in the general history of the drama, and the 
neglect of his modern editors is so great in not furnishing 
the general reader with reprints of the Quarto editions, that 
I must dwell on minutisB to an extent that would not be 
permissible in the case of any other playmaker except 
Shakespeare. I therefore add here — 

T?ie Contents of the 1616 Folio. 

Commendatory Verses. 

Plays previously published in Quarto (except 4. The 
Case is altered). 

Epigrams (to which I add, when I can, approximate 
Gates), viz. : — 

161 2. I. To the Reader. 2. To my Book. 3. To 
my Bookseller. 

1604, March. 4. To King James. 5. On the Union ; 

cf. 3S» 36» 51- 

6. To Alchemists. 

7. On the new Hot-house. 

8. On a Robbery. 

9. To all to whom I write. 

10. To my Lord Ignorant. 

1 1. On something that walks somewhere. 

12. On Lieutenant Shift. 

1 3. To Doctor Empiric. 

14. To W. Camden. 

1 5. On Court-worm. 

16. To Brain-hardy. 



JONSOK 317 

After 1599. 17. To the Learned Critic. 18. To my 
mere English Censure. In 18 we find a reference to 
Satirists. Davies (Sir John, not Davies of Hereford ; i,e.y 
The Epigrams of 1 597 ; not The Scourge of Folly) is men- 
tioned ; also Weever (The Epigrams, 1 599 ; not The Funeral 
Monum^nUf 163 1). 

19, 20. To Sir Cod the Perfumer; cf. 50. 

2 1 . On Bef ormed Gamester. 

1 593. 22. On my First Daughter, " Mary, the daughter 
of her parents' youth," who died " at six months' end." 

23. To John Donne. 

1604, c. April 24. To the Parliament. 

25, 26. On Sir Voluptuous Beast 

1603-4. 27. On Sir John £oe. Died of the plague. 

c. 1603. 28. On Don Surly, who speaks with a rhino- 
cerote's nose. 

? 1 6 1 o, Mar. 24. 29. To Sir Annual Tilter. " Annual," 
therefore on a Sing's day. Was the "« device " Sir B. Pres- 
ton's Elephant? See Nichols, ii. 287. 

30. To Person Guilty; cf. 38. 

3 1 . On Banck the Usurer ; cf . 44. 

1603-4. 32, 33. On Sir John Boe. 34. On Death. 

1604, April. 35. To King James. 36. To the Ghost 
of Martial. (3 5 alludes to the plague 1 603, and treasons 
(Gowry 1600, Balegh 1603) and new laws 1604 Mar.) 

37. On Chevril the Lawyer; cf. 54. 

38. On Person Guilty; cf. 30. 

39. On Old Colt. 

40. On Margaret Batcliff. Acrostic. 

41. On Gipsy. 

42. On Giles and Joan. 

1605, May. 4. 43. To Bobert [Cecil] Earl of Salisbury. 
Created 1605, May 4. Ob. 161 2, May 24. 



31 8 THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

44. On Choffe, Banck's the Usurer's Kinsman ; cf. 31. 

i6o3y c. July. 45. On my first son, ''when the King 
came in England and the pest was in London" (Dram. 
Oonv.), seven years old. 

46, 47. To Sir Luckless Woo-all, 

48. On Hungrily Esquire. 

49. To Playwright; cf, 68, 100. 

50. To Sir Cod; cf. 19, 20. 

1606, Mar. 22. 51. To King James on the rumour of 
his death. 

52. To Censorious Courtling. 

53. To Old-end Gatherer. 

54. On Cheveril ; cf, 37. 

1608. 55. To F. Beaumont (q.v.). 

56. On Poet-ape. 

5 7. On Bawds and Usurers. 5 8. To Groom Idiot. 

? 1598, Oct 59. On Spies (after imprisonment); but 
query 1606. 

1 606, c Feb. 60. To William Lord Mounteagle (after 
Gunpowder Plot trial). 

6 1 . To Fool or Knave. 

62. To Fine Lady Would-be. 

1606, 1608. 63, 64. To Robert Earl of Salisbury. 
(64. High Treasurer, t.e. 1608, May 6); cf. Und. 28 (49). 

65. To my Muse. 

1 606, c June. 66. To Sir Henry Gary (on his capture 
of 1605 Oct.; unreleased 1606 June). 

1606. 67. To Thomas [Howard] Earl of Suffolk. Created 
1603, July 21 (written after Hymenm; at his daughter's 
marriage, I think). 

68. On Playwright ; cf. 49, lOO. The " private beatings " 
indicate Marston. See Dr. Cbnv, xi., " he beat Marston and 
took his pistol from him." 



JONSON. 319 

69. To Pertinax Cob. 

70. To William Roe. 

71. On Court Parrot. 

72. To Courtling. 

73. To Fine Grand. 

74. To Thomas, Lord Chancellor Egerton. Appointed 
1603, July 24. 

75. On Lippe the Teacher (Paul's preacher against 
plays). 

76. On Lucy Countess of Bedford. 

TJ. To one that desired me not to name him. 

78. To Hornet. 

79. To Elizabeth Countess of Kutland. 

80. On Life and Death. 

8 1 . To Pro wle the Plagiary. 

82. On cashiered Captain Surly. 83. To a Friend. 

84. To Lucy Countess of Bedford. 

85, 86. To Sir Henry Goodyere. 

87. On Captain Hazard, the cheater. 

88. On English Monsieur. 

(?) c. 1 597. 89. To Edward Allen (while acting). 

90. On Mill, my Lady's Woman. 

91. To Sir Horace Vere (Qy. at his marriage, 1607 
Nov.). 

161 1, Mar. 25. 92. The New Cry (long after the 
Powder Plot, 1605-6; refers, I think, to the peerage be- 
stowed on Carr 161 1, Mar. 25, ''ripe statesmen at siz-and- 
twenty." 

93. To Sir John Radcliflre. 

94. To Lucy Countess of Bedford, with Donne's Satires 
[in MS.]. 

161 1, June 29. 95. To Sir Henry Savile. Knighted 
1603, "^^^7 ^3 9 Baronet 161 1, June 29. 



320 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

96. To John Donne. 

97. On the new motion. After " the Eltham thing,'* 1 609. 

98. 99. To Sir Thomas Boe. Knighted 1603, July 23 
(Qaery after hie voyage to the West Indies) 

100. On Playwright; cf. 49, 68. 

1 01. Inviting a friend to Supper. 

102. To William Earl of Pembroke. Succeeded 1601. 
c. 1610, Oct 3. 103, 105. To Mary Lady Wroth, nie 

Sidney ; cf. Dedication of The Alchemist. 

104. To Susan Countess of Montgomery; m. 1604, 
Dec. 27. 

1 06. To Sir Edward Herbert. 

107. To Captain Hungry. 108. To true Soldiers. 

1 6 1 2. 1 09. To Sir Henry Nevil (of Billingbear). Was 
refused Secretaryship in 1 6 1 2. 

1600-1609. 1 10, II I. To C. Edmonds on his Ccbmt. 

112. To a weak gamester in Poetry. 

1 608-1 611. 1 1 3. To Sir Thomas Overbury. Knighted 
1608, June 19; imprisoned 161 1, April 23. 
* 1 1 4* To Mr& Philip Sidney. 

115. On the Town's Honest Man. 

1 1 6. To Sir William Jephson. £[nighted 1 603, April 2 2. 

117. On Groyne. 118. On Gut. 

1 608- II. 1 1 9. To Sir Ralph Shelton. Knighted 1 607, 
Dec. I o ; Lady Haddington cKlled him a buflfoon (Nichols, 

iii. 177). 

c 1602. 120. Epitaph on Salathiel Favy, who acted 

3 years and died at 1 3. 

121, 122, 1.23. To Benjamin Budyard. 

1 24. Epitaph on Elizabeth I^. H« 

125. To Sir William Uvedale. Knighted . 1 60 5, April 9. 
1 26. To his Lady, then Mrs. Cary. 

c. 1607. 127. To Esme Lord Aubigny. 



JONSOK 321 

128. To William Boe. 

129. To Mime. 

1609, Feb. I. 130, 131. To A« Ferrabosco, on his Book. 

1605. 132. To Mr. Joshua Silvester (on his Dvbartas). 

c. 161 1, Jane. 133. On the Famous Voyaga (After 
Coryat's Crudities.) Probably the last poem in this 
series. 

Two things are dear. The arrangement of the Epi- 
grams is not chronological, although in the earlier part 
they look as if originally intended to be so ; and there is 
no date in them that can be definitely assigned later than 
1611. 

The Forest. 

c. 161 1. I, Why I write not of Love. "I grow old." 
JStat, c. 39. 

2. To Penshurst King James and Prince Henry ^ hunt- 
ing late this way;" therefore not later than 161 2. 

3. To Sir Robert Wroth. Lady Mary Wroth was a 
Sidney. R Wroth's seat was at Durance, Middlesex. 

4. To the World. A farewell [written] for a Gentle- 
woman. 

Before 1605. 5, 6. To Celia from Catullus; cf. 9, 
Underwoods 25 (46). 

7. Women are but Men's Shadowa Written for Lady 
Pembroke as a penance for maintaining her Lord's opinion 
against hers. Dr. C<mv.y xiv. 

8. To Sickness; cf. Und. 32 (53). 

Before 1605. 9. To Celia from Philostratus ; cf. 5, 6. 
Und. 25 (46). 

1 60 1. 10, II. Praeludium and Epode for Chester's 

Love's Martyr. 

1604. 12. Epistle to Elizabeth Countess of Rutland, 
vou I. z 



322 . THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

• 

daughter of Sir Philip Sidney. The last notice I have 
found of her is in 1606, Jan. 6. She died before 161 6 
(Oifford). This Epistle notes the " better verser " of Lucy 
Countess of Bedford, viz., Daniel (j.u), which fixes the 
date as shortly after Tfu Vision of the 12 Goddesses, 1 604, 
Jan. 8. 

1 607-8. 1 3. Epistle to Katherine Lady Aubigny, nde 
Clifton. Married 1 607. It appears this poem was written 
when she was pregnant of her first child. 

Before 161 2. 14. Ode to Sir William Sidney on his 
birthday. Died c. 1 6 1 2. 

1 5. To Heaven. 

Here again no definite date appears later than 161 1. 

I!ntertainm€nts. 

29. The passing to the Coronation (previously published). 
28. 1603, June 25. At Althorpe, L Spencer's. 

30. 1604, May I. At Highgate, Sir W. Comwallis'. 

32. 1606, July 24. At Thecbald^s. To the Elings of 
Britain and Denmark. The Earl of Salisbury's. 

33. 1607, May 22. At Thedbald^s, when the house 
was given up to the Queen. 

Masks. 

Those previously published. 

38. 161 o, June 4. Prince Henry's harriers, 

39. 1 6 1 1 , Jan. I . Oberon. Prince Henry's mask. 

40. 161 1, Jan. Love freed. Queen's mask. 

Here ends Jonson's supervision of the Folio. The subse- 
quent masks have no marginal notes, and are much more 
incorrectly given. There can be little doubt that the entry 



JONSON. 323 

S. R 161 2, May 1 5, marks the conclusion of Jonsqn's work, 
and that it would have been followed by a similar entry for 
the newly printed masks, and the whole book issued in 
161 3 ; but Prince Henry (to whom, I think, it was meant to 
be dedicated) died 161 2, Nov. 6, and the publication was 
put off When issued in 16 16 the following masks were 
added : — 

43. 1 6 1 3, Xmas (?). Lave Bestored ; 

41. 1613, Dec. 27. Challenge at Tilt; 

42. 1613, Dec. 29. Irish Mask; 

44. 161 5, Jan. I, 6. Mercury Vindicated; 

45. 1 61 6, Jan. I, 6. The Golden Age Restored; 

all of which belong to my second period of Jonson's work. 
The convenience of marking an epoch at the death of 
Prince Henry and the virtual end of the 16 16 Folio 
will, I think, require no further demonstration. The 
separate title-pages give indication of change of copyright 
in 16 16. Every man out of his humour was printed by 
W. Stansby for J. Smythwick, but The Poetaster for M. 
Lownes. 

The " second volume " of the Folio, 1 640, for £. Meighen 
contained three plays, each with a separate dtle-page " for 
R Allott, 163 1." 

21. Bartholomew Fair, 



24. The Stdple of News^ 
23. The Devil is an ass, 

25. The New Inn (previously published). 

26. The Magnetic Lady. 
II, 27. A Tale of a Tub, ' 
22. The Sad Shepherd. 

2. The Fall of Mortimer. 



all belonging to the second 
period. And after these : — 



All early work revised. 
Printed "1640." 



324 



THE EKGLISU DRAMA. 



Masks. (Besides those previously published.) 

46. Christmas, his mask. 

47. Vision of Ldight. 
49. Pleasure Reconciled. 

49. For the H&nor of Wales. 

50. World in the Moon. 



53. Augurs. 

54. Time Vindicated. 

57. Neptune* s Triumph. 

55. Pan's anniversary. 

58. Owls. 

56. Fortunate Ides. 
Expostvlaiion with Inigo Jorus! 

61. EiUertainment at Welbeck. 

62. Entertainment at Belsover. 



All printed "1641," and 
} belonging to the second 
period. 



Printed 1 64 1. Third 
period. 



Underwoods. (Jonsons own title, c. 1631.) 

The Sinner's Sacrifice : three poems of Devotion, c. 1 6 1 3 
perhaps ; cf . Forest ^ 1 5 . 

Chans : ten lyrics. 

a 1622-3. I. His excuse for loving. Fifty years old. 

c. 1608. 2-10. Written in reference to a mask in 
which Charis represented Venus riding in a chariot drawn by 
swans and doves (4), at a marriage, and leading the Oraces 
in a dance at Whitehall, worthy to be envied of the Queen 
(6), in which Cupid had a part (2, 3, 5), at which Charis 
kissed him (6, 7), and afterwards kept up a close intimacy 
with him (8, 9, 10). The mask of 1608, Feb. 9, exactly 
fulfils these conditions, and the Venus of that mask was 
probably L. Elizabeth Hatton, the most beautiful of the 
then Court ladies. She had appeared in the mask of 
Beauty i6o8| Jan. 10, but in no other year traceable by 



JONSON. 32s 

me. From the Elegy ^ G. U. 36, manifestly written to the 
same lady (compare it with the lines in 5 as to " the bank 
of kisses" and "the bath of milk and roses"), we learn 
that Chans had " a husband that is the just excuse of all 
that can be done him/' This was her second husband, Sir 
Edward Coke, to whom she was married in 1598. This 
identifies Charis with Mrs. Fitzdottrel in The Devil is an 
088, where, ii. 2, the same words are used ; the " milk and 
roses " lines, with the " bank of kisses," reappear, and two 
stanzas of the song in 5 are verbally repeated. In this 
play,*Wittipol, ''come home from travel," i. 2, is Jonson; 
he " saw her once before he went, but so as she hath stuck 
still in my view." This return was in 161 4. In i 2 
Fitzdottrel (Cokes) scarce hath soul instead of salt to keep 
his flesh sweet In Bartholomew Fair, iv. i, the same 
words are applied to Cokes ; but Cokes is not Sir E. Coke ; 
he is a young unmarried man. Cokes is an esquire of 
Harrow, in Middlesex ; Fitzdottrel of Norfolk. Sir E. Coke 
was a native of Norfolk, and had held office in Norwich. 

In 1 62 1, in The Oipsies Metamorphosed, Jonson trans- 
ferred the "milk and roses" and "the bank of kisses" 
to Lady Furbeck, the daughter of Lady E. Hatton, with 
lines on " yourself the reason why wisest men for love may 
die;" c. 1622, in Charis i, he says that was spoken of 
Charis, but this is a blind. Charis could not have been 
originally Lady Purbeck, who was too young, before 
Jonson's 1 6 1 3 travels, to have appeared as a Venus Gene- 
trix with her son Cupid in any mask. These lines had 
probably been so transferred at Lady Hatton's request. 
Jonson's enigmatic references had been too open. With 
the "emissary Eye" and "Secretary Sis" of 8 compare 
" emissary Court " in The Staple of News and " Secretary 
Sis " in The New Inn. 



326 THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

Miscellaneotis Underwoods. 

Before i6ig. i. The Musical Strife, alluded to in Dr. 
Conv,y 5. 

2. Song. 

3, 4. Of Womankind. 
5. A Nymph's passioD. 

1 6 1 9, Jan. 6. The Hour-glass, written for Drummond, 
Conv. 5. 

1 61 9, Jan. 24. 7. My Picture left in Scotland, "six- 
and-forty years " old. On L. Hatton. 

8. 'Against Jealousy. 9. The Dream. 

1 6 19. 10. Epitaph on Vincent Corbet, died 161 9. A 
gardener at Twickenham. His son, Bishop Corbet, was at 
Westminster School with Jonson. 

[11-29 in GiflTord are not in 1641 Folio. From this 
point I shall add Gifford's numbering in brackets for re- 
ference.] 

Before 1624. 11 (30). Epistle to Sir E. Sackville, now 
Earl of Dorset Succeeded 1624, Feb. 7. The "now" 
refers to the date at which these poems were published, 1 64 1 . 

1 614, July 14. 12 (31). Epistle to J. Selden, prefixed 
to Titles of Honor. 

c. 1621. 13 (32). Epistle to Master Colby, to persuade 
him to the wars. 

14 (33)' Epitaph on Master Philip Gray. 

1 5 (34)' Epistle to a friend [a creditor]. 

16, 17 (35, 36). Elegies [Lady E. Hatton: Charis]. 

1623. 18, 19 (37, 38). Shrubs [by Donne, "almost at 
fifty." On the elopement of Lady Furbeck with Sir Bobert 
Howard, I think}. 

20 (39). An Elegy [on Lady Covell : " Love is gone into 
your name "]. 



JONSON. 327 

c. 1 6 1 4 2 1 (4 1 ). Ode to himself. " Worded balladry " 
(of Daniel, I think), mentioned. 

1 6 14. 22 (42). Frontispiece to a book. Balegh's His- 
tory of the World, 

Before 1 600. 2 3 (44). Ode to James Earl of Desmond. 
24 (45). Oda Bestored 1600. 

c. 1604. 25 (46). Ode. Sefers to Gelia, of. Forest, 5, 
6, 9 ; and to " the swan so relished Pancharis," cT. Ode pre-- 
fixed to Pancharis, 1603. Aug. i, iii. 529. This Pancharis 
was written by '^ a black swan/' bred (not born) in the vale 
of Cloid, Flintshire ; treats of the love between Owen Tudor 
and the Queen ; was meant to be dedicated to Elizabeth, but 
when published was dedicated to James. I think. this swan 
was Drayton. I know of no one else who wrote poems on 
Owen Tudor and Queen Katherine. See his Heroieal Epistles, 
He also was parcel writer in a play on the same subject 
1 600 Jan., but not having seen Paneharis^ I cannot speak 
positively. 

c. 1604. 26 (47). Sonnet to Lady Mary Wroth; cf. 
Epig., 103, 105 ; For., 5, 6. Sir R. Wroth (often spelled 
Worth) was knighted 1603 June, and died 16 14 Mar. 
Jonson speaks of his wife, nit Sidney, daughter of Lord Lisle, 
as ** unworthily thrown away on a jealous husband." He 
introduced her in The May Lord {q.v,\ and dedicated The 
Alchemist to her 16 10, Oct 3, alluding to her as " worthy " 
of her name (Worth). The allusion to Jonson's having been "a 
lover " in this Sonnet, his exscribing the lady's MS. sonnets, 
the juxtaposition of the Celia and Wroth poems, with many 
other little indications too numerous to give here, induce me 
to think that Lady Mary was Celia, and that Jonson met 
her at Penshurst in 1604. Her husband may have been 
jealous of the translations from Catullus, &c., made for her, 
and interpreted them as expressions of Jonson's own feelings. 



328 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

But certainly Jonson intended no unlawful suit in this in- 
stance. 

c i6o4« 27 (48). A fit of Shjme against Bhyme ; pro- 
bably suggested by Daniel's Defend of Bhyme, 1602. 

c. 1608. 28 (49). On William, Lord High Treasurer. 
Presented to bis son Bobert^ Earl of Salisbury, when he was 
Treasurer; t.«., between 1608, May 6, and 161 2, May 24, 
when he died. Cf. Epig, 63, 64. 

NJB. — 23-28 belong to the first period. 

1617, Jan. 29 (so), 30 (51), 31 (52). To Thomas 
Lord Elsmere, the last term he sat Chancellor. " Writteu 
for a poor man/' i.e., 161 7, Hilary Term, Jan. 1 1-31. 

32 (53). To the smallpox. 

33 (54). Epitaph. 

34 (SS). SoDg. 

35 (5 6)- Epistle to a Friend on receiving a book. 
36—39 (57-60) are by Donne. 

c. 1623. 40 (61). An Elegy. "Fat and old;" has 
been twenty years at Court; contains sketch of Finacia 
Stuffe, elaborated in The New Inn 1629. 

1623, c. Oct 41 (62). An Execration upon Vulcan. 
This contains allusions to Monday's translations of chival- 
rous romcmces. There is given a list of Jonson's works 
burned in the fire at his house, viz. : — 

1 . Fart of a play [either The May Lord^ which is most 
likely, or The Fall of Mortimer]^ 

2. Horace' Art of Poetry. Not that we have, but one 
** in Dialogue ways/' between Criticus (Donne) and himself. 
The extant version was done ** 20 years since ; " i.e., in 
1598-9. The later lost one had a preface dating 161 4, 
c. Christmas, with an apology for Bartholomew Fair, and was 
made ten years earlier, '^ anno 1 604," at Lord Aubigny's. 



JONSON. 3^9 

There were an Epigram of Sir E. Herbert's before it {Dr. 
Conv.j 5, 1 6) and notes from Aristotle's Poetics. 

3. An English Orammar, probably bearing a similar rela- 
tion to that now extant. 

4. His journey into Scotland^ " sung." He had meant it 
at first to be in prose. " He is to write his foot Pilgrimage 
hither, and call it a Discovery" Dr. Conv.^ 16; but "in a 
poem he calleth Edinburgh the heart of Scotland, Britain's 
other eye." Dmmmond was to send him " descriptions of 
Edinburgh, Borrow Lawes, of the Lomond," which he did 
before 16 19, July i, and after May 10. 

5. The JRape of Proserpine, in three books. 

6. ITie History of Henry 5, ** eight of his nine year," with 
aid from Carew, Cotton, Selden. 

7* *' Twice twelre years stored up humanity 

With humble gleanings in dirinity 
After the fathers and those wiser guides 
Whom faction had not drawn to stady sides." 

I suspect that the MS. translation of Barclay's Argennis, 
S. B. 1623, Oct. 2, must also have been burned. Had it 
been printed, surely a copy would have survived, and other 
translations would not have appeared in 1625 and 1628. 
Other allusions are to Squire's Triumphs of Peace, 1620, 
Oct., '* Squire of the squibs against the pageant-day ; " to 
the fires at the Globe 161 3, the Fortune 1621, Whitehall 
1 6 1 9, Jan. 1 2 ; the Six Clerks' Office, date unknown ; also 
to iron-mills in Sussex, to Paul's steeple unrepaired, and to 
the wars in the Low Countries. 

1624, Mar. 24. 42 (63). A Speech according to Horace. 
Written " these ten years day," after the revival of the artil- 
lery practice in 1614, Mar. The quotation 

*' To bring up the yoath 
Of London in the military truth," 



330 THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

occurs also in The Devil is an ass, iiL i (1616). Dekker's 
AfiiUery Garden was published 161 5. The allusion to the 
last Elng's daj tilt is to that of 1624. Those of 1622 and 
1623 had been put off and not performed. Hence the 
phrase, " we have powder still." 

43 i^A)' Spifitle to Arthur Squib, a clerk in the Ex- 
chequer. 

1613, c. Oct. 44 (65). Epigram on Sir Edward Coke 
when Lord Chief- Justice. Created 161 3, c. Oct. JEtat. 65. 

1624, c. Sept. 45 (66). Epistle to one asking to be 
sealed of the tribe of Ben, written in James' reign (cf. " my 
Prince's safety "), before " the dispensation " was sent^ 1625 
Feb., and after " the late mystery of reception " of Mans- 
feld, 1624, April 16. Some one "that guides the motions 
and directs the bears " was admitted to make the shows, &a, 
in Jensen's place. The only mask not by Jonson traceable 
by me of this date was by " Young Maynard," at Burley on 
the Hill in August 

1623, c. July. 46 (67). Dedication of the King's new 
Cellar to Bacchus. Prince Charles was yet in Spain. On 
July 1 5 he wrote in good hope " to bring the Infanta along 
with us." 

Before 161 9. 47 (68). On the Court Pucell, * on Mrs. 
Boulstred, whose JBpitaph [Elegy] Donne made ; " moreover, 
" stolen out of his pocket by a gentleman who drank him 
drowsy and given Mrs. B., which brought him great dis- 
pleasure," Dr. Canv., 5, 18. 

? 1 603. 48 (69). Epigram to the Countess of [Butland] ; 
cf. Dr. Conv., 9. She died 1 6 1 2 Aug., and her husband 
161 2, June 26. Written during the Earl's travels, but not 
his early ones of 1 59 5-8. 

1 62 1, Jan 22. 49 (70). On Lord Bacon's [sixtieth^ 
bii-thday. 



JONSON. 331 

SO (71). The Poet to the Painter. Jonson to Sir W. 
Burlase. 

All the rest of the Undenooods belong to the third period, 
after Jonson's palsj stroke. Those of the first period, before 
1612, are Cbaris, 2-10; Misc., 23-28; 48. 

c. 1627, Mar. 7. 51 (72). Epigrams to William Earl 
of Newcastle. Created Earl 1627, Mar. 7. 

52 (73). Epistle to Arthur Squib. 54 (75). To Lady 
Lovell, on a wager. 

1630 Dec. 53,55 (74, 76). To John Burgess. Thanks 
for ink with appeal for pension, a year unpaid. " Christmas 
is near/' and Jonson has to prepare sport for the Court, viz., 
Callipolis and Chlaridia. The pension is the Charles one. 

163 1, Apr. 17. 56 (77). To my Bookseller [T. Alchorne, 
on The New InrC]. 

c. 1627, Mar. 7. 57 (89). To William Earl of New- 
castle, on his Fencing. 

1628. 58(78). Epitaph on Henry Lord La Ware. Died 
1628. 

After 1626, Oct. 59 (79). Epigram to the Lord Keeper 
— %.e., Williams — on his deprivation of the Keepership. 

1629, c. Jan. 60 (80). To the King for ;f 100 sent in 
my sickness, 1629. 

1629, Mar. 18. 61 (81). To the King and Queen for 
the loss of their first-bom, 1629; but the historians give 
1627-8, Mar. 18. 

1629, Nov. 19. 62 (82). To the King on his anniver- 
sary, 1629. 

1630, May 29. 63 (83). On the Prince's birth, 1630. 
64 (84). To the Queen, then lying-in, 1630. 

1 630, Nov. 16. 6 5 (8 s). On the Queen's Birthday, 1630. 

1630, Dec. 25. 66 (86). To the Household, 1630. 

The tierce of sack, due under the pension of 1630, Mar. 



333 THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

26, not delivered. But was it due till a full jear had 
expired ? 

1 630-1. .67 (87). To a friend and son [Sir Lucius 
Gary]. 

163 1, Jan. 68 (88). Pindaric Ode on the Friendship of 
Sir Lucius Gary and Sir Henry Morison, published 1640. 
Whether Morison's death dates 1628 or 1629 depends on 
the date we give to Jonson's letter quoted by Gifford, iii 
339. According to his general custom, " 4th Feb. 163 1 " 
would mean our 163 1, not 163 1-2. But I believe this 
ode was not written till 163 1, Jan., and that Jonson had 
not known Gary long, and Morison not at all The arrange- 
ment of this part of the UnUenooods seems to be chrono* 
logical. 

163 1, 69 (90). To the High Treasurer, an Epistle 
Mendicant ; %,$,, to Bichard Lord Weston. Jonson " bedrid." 

1632, Nov. 19. 70 (91). To the Eng on his Birthday, 
19th Nov. 1632. 

1633, Feb. 17. 71 (92). To Lord Weston on the day 
he was made Earl of PoKland, 17th Feb. 1632. This was 
in the 8th of Charles L, and therefore in 1633. 

1632-3. 72 (93). To Jerome Lord Weston on his 
return from his embassy, 1632. Probably 1632-3, like 
7 1 ; but I do not know the exact date. 

a 1 630. 73 (94). Epithalamion for " Mr. Jerome Weston, 
son and heir of the Lord Weston, Lord High Treasurer," 
and Lady Frances Stewart, daughter of Esme Duke of Lenox, 
deceased. As R Weston is not called Earl of Portland, this 
must come before 71. The King ''gave her." The pro- 
cession extended " from Qreenwich to Bowhampton Gate.'* 

1630, a Feb. 74 (95). Petition to King Charles; to 
change the pension of 100 marks granted by James to 
;£^ioo. Granted. The new pension began 1630, Mar. 26. 



JONSON. 333 

1633- 75 (96)- ^0 ^h® ^^d Treasurer. From the 
1 640 edition. Cf. Horace' Odes, iv. 8. " To the Earl of 
Portland/' in Eliot's Poems; therefore in 1633. For the 
Detractor's lines herein see GiObrd's note, and for Jonson's 
answer (from the 1640 edition), iii. 468. He had ;£'40 for 
this Epigram. 

e, 1633. 76 (97). To my Muse, Lady Digby, on her 
husband, Sir Kenelm Digby. 

1635. 77a (98). A New Year's gift to King Charles, 
1635. Query 1634-5 or 1635-6. Were these Jonson's 
last lines ? 

c 1633. 77b (40> An elegy. Query to Lady Digby. 

1633, Nov. 19. 78 (99). On the King's Birthday. 

1633, Nov. 24. 79 (100). On the Christening of Prince 
James. 

1631. 80(101). On Lady Jane Pawlet, Marchioness of 
Winton [Winchester]. Died 163 1. 

1634. 81 (102). On Lady Venetia Digby. Ten pieces. 
Imperfect. For one missing bit see iii. 466, from Ifotes and 
Queries, ist Ser., iii. 367. She died in 1633. Here end 
the Underwoods, 

Leges Conviviales ; in the Apollo of the Old Devil Tavern, 
Temple Bar ; and verses over the room-door. 

Translations : — Horace' Art of Poetry ; the 1 604 version, 
done at Lord Aubigny's. Horace' Odes, v. 2 (c. 1 604, for 
Sir T. Wroth, I think), i. 4 (c. 1623, with Charts), ix. 3. 
Fragment of Petronius' Martial, viii. 77. Add to these Mar- 
tial, X. 47 (from Collier's Allcyn, p. 52), iii 388. 

Timber, or Discoveries. Not those burned in the 1623 
fire. These date 1623-35. See Swinburne's excellent 
essay on this work, which, fortunately for me, needs no 
further comment here. 

Hie English Orammar. This also is not the one burned 



334 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

ia 1623. Whether an earlier draft or a later recast I 
know not. 

The following pieces have been discovered since the 
1 64 1 Polio: — 

161 3, Mar. 24. At a Tilting in behalf of Sir Bobert 
and Sir Henry Rich, U. (29), Nichols, ii. 610. 

1613, Dec. 26. To Robert Earl of Somerset on his 
Wedding-day, iii. 465 ; from Notes and Queries, ist Ser., v. 

193. 

1 6 1 8, June 1 4. The Song in answer to Wither, iii. 46 5 . 

The date is that of S. R. entry, 162 1. Addition to Cock 

Lorel Song in The Oipsies MetaviorpJiosed, iii 528. 

The following are from the Cavendish MS. in Brit. 
Mus. : — 

1 6 1 8. Charles Cavendish to his posterity. Died 1 6 1 8, 
iiL 459. 

1620, May. Interlude at the Christening of Charles, 
second son of William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire, to 
whom the Prince was godfather, iii. 461 ; Nichols, iiL 607. 

c. 162 1. A Song of the Moon, iii 465. 

c. 1625. Song to the King, iii. 465. 

1625. On Lady Jane Ogle, died 1625, Countess of 
Shrewsbury, iii. 460. 

1629. On Lady Katherine Ogle, died 1629, wife of Sir 
Charles Cavendish. Three pieces, iii. 459. 

1633. A fragment of Enpheme, iii. 466, is from Notes 
and Queries, ist. Ser., iii. 567. 

I now give an index of the poets, &c., who are mentioned 
in Jonson's works, and another of the " great ones " with 
whom his poems show that he was in intercourse. Drum- 
moTuTs Conversations with him should be carefully compared 
with these indexes, but need not be indexed here, as P. 
Cunningham has already performed that labour. E. in 



JONSON. 335 

these indexes means Epigrams ; F. Forest ; U. Underwoods ; 
C. y. Complimentary Verses ; Ded. Dedication. The numbers 
in parentheses in the Underwoods refer to Gifford's num- 
bering. 

Poets, &o. 

Alchorne, Thomas, TJ. 56 {77). 
Allen, Edward, E. 89. 

Beaumont, Francis, K 5 5, U. 1 3, C. V. letter, C. V. (Fox., 
Epicene, Catiline), \ 

Bolton, Edmund, C. V., Fox. 
B., Ev., C. V. (Sejanus). 
Breton, Nicholas, C. V., U. (23). 
Brome, Richard, C. V., U. (28). 
Browne, William, C. V., U. (18). 

C. J., C. V. (Fox). 

Camden, William, K 14, Ded. (Every man in his Humor). 

Carew, Thomas, Ode {New Inn). 

Chapman, George, C. V., TJ. (20), C. V. (Sejamcs, Fox). 

Chester, Robert, F. 10, 11. 

Cleveland, John, Ode (New Inn). 

Corbet, Vincent, U. 10. 

Coryat, Thomas, C. V. 

Cygnus, C. V. 

D. D., C. V. (Fox). 

Donne, K 23, 96, C. V. (Fox). 

Dover, Robert, C. V. 

Drayton, Michael, C. V., U. (16, 17). 

Drummond, William, U. 5, 6; Conv. 

Edmonds, Clement, E. no, in. 

Farnaby, Giles, C. V. 

Feltham, Owen, Ode (New Inn). 

Ferrabosco, Alphonso, E 130, 131. 



336 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Field, Nathaniel, 0. V. {CatUine), 
Filmer, Edward, 0. V., U. (27). 
Fitzgeoflfrey, Edward, 0. V. {Affanicd). 
Fletcher, John, C. V., U. (14), 0. V. {Fox), 
Hannay, Patrick, 0. V., U. (24). 
Herbert, Sir Edward, 0. V. (Horace). 
Heyward, Edward, 0. V. (Folio). 
Hodgson, William, C. V. (Folio). 
Holland, Philemon, C. Y. (Sejanus). 
Holyday, Barton, 0. V. ( 1 640). 
Jones, Inigo (Expostulation). 
Lucy, George, C. V. (Alchemist). 

Marston, John [R 49, 68, 100. "Playwright"], C. V. 
(Sejanus), Ded. (Malcontent). 
May, Thomas, C. V., U. (2 1 ). 
Monday, Antony [E. 29] 
Pavy, Salathiel, K 1 20. 
Philos, C. V. (Sqanus). 
R T., 0. V. (Sejanus, Fox). 
Randolph, Thomas, Ode (New Inn). 
Rutter, Joseph, 0. V., U. (22). 
S[cory], E[dward], 0. V. (Fox). 
Selden, John, U. 12 (31). 
Shakespeare, William, 0. V., U. (11, 12). 
Shirley, James, 0. V, (Alchemic). 
Stansby, William, E. 3. 
Stephens, John, 0. V., U. (19). 
Strachey, William, 0. V. (Sejanus). 
Sylvester, Joshua, E. 132. 
Towneley, Zouch, C. V. 1640. 
Warre, Thomas, C. V., U. (26). 
Wither, George, Verses in answer to. 
Wright, Thomas, C. V., U. (25). 



JONSON. 337 

Daniel, Dekker, Monday, and others certainly satirised 
in Jonson's plays do not appear in this index. 



"Great Ones," &c. 

Aubigny (Aulbany). See Clifton and Stewart. 

Bacon, Sir Francis, U. 49 (70). 

Bedford. See Harrington. 

Borlas.e, William, U. 50 (71). 

Boulstred, Mrs., U. 47 (68). 

Buckingham. See YiUiers. 

Burgess, John, U. S 3 (74). 

Burleigh. See Cecil. 

Carey, Henry, Lord Falkland, £. 66. 

Cary, Sir Lucius, U. 67 (87), 68 (88). 

Cary, Mrs., Uvedale's lady, E. 126. 

Carr, Bobert^ Earl of Somerset, Lines on marriage; 
Challenge at tilt 

Cavendish, Charles, MS. Cav. See Ogle. 

Cavendish, William, Duke of Newcastle, U. 51 (72), 
57 (89), MS. Cav. 

Cecil, Eobert, Earl of Salisbury, E. 49, 63, 64. 

Cecil, William, Lord Burleigh, U. 28 (49). 

Celia, F. 5, 6, 9; U. 25 (46). 

Charis, Charis i-io; U. 16, 17 (35, 36). 

Charles, King. See Stewart. 

Clinton, Eatherine, Lady Aubigny, F. 1 3. 

Coke, Sir Edward, TJ. 44 (65). 

Colby, , U. 13 (32). 

Covell, Lady, U. 20 (39). 

Delaware. See West. 

Desmond, James, Earl of, U. 23 (44), 24 (45). 

Devereuz, Bobert, Earl of {Hymencd). 

VOL. I. Y 



338 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Digby, Sir Kenelm, U. 76 (97). 

Digbj, Lady. See Stanlej. 

Dorset See Sackville. 

Egerton, Thomas, Lord Ellesmere, E. 74, U. 29 (50), 

30(51), 31 (52). 

Essex. See Devereux. 

Falkland. See Carey. 
Goody ere, Sir Henry, E. 85, 86. 
Gray, Philip, U. 14 (33) 

Harrington, Lucy, Countess of Bedford, E. 76, 84, 94. 
H[atton], Elizabeth, K 124. 
Henry, Prince. See Stewart. 

Henrietta, Queen. See Stewart, under Charles, King. 
Herbert, Sir Edward, E. 106. 

Herbert, William, Earl of Pembroke, E. 102 ; DeJ. 
Catiline. 

Howard, Thomas, Earl of Suffolk, E. 67. 

James, King. See Stewart. 

Jephson, William, R 1 1 6. 

Keeper. See Williams. 

Lenox. See Stewart. 

Martin, Sir Richard, Ded. Poetaster. 

Monteagle. See Parker. 

Montgomery. See De Vere. 

Morison, Sir Henry, U. 68 (88> 

Nevile, Sir Henry, E. 109. 

Newcastle. See Cavendish. 

Ogle, Jane, Countess of Shrewsbury. Cav. MS. 

Ogle, Katherine, Lady Cavendish. Cav. MS. 

Overbury, Sir Thomas, E, 1 1 3. 

Paulet, Jane, Marchioness of Winchester, U. 80 ( i o i ). 

Parker, William,' Lord Monteagle, E. 60. 

Pembroke. See Herbert and Talbot. 



JONSON. 339 

Portlaud. See West. 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, U. 22 (42). 

Badcliffe, Sir John, E. 93. 

Ratclifife, Margaret, £. 40. 

Rich, Sir Robert and Sir Henry, U. (29). 

Roe, Sir John, R 27, 32, 33. 

Roe, Sir Thomas, K 98, 99. 

Roe, William, K 70, 12 8. 

Radyard, Benjamin, E. 121, 122, 123. 

Rutland. See Sidney. 

Sackville, Sir Edward, Earl of Dorset, U. 11 (30). 

Salisbury. See Cecil. 

Savile, Sir Henry, K 95. 

Shelton, Sir Ralph, E. 1 1 9. 

Shrewsbury. See Ogle, 

Sidney, Eh'zabeth, Countess of Rutland, E. 79, F. 1 2, U. 
48 (69> 

Sidney, Mary, Lady Wroth, R 103, 105 ; U. 26 (47). 

Sidney, William, F. 1 4. 

Sidney, Mrs. P. See Walsingham. 

Somerset See Carr. 

Squib, Arthur, U. 43 (64), 52 (73). 

Stanley, Yenetia Anastasia, Lady Digby, U. 76 (97), 81 
(102). 

Stewart, Esme, Lord Aubigny,- Duke of Lenox, E. 19, 
Ded. Sqanu8. 

Stewart, Frances, Mrs. Weston, Lady Portland, U. 73 

(94). 

Stewart, Sir Francis, Ded. Epicene. 

Stewart, King Cliarles (including the Queen and Prince), 
U. 60-65 (80-85), 70 (90, 77-79 (98-100),. 74 (95). 
Stewart, King James, R 4, 5, 35, 51. 
SufiTolk. See Howard. 



340 THE ENGLISH DKAMA. 

Talbot, Mary, Countess of Pembroke, Query U"(i5), 

Uyedale, Sir William, E. 1 24. See also Cary, Mrs. 

Yere, Susan de. Countess of Montgomery, K 104. 

Yere, Sir Horace, K 91. 

Walsingham, Frances, wife of Sir Philip Sidney, R 1 1 4. 

West, Henry, Lord Delaware, U.,58 (78X 

Weston, Jerome, XL 73 (94). 

Weston, Richard^ Earl of Portland, U- 69 (90), 71 (92), 

72 (93)' 

Williams, John, Bishop, Lord Keeper, U. 5 9 (79). 

Winchester. See Paulet 

Wroth (Worth), Sir Robert, F. 3. See ako Sidney, Mary. 

Life, 

'* His grandfather came from Carlisle, and, he thought, from 
^nnandale to it. He served King Henry YIII., and was a 
gentleman " [probably one of the Annandale Johnstones]]. 
^' His father lost all his estate under Queen Mary, having 
been cast in prison and forfeited. At last turned minister ; 
so he was a minister's son. He himself was posthumous, 
born a month after his father's decease " {Drum, Ckmv.^ 1 3). 
As he had " told 46 years " when he left Scotland 1 6 1 9, 
Jan. 25, his birth must have been between 1572 Jan. and 
1573 Jan. ; probably in 1 5 7 2. He was •* brought up poorly, 
put to [Westminster] school by a friend ; (his master Cam- 
den)." This does not necessarily mean that Camden was 
the " friend," but only that Camden was his master at West- 
minster. His inotber had probably been married again to 
a master bricklayer, and lived in Hartshorn Lane (Northum- 
berland Street), Charing Cross (Fuller), when he was a little 
child. G. Morley, Bishop of Winchester in 1 662, ^ Lord 
Winton," says he was in the sixth class when removed 



JONSON. 341 

(Letters of Eminent Persons^ 1 8 1 3, iii. 416); and Fuller says 
he was statutably admitted into St. John's, Cambridge. This 
must have been after 1 589 June, from which date till June 
1602 there is no list of names in the University Register, 
and Jonson must have been seventeen or thereabouts. He 
was probably a sizar, and resided, I think, till the time for 
taking his B.A. 1 589-1 592, but took no degree then, " He 
was [in 16 19] M.A. of both Universities by their favour, 
not his study" {Drum. Conv,^ 13). These degrees were 
probably conferred a 1605-6. Puller, however, limits his 
University career to " a few weeks," and Jonson does not 
mention it at alL On the expiration of his sisarship, if 
my conjecture be right, earlier if Fuller be correct, he was 
" taken from it and put to another craft, which he could not 
endure.** I think, adds Drummond, it " was to be a wright 
or bricklayer," which it undoubtedly was ; and forthwith, in 
1592, "he married a wife who was a shrew, yet honest" 
Their first child, 1 593, Nov. 1 7, ** SepuUafnit Maria Johnson 
peste" at St Martin's in the Fields. This was " Mary, the 
daughter of her parents' youth," who died ** at six months' 
end," £piffram 22, when Jonson was twenty-one. This fixes 
the date of his marriage. He continued, I suppose, to work 
as a bricklayer till the birth of his eldest son in 1 596, when, 
either from the death of his stepfather or the expiration of 
a five years' apprenticeship, he, being free, " went to the Low 
Countries; but returning soon, he betook himself to his 
wonted studies " [t.«., to playmaking and poetiy, his " wonted 
studies" at the time of his saying this in 16 19]. "In his 
service in the Low Countries he had, in the face of both the 
camps, killed an enemy and taken opima spolia from him." 
The common opinion would place this campaign of Jonson's 
in a 1 591, but it fits in much better in 1596 in many 
ways. Jonson next appears in Henslow's Diary, p. 255, as 



34' THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

borrowing £4, of Henslow, 1 597, July 28 ; and on the same 
date, p. 80, Henslow receives 3s. pd. *" of Benjamin John- 
son's share." This can hardly have been a share in the 
Eose; much more likely in Paris Garden, where Jonson 
played Zalziman (Satiromcutix, Sc. 7), having obtained em- 
ployment as an actor by his performance of Jeronymo on a 
play- waggon in the highway (iMd.). Henslow had purchased 
Paris Garden 1595, Nov. 28. But from 1597, Dec. 3, to 
1 598, Aug. 1 8, Jonson was writing plays for the Bose. He 
was in needy circumstances, for on 5 th Jan. 1598 he bor- 
rowed 5 s. {Diary, p. 2 5 6); but had at once acquired reputation, 
for in 1598 he is mentioned by Meres as one of " our best in 
Tragedy." In September he had to leave this company. On 
the 26th Henslow wrote to Allen, " I have lost one of my 
company that hurteth me greatly ; that is, Gabriel [Spencer^, 
for he is slain in Hogsden fields by the hands of Benjamin 
Jonson, bricklayer" (Colliers Alleyn, p. 50). Surely Jon- 
son could not at this time have ceased bricklaying for seven 
years or more. His own account is : " Since his comming 
to England, being appealed to the fields, he had killed his 
adversary, which had hurt him in the arm, and whose sword 
was 10 inches longer than his, for the which he was im- 
prisoned and almost at the gallows. . • . His judges could 
get nothing of him to all their demands but Ay and No. 
They placed two damned villains to catch advantage of him 
with him, but he was advertised by his keeper." Compare 
Epigram 59. The duel was on Sept. 22, Jonson's arraign- 
ment at the Old Bailey in Oct. Mr. J. C. Jeaffreson dis- 
covered the original indictment, which I give here from The 
Athenctitm, 1886, Mar. 6. In a subsequent number. Mar. 
27, it is shown that Spencer had, 1596, Dec. 3, killed one 
Feeke in a squabble ; but the document is not worth repro- 
ducing, nor should I have noted it here except to vindicate 



JOXSON. 343 

Porter, who is right in his brands, T (the Tyburn T) and 
F (for furtum^ not felony), in his Tvh) Angry Women of 
Ahington. 

CogrC IndidamerU petit lihrum legit vt CPieus sign' cum Vr'a T Ei 

delr juxta formam staivt\ ^c, 
Middss: — Juratores pro D'na Begins p'ntant q^ Benjaminus 
Johnson nup' de London yoman yicesimo secundo die Septembris 
Anno legni d'n'e n'r'e Elizabethe Dei gra' Anglie Franc' et Hib'nie 
Kegine fidei defensor*, &c.| quadragesimo yi <fe armis, &c In et 
sup' quendam Gabrielem Spencer in pace Dei & d'c'e d'n'e Begine 
apud Shordiche in Com' Midd' pred' in Campis ib'm existen insultu' 
fecit £t eund'm Gabrielem cum quodam gladio de ferro et calibe 
vocat' a Bapiour precii iiiA quern in manu sua dextra adtunc & 
ibi'm h'uit et tenuit extract' felonice ae voluntar' percussit & 
pupugit Dans eidem Gabrieli Spencer adtunc & ib'm cu' gladio 
pred' in et sup' dextem' latus ip'ius Gabrielis unam plagam mor- 
talem p'funditat' sex pollic' & latitud' unius pollicis de qua quidem 
plaga mortali id'm Gabriel Spencer apud Shordiche pred' in pred'c'o 
Com' Midd' in Campis pred'c'is adtunc & ib'm instant' obiit £t sic 
Jur' pred'c'i dicunt sup' Sacr'm suu' q^ prefat' Benjaminus John- 
son pred'c'm Gabrielem Spencer apud Shorediche pred' in pred'c'o 
Com' Midd' & in Campis predic*is [die & anno] predic'is felo- 
nice et Yoluntar' interfecit & occidit contra pacem DVe D'n'e 
Begine, &c 

In English thus : — 

He confesses the indictment^ asks for the hooky reads like a clerk, is 
marked with ike letter T^ and is delivered according to Vve 
statute^ ^c, 

Middlesex : — The jurors for the Lady the Queen present, that 
Benjamin Johnson, late of London, yeoman, on the 22nd day of 
September, in the fortieth year of the reign of our Lady Elizabeth 
by God's grace Queen of England, France, and Ireland, Defender 
of the Faith, &c., with force and arms, &c., made an attack against 
and upon a certain Gabriel Spencer, being in God's and the said 
Lady the Queen's peace, at Shordiche in the aforesaid county of 
Middlesex, in the Fields there, and with a certain sword of iron 



344 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

and steel called a Rapiour, of the price of three shillings, which he 
then and there had and held drawn in his right hand, feloniously 
and wilfully heat and struck the same Gahriel, giving then and 
there to the same Gahriel Spencer with the aforesaid sword a 
mortal wound of the depth of six inches and of the hreadth of one 
inch, in and upon the right side of the same Gabriel, of which 
mortal blow the same Gabriel Spencer at Shordichei aforesaid, in 
the aforesaid county, in the aforesaid Fields, then and there died 
instantly. And thus the aforesaid jurors say upon their oath, that 
the aforesaid Benjamin Johnson, at Shorediche aforesaid, in the 
aforesaid county of Middlesex, and in the aforesaid Fields, in the 
year and day aforesaid, feloniously and wilfully killed and slew the 
aforesaid Gabriel Spencer, against the peace of the said Lady the 
Queen, &c. 

" On being thus convicted of felony on his own confession, 
he forfeited his goods and chattels. On leaving prison with 
the brand on the brawn of his left thumb, he returned 
to the world without a shilling " (Jeafifreson). '* Then 
took he his religion by trust of a priest who visited him 
in prison. Thereafter he was 12 years a Papist/' i.e., 
1 598-1610 (Drum. Conv., 13). After his release he wrote 
The Case is altered (j.i?., infra) for the Chapel boys, and 
before the end of 1 598 Every man in his Humour for the 
Chamberlain's men, then acting at the Curtain. Aubrey 
and Wood are, therefore, right in saying that he acted at the 
Curtain. On their removal to the Globe in 1599 he wrote 
for them Every man out of his Humour (q.v,), but returned 
to the Admiral's men immediately after, where we shall find 
him Aug.-Sept In 1600 he first appears as a writer of 
Complimentary Verses, in 1 600-1 601 he wrote comical 
Satires for the Chapel boys against Marston, Dekker, &c., for 
the last of which he was accused of satirising the lawyers, 
&c., before Popham, the Chief-Justice ; but before the end 
of the year we find him contributing alongside of his friend 
Chapman, as well as Marston and Shakespeare, who had 



J0N80N. 345 

opposed him, in Chester's Loviz Martyr. That Shakespeare 
had been one of his opponents in the stage war is known 
from Thd lUtum to PamassuSj 1602, where Xempe men- 
tions the purge that '' our fellow Shakespeare " gave him after 
the pill Horace gave the poets in The Poetaster, and there- 
fore in 1 60 1. Nevertheless his reconciliation with Shake- 
speare did not lead him at once to the Chamberlain's men. 
He again joined the Admiral's, now acting at the Fortune, 
and wrote for them from 1601, Sept. 25, to 1602, June 
24. Early in 1602 he left his wife. ''Ben Johnson, the 
poet, now lives on one Townsend, and scorns the world " 
(Collier, Annals, i. 334). See infra, under 1607. 

On the King's accession, however, a great change took 
place in Jonson's fortunes. He was appointed to write the 
Entertainment to the Queen and Prince at Lord Spencer's, 1 603, 
June 25, and was thenceforth chief mask and entertainment 
})rovider to the Court At first Daniel, who " was at jealousies 
with liim," Drum. Conv, 1 1 (for masks), and Dekker, with 
whom he had to share the King^s Entertainment 1 604, Mar. 
1 5 (for pageants), seemed likely to be rivals ; but this did 
not last. Campion and Beaumont at Courts Middleton and 
Marston for the Inns of Court, occasionally appear, but 
Jonson was the one paramount mask-writer till the end of 
the reign of James. 

" When the King came in England at that time the pest 
was in London [1603, c. July 25, coronation], he being in 
the country at Sir Eobert Cotton's house with old Camden, 
he saw in a vision his eldest son, then a child and at Lon- 
don ; . . . and in the morning he came to Mr. Camden's 
chamber to tell him. ... In the meantime comes there 
letters from his wife of the death of that boy in the plague " 
(Drum. Conv. J 13). From Epigram 45 it appears that this 
boy was named Benjamin, " the son of my right hand," and 



346 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

that he was seven years old, which fixes the date of his 
birth. We shall find another Benjamin later on ; but I may 
note here that the Benjamin Jonson baptized at St Anne's, 
Blackfriars, 1608, Feb. 20, and buried 161 1, Nov. 18, was 
certainly not a legitimate son of the poet He probably 
was the son of another Benjamin Johnson (the name was 
not uncommon). Neither were the Joseph buried at St 
Giles', Cripplegate/ 1599, Dec. 9, nor the Benjamin buried 
at St. Botolph's, Bishopgate, our Jonson's legitimate chil- 
dren. His church was St Martin's in the Fields. In 1 604 
he was living with Lord Aubigny, and writing his transla- 
tion of Horace' Ars Poetiea, which he intended to publish 
with notes from Aristotle. See his Address before Sefantts, 
1605, which play was dedicated to Aubigny. 

In 1603 he had left the Admiral's men for the King's, 
for whom he, aided by a second hand [Chapman], wrote 
Sejanus. In 1 604, just before Christmas, he joined Chap- 
man and Marston in writing Eastward Ho for the Queen's 
Bevels boys, formerly the Chapel children. This continual 
change of company is peculiar to Jonson. I have not 
met with its parallel in any life in the present book. 
"He was delated by Sir James Murray to the King for 
writing something against the Scots in a play. Eastward 
Hoy and voluntarily imprisoned himself with Chapman and 
Marston, who had written it amongst them. The report 
was, that they should then had their ears cut and noses. 
After their delivery he banqueted all his friends ; there was 
Camden, Selden, and others. At the midst of the feast his 
old mother drank to him, and shewed him a paper which 
she had (if the sentence [they were sentenced, then] had 

^ The Benjamin Johnson married to Hester Hopkins 1623, Jj^ly 27, at this 
church was, I think, illegitimate, and bom c 1602. If legitimate, not bom 
till 1603, at earliest He was no doubt the part author of A FauU in Friend- 
ihip. 



J0N80N. 347 

taken execution) to have mizt in the prison among his drink, 
which was fnll of lusty strong poison, and, that she was no 
churle, she told she minded first to have drunk of it her- 
self^' (Drum. Conv., 13). The reason for the sentence not 
being executed is not far to seek. Jonson was wanted for 
the Queen's mask (Blackness) performed 1605, Jan. 6. But 
he was not long out of difficulty. " Northampton was his 
mortal enemy for beating on a St George's Day one of his 
attenders. He was called before the Council for his Sejamis, 
and accused both of Popery and Treason by him." This St 
George's Day was indubitably 1605, April 23. After May* 
4, the date of the creation of the Earl of Salisbury, Jonson 
and Chapman were in " a vile prison " on account of " a 
play." Jonson writes to the " Earl of Salisbury " asking him 
and the Lord Chamberlain (the Earl of Sufifolk) to procure 
them an immediate trial. He alludes to his " first error/' 
for which he had been in "bondage" (in Eastward Ho), 
He has in his works ''given no cause to. any good man of 
grief;" he desires to be judged by his "works past and 
this present," appeals to his " books " (note that Eastvxird 
Ho was not published till Sept., and that Sgamis, entered for 
Blount 1604 Nov., had probably been stayed in the press, 
for it came out in 1 605 " for Thorpe," and Eastward Ho " for 
Aspley,''.both of whom were Chapman's, not Jonson's, then 
usual publishers) as to his giving no offence to nation, state, 
or person. This pleading is ingenious ; but, in fact^ the only 
play written by Jonson since his imprisonment for his '^ first 
error " was Volpone, for which see below', and none whatever 
had been published. That Chapman and Jonson were re- 
leased through the influence of Sufifolk is clear from the 
verses prefixed by Chapman to Sejdnus in the 1605 edition, 
in which he mentions the wall he importuned about the 
sacred river of the Muses' waters when the herd came, not 



348 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

to drink^ but trouble tbem. This cannot apply to Sast-' 
ward Ho, which could not be termed a " sacred river." This 
passage was suppressed in the 1616 Folio and in Gifford's 
edition, which misled me in 1877 to wrongly interpret the 
whole matter, I then not having access to Chapman's verses 
in their complete form. I have even now some doubt as to 
whether Jonson's '' first error " refers to Eastvxird Ho or to 
Tlu Poetaster. Jonson mentions " my shame/' and would he 
feel shame for Eastward Hot On 1 606, Jan. 6. Jonson's 
Mask for the Marria^ge of the Earl of Essex was performed 
at Court ; and shortly afterwards, probably Feb. 2, Volpone, 
which had been acted at the Globe in the previous year. 
That this play gave offence is clear from the additions to 
Mucedorus {q.v.\ presented on Mar. 2, and this, doubtless, was 
the reason of his again leaving the King's company. It is 
noteworthy that Shakespeare did not act in this play ; his 
natural tact probably foresaw the trouble to come. Jonson 
did not, however, lose the Earl of Salisbury's favour. He 
was employed 1606, July 24, to entertain the Kings of 
England and Denmark at Theobald's, and again in 1607, 
May 22, at the delivery of that house to the Queen. Mean- 
time he had returned to his wife, whom he had left in Feb. 
1602. "Five years he had not bedded with her, but had 
remained with my Lord Aulbany" {Drum. Conv., 13); but 
1607, Feb. II, he dates his Dedication to Volpone ''from 
my house in the Blackfriars." Aubigny was married in 
1607, and Jonson's residence with him was no longer 
desirable. On leaving the King's men in 1606, Jonson, 
as usual, betook himself to the Queen's Eevels children, 
to whom he, probably in 1608, introduced Beaumont 
and Fletcher, whose acquaintance he had made not very 
long before. These children got into trouble again about 
Chapman's Byron, in 1 608 ; for Jonson's share in which 



JONSON. 349 

matter, according to my hypothesis, see under that play. 
He wrote Epicene also for them in 1609. Betnming to 
Court matters ; Jonson's offence in Volpone was marked by 

• 

Campion's employment for the 1 607 mask ; but in 1 608 he 
was again chosen for the annual presentment^ and continued 
to be so in the foUo^ng years. Clearly no one could be 
found to replace him. In 16 10 Jonson recanted his popery, 
and in the latter end of the same year left the Queen's 
Eevels boys, and with Beaumont and Fletcher once more 
joined the King's men, now in possession of Blackfriars as 
well as the Globe, but weakened by the retirement of Shake- 
speare. He wrote for them The Alchemist 16 10, CcUiline 
1 6 1 1 . It would involve too much repetition to enumerate 
all the masks of Jonson here ; they will be tredted in chronolo- 
gical order further on. But I must note here that Love Freed 
&c., 161 1 Jan., was Jonson's last mask for Queen Anne, and 
was also the last mask in which Inigo Jones co-operated 
until 1623, Jan. 19. At this point also ends the portion 
of the 1 6 1 6 Folio supervised by Jonson, who appears to have 
been chiefly engaged in preparing that volume for the press 
all through 161 2 till the death of Prince Henry, Nov. 6, 
for whom he had produced so many masks. The entry 
S. R for The Epigrams, i.e,, the part to be newly published, 
dates May 6. I would therefore mark here a distinct break 
in Jonson's career, and the commencement of a new period. 
I should have liked to mark a previous break at the acces- 
sion of James, but the want of chronological arrangement in 
the minor poems would make this practically inconvenient. 
" Sir W. Balegh sent him governor with his son, anno 
161 3, to France. This youth being knavishly inclined 
. . . caused him to be drunken," &c. This young Walter 
was bom 1595, matriculated at Corpus 1607, and was as 
*' knavish " at Oxford as in France. Jonson had taken no 



3SO THE ENGLISH DRAMA, 

part in the festivities at the Lady Elizabeth's marriage, 1 6 1 3 
Feb, but did so in that of Carr, Earl of Somerset, 1 6 1 3 Dec ; 
and in 16 14, Oct. 3 1, we find him, not with the King's meD, 
but with the Lady Elizabeth's, then acting at the Hope 
(Paris Garden) with Fletcher, Field, and Massinger. The play 
there produced, Bartholomew Fairy was acted at Court next 
day. The Overbury trial was in April 161 5, and I think 
The May Lord must have been written in i6i4« See 
further on, under !I%e Sad Shepherd. On ist Feb. 16 16 
James granted him a pension of 100 marks by letters 
patent (as poet laureate).^ In 161 6 Jonson, still accom- 
panied by Fletcher, Field, and Massinger, had rejoined the 
King's men (after the death of Henslow, 16 16 Jan.), who 
acted The DeviCs an ass. No further acknowledged play of 
Jonson's is met with till The Staple of Netos, but he could 
Iiardly have been entirely unconnected with the stage for nine 
years. For various conjectures of mine regarding this interval 
I refer the reader to The Widow, The Spanish Curate, The 
City Madam, and Jvliiis Cassar, In 161 8, c. June, Jonson 
travelled on foot to Scotland. He there met Taylor, the 
water poet, whose Penniless Pilgrimage was entered S. S. 
16 1 8, Nov. 2, at Master John Stuart's house at Leith; 
visited Drummond at Hawthornden before 16 19, Jan. 17 ; 
and finally left Leith for England Jan. 25. He was in 
London May 10, when he wrote to Drummond that he 
was preparing a poem " against the Queen's funeral," which 
is not extant. From this letter we learn that he had met 
in Scotland Fentons, Nisbets, Scots, Livingstons, and Mr. 
James Weith. Drummond answered him July i. He was 

^ Selden, in biB Tide$ of Honor, 1614, July 149 for which JontOQ wrote 
Complimentary VerseB in Part ii. chap. 43, treats "on the castom of giving 
crowna of laurel to poets." He .thus " performed a promise " to his " beloved 
Ben Jonson ; " and adds, '*your singular excellency in the art most eminently 
deserves it" 



JOXSOX. 351 

ivell received by tlie King on his return, and the mask of 
1 6 19 had been so poor as to make his absence regretted, 
Drammond's report of his conversations with him, drawn 
up while the memory of him was quite fresh, and dated 
Jan. 19, are simply invaluable to the student of Jonson, 
and should always be at hand. Gifford's dishonest repre- 
sentations of them are a disgrace to our literature. On 
1 9th July 1 6 1 9 Jonson was " actually " (in person, I sup- 
pose) created M.A. at Oxford in full convocation (Antony 
Wood), but he was M.A. of both Universities before he niec 
Drummond. I suppose these degrees had been conferred 
on him, but not with admission, when Volpone was acted at 
Oxford aud Cambridge in 1606. On 1621, Oct. 15, the 
reversion of the office of the Master of the Bevels, on the 
decease of Sir George Buck and Sir John Astley, was granted 
to Jonson ; but Astiey outlived him. In the mask of Time 
Vindicated^ 1623, Jan. 19, Jonson and Inigo Jones again 
began to work together. It should be noted that this was 
a mask of Prince Charles'. Before 1 6 1 9 ''he said to Prince 
Charles that when he wanted words to express the greatest 
villain in the world he would call him an Inigo " (Drum, 
Conv., 17). This is probably a poor pun on the Italian 
Iiiiquo. But again, "Jones having accused him for naming 
him behind his back a fool, he denied it ; but, says he, I said 
he was an arrant knave, and I avouch it." The Prince had 
probably patched up the quarrel, which lasted from 1 6 1 2 
to 1622, but any real cordiality between Jonson and Jones 
was impossible. In 1623, c. Oct., the fire happened which 
destroyed so many of Jonson's MSS. (see supra The Execra- 
tion upon Vulcan), and it is possible that the appearance of 
snatches of Jonson's work in plays dating just after may 
be due to the handing over to Fletcher, Middleton, &c., the 
fragments of plays saved from the conflagration. Then, in 



352 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1625, came the death of the King, and earlj in 1626 the 
paralytic attack which left onlj a wreck of the old Jonson. 
He had in 1625 produced his last great play, The Staple of 
NetcSy and this ends his Second (or, as I should prefer to caU 
it, his Third) period. 

It appears from a letter of Jonson*s to the Earl of 
Newcastle, 163 1—2, that he had a second paralytic stroke 
[early] in 1628. There is nothing of his that can be 
positively assigned to this interval of sickness, 1626—8. 
The verses to such lengthy works as Drayton's Poems and 
May's Zucan, published 1627, were probably written years 
before they were sent to press, say in 1625, and Morton's 
English Canaan was printed in Amsterdam. But in 1628, 
Sept. 2, he must have recovered, for he was then admitted 
City Chronologer in place of T. Middleton, deceased, with 
a salary of 100 nobles per annum. He did not, however, 
write any pageants; Dekker did that in 1628 and 1629, 
as he had done in 1627. On 1629, Jan. 19 [not 1630, 
as Gifford says], he had returned to writing for the stage, 
for The New Inn was performed by the King's men, and 
unequivocally damned. He wrote an Ode to himself on the 
occasion, in which the " mouldy " Pericles and " Broome's 
sweepings " (undoubtedly the original reading, but altered 
to " there, sweepings " in the published edition) are men- 
tioned. He was jealous of his dead master, Shakespeare, 
and his living faithful servant, Brome. Answers to this 
ode by Feltham (antagonistic, calling him " a Translator " 
and satirising his "nominal" jests), and by Carew, Cleveland, 
and Bandolph (all friendly, and the last named with a 
clear allusion to "Brome's sweepings," as in the 1640 
edition), appeared forthwith. In the Epilogue Jonson had 
said, " Had he lived the care of King and Queen." This 
also had an immediate answer; the King sent him jC^ioo 



JONSON. 353 

"iu his sickness, 1629." See U. 60 (80). Jonson, Mar. 
1 8, replied hj an Epigram on the loss of the royal first- 
bom, and wrote verses on the King's birthday, Nov^ 19, 
U. 62 (82). On 1629, Aug. 13, he was granted the re- 
version of the Mastership of the Bevels. About Christmas 
he sent a humble petition for the commuting the pension 
of 100 marks granted by James for another of ;^ioo, U. 
74 (95)- ^i^is Also he obtained. The patent with the addi- 
tional grant annually of '^ a tierce of Spanish wine " was 
issued 1630, Mar. 26, and laureate verses followed on the 
birth of Charles, May 29, U. 63 (83), 64 (84), and the 
Queen's birthday, Nov. 16, U. 65 (85). Just before 
Christmas, U. 55 (76), he writes to John Burgess com- 
plaining that Sir B. Pie would not ''take apprehension 
of a year's pension," t.e., would not pay him for a year, 
seeing that the pension had only been running nine 
months, and was not due till Christmas Day. The first 
payment was stipulated in the patent to be at Lady Day 

1630. It is clear from the verses that Christmas had 
not yet come, and the reference to the forthcoming 
gambols at the Court fixes the year to 1630. Jonson 
wrote no mask after The Fortunate Idee till Love'e Triumph, 

163 1, Jan 6. Misled by the absurd punctuation in these 
verses and Gifford's positive assertions, I formerly assigned 
this mask to 1630, but wrongly. Compare U. 66 (86), 
To the Householdy where the non-payment of sack, evi- 
dently referring to the same occasion, and expressly dated 
1630, is the subject of the Epigram, It appears from U. 
5 3 (74) that Jonson got the wine. Gififord strangely mis- 
read these lines. In 163 1, Jan. 6 and Shrovetide, Jonson's 
last Court masks were presented, and immediately published, 
i630[-i], as by "the inventors, Ben Jonson; Inigo Jones." 

This made Jones angry; his name ought, he thought, to 
vou I. z 



354 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

have come first, as it had done in ParCs Anniversary^ for 
instance. Then Jonson wrote his Expostulation^ in which 
he calls him Justice Jones, Ass-Inigo, tireman, mountebank, 
Dominus Do-all, maker of properties ; sneers at his velvet 
suit, carpentry '^ Design/' lantem-lerry ; suggests he should 
present puppet plays, and that it was " Good Queen Anne " 
who made him what he is. He also wrote an Epigram 
and a Corollary, in which he terms him Marquis Would-be, 
Pancridge Earl, &c. Tlie result of all this was that Towns- 
end, Montague, Carew, Davenant, wrote the Court masks 
in future, and Jonson was discarded. In 163 1, April 17, 
Jonson published The New Inn (j.v.), and wrote an Epistle 
mendicant to L, Weston, High Treasurer, U. 69 (90). He 
also began to publish the second volume of his works. lu 
an undated and hitherto misunderstood letter to the Earl of 
Newcastle, Harl. MS. 4955, he says (I have corrected the 
punctuation), " It is the lewd printer's [J. Benson's] fault 
that I can send your lordship no more of my book. I sent 
you one piece before, Tlie Fair [Bartholomew Fair"] ; and 
now I send you this other morsel, The fine gentleman that 
walks the town. The Fiend \The Devil is an Ass"] ; but before 
he will perfect the rest I fear he will come himself to 
be a part under the title of The Absolute Knave, which he 
hath played with me." The only other play which Benson 
printed for Jonson was The Staple of News, and this letter 
must lie between his printing that and the preceding one, 
The DeviCs an Ass. On loth Nov. 1631 (Whitmore, for 
whom Heywood had written the pageant, being Mayor) an 
order was made that no more wages be paid to Jonson as 
City Chronologer until he present some fruit of his labours : 
a very reasonable arrangement Jonson wrote indignantly 
to the Earl of Newcastle about this withdrawal of "their 
Chandlerly pension." In 1632, Feb. 4, he wrote again to 



JONSON. 355 

him with ^'a packet of mine own praises" (verses by Falk- 
land, N. Oldisworth, and R Goodwin), which the Earl had 
asked for. On Mar. 24 his verses to Brome show that he 
had become reconciled to his succeeding him as playniaker 
for the King's men. On Oct 1 2 The Magnetic Lady was 
licensed. See infra^ On Nov. 1 9 he wrote laureate verses 
for the King. In 1633, early, he wrote to the Earl of New- 
castle an undated letter begging succour for ''this good 
time of Easter." The Earl sent him '* a timely gratuity " by 
Master Payne, and a commission (if Gifford be right) for 
the King's ErUertainmtni at Welbeck in May. This Jonson 
wrote and sent with a letter, extant, but not dated, thank- 
ing the Earl. I ought, however, to say that it is possible 
that this group of letters may refer, and I think does refer, 
to the UntertainnufU at Bolsover, 1634 July, Jonson's last 
production of that kind. The Tale of a Tub was licensed 
1633, May 7; but Vitruvius Hoop's part was struck out, 
and the motion of the tub, by command of the Lord Chamber- 
lain, exception being taken to it by Inigo Jones. See infra. 
On Nov. 19, U. 78 (99), and Nov. 24, U. 79 (100), the 
customary laureate verses were written. The Tale of a Tub 
was acted at Court 1634, Jan. 14, and coldly received. No 
play of Jonson's appears at Court after this. For his verses 
to the Earl of Portland and Lady Yenetia Digby at this 
time, as indeed for many others of earlier date to ''great 
ones," it must suffice here to refer to the list of his poems 
already given. I am now writing a history of the Drama, 
not a biography of Jonson, and must confine myself to 
matters which bear on my main subject, directly or in- 
directly. I may say, however, that a reading of all his 
work, down to the very smallest item, in strictly chrono- 
logical order, will be found to throw much additional light 
on his private life. In 1634, July 30, Jonson's last Enter^ 



356 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

tainnurU was presented. On Sept i8 (Moulson being 
Mayor) the City Court ordered (the Earl of Dorset having 
signified His Majesty's pleasure thereon) that the Chrono- 
loger's pension should be continued and the arrears paid. 
On 1635, Jan. i, Jonson wrote his last laureate verses; nor 
can I assign a certain later date to anytliing by him. The 
verses to Butter, published Jan. 19, and to Dover, 1636, 
were probably written in 1635 at latest On 1635, Nov. 
20, his son Benjamin died ; and from then to his own 
death, 1637, Aug. 6, I can trace no particular information 
whatever. He was well provided for; with an income of 
j^i33, 6s. 8d. (some 600 guineas would be the present 
equivalent), he need not have been so often applying 
to his friends. He was buried Aug. 9, in Westminster 
Abbey. 

Plays. 

1. Wily Beguiled. See Peele, 17. 

2. 1597, Dec. 3, Jonson obtained 20s. of Henslow on 
'' a book which he showed the plot to the oonapany," and 
promised to deliver at Christmas next. He evidently 
delivered, not the play, but the plot only ; and, 1 598, Oct« 
28, Chapman had written *' 2 acts of a tragedy of Ben- 
jamin's plot." 1599) Jan. 4, Chapman was paid for ''3 
acts of a tragedy ; " and, Jan. 8, in full for '* his tragedy." 
All this, I believe, refers to The Fall of Mortimer, of which 
the plot, Dram. Pers., and a bit of i. i are extant ; for, 1602, 
Sept. 10, the **play of Mortimer'* is mentioned by Hens- 
low. The only doubtful point is that Malone does not 
note this entry. Mr. Warner, however, does not note it 
as one of the forgeries in the Diary, The Chorus was to 
be I, of ladies; 2, of courtiers; 3, of justices; 4, of 
kniglits; 5, of esquires. So far from being ''the last 



JONSON. 357 

draught of Jonson's quill/ as Gifford calls it, it was pro- 
bablj the very first production of his, without coadjutor, 
that has come down to us. See further under Chapman. 

3. Hot anger soon cold (with Chettle and Porter), 1 598, 
Aug. 19, for the Admiral's men at the Bose. 

4. His Cast is altered, C, was acted by the Chapel 
children before Nash's Lenten Stuff was published, S. R. 
I599> J^n* III which mentions it; ''the merry oobler's 
cut in the witty play of The Case is altered." Antonio 
Balladino is, of course, Antony Monday. In i. i, his 
Paradoxes (i$g3), allegories, pageants (he is "pageant poet 
to the city when a worse cannot be had "), plain writing 
with old decorum (compare " old England's mother's words," 
HistriomastiXy ii. i), objection to new tricks and humours 
(compare ''no new lazury or blandishment," Ibid.y ii. i), 
refusal to raise his vein even for £20 a play, are all men- 
tioned. His being " already in print for the best plotter " 
gives an anterior limit of date, as Meres' Wifs Treasury, 
which so mentions him, was entered S. B. 1598, Sept. 7. 
The play dates, then, c. Dec. It was never acknowledged 
by Jonson, but was published in 1 609 without his super- 
vision. It was entered S. R Jan. 26 for Bonion and 
Walley, his then publishers, but issued by Sutton (who 
had joined them in the copyright, S. B., July 20) as The 
Case is altered ; but in some copies the title is Ben Jonson, 
his Case is altered. Jonson's name was, I think, inserted 
in later copies, not withdrawn from earlier ones, for The 
Case, &c., agrees with the S. R entry, and is, therefore, 
likely to be that of original issue. In i. 3, '^ had I Fortu- 
natns' hat here" probably refers to Dekker's FortunatuSj 
acted at the Bose 1599, Dec. I have no doubt that 
Juniper, Onion, &c., are, like Antonio, personal caricatures, 
and will at some time be identified by their language. 



35S THE ENGLISH DBAMA. 

Compare Clove and Onion in Eotry man out of his 
Humour. Their peculiar words are like those of several 
characters in Chapman's earlier plays. 

5. Every man in his Humour^ C, was ^' first acted [at 
the Curtain] in 1598 bj the Lord Chamberlain's servants/' 
161 6 Folio. The Globe was not then built. It was 
published S. B. 1600, Aug. 14, without Jonson's super- 
vision, no doubt by the company, "as acted by" them, 
after an ineffectual effort had been made to '' stay " it on 
Aug. 4, by Jonson, I suppose. But it was acted also by 
another company [the Chapel children] in a greatly altered 
form (viz., that in which it was published in the 1 6 1 6 
Folio) in the reign of Elizabeth ; for *" the queen " and '' her 
majesty," iv. 9, v. i, iv. 5, would have been altered in so 
careful a recasting had it been made in the time of James. 
Yet, on the assumption that Bobadil is a historical autho- 
rity, and rightly dates the taking of Strigonium in iii. i , 
an attempt has been made to assign this alteration to 1607 
by Dr. B. Nicholson. It is a pity that he did not confirm 
this learned conjecture by ascertaining also the date of the 
''taking in of what you call it;" but I think, notwith- 
standing this, we may take Bobadil's assertion that to- 
morrow is St. Mark's Day, April 25, as accurate; and as 
it appears from iii. 2 that this was spoken on a Friday, 
this fixes the date of the revised play to 1601 April. 
With this the Prologue agrees, for it distinctly alludes in 
no friendly way to "the chorus that wafts you o'er the 
seas" in Shakespeare's Henry 5, produced 1599, and on 
the stage till 1602, and to the "long jars" in York and 
Lancaster, i.e,^ the revised 2, 3 Henry 6. In the revised 
play, which was, in my opinion, produced as a protest 
against publication against the author's wish, the names 
of the characters were anglicised thus : Lorensso (Knowell), 



JOXSON. 359 

Prospero (Wellborn), Thorello (Kitely), Musco (Brainworm), 
Peto (Formal), Pizo (Cash), Juliano (Downright), Blancha 
(Mrs. Kitelj), Hes^rida (Bridget). In iy. i Matthew 
steals his rhymes from the dead Marlow's Hero and 
Zeander, and in y. i , from the liying Daniel's Sonnets, " with 
a miraculous gift to make it absurder than it was." This 
is the first outbreak against Daniel that I haye traced in 
Jonson. I do not know whence the " yerse out of a jealous 
man's part in a play," y. I, is taken. The i6i6 copy was 
dedicated to Camden. It also giyes, as it does for all the 
plays in it contained, a list of actors ; and in doing this 
wM the model imitated by Fletcher : pity it was not by 
others. A reprint of the 1 60 1 Quarto is sadly needed. 
Acted before King James 1605, ^^^* 2. 

6. Every man out of his Humour, a Comical Satire, was 
acted 1599 by the Lord Chamberlain^s seryants at the 
Globe, and was published 1 600 by W. Holme as composed 
by the author ; it had been abridged when acted. The addi- 
tion of " the seyeral character of eyery person " shows that 
this, the first publication of a play by Jonson, was autho- 
rised by him 1 600, April 8, when it was entered S. B. 
This issue, howeyer, was without author's name ; but another 
by N. Ling in the same year, 1 6cx), has " by the author, 
B. J." I find no entry of transfer of copyright in S. R., 
but Ling's is {pace W. C. Hazlitt) the later edition. In 
the actor-list the absence of Shakespeare's name is impor- 
tant. See also my History of the Stage, p. 135. No one, 
I suppose, doubts that the '' Comical Satires" of Jonson 
are personally satirical ; but to giye here all my grounds 
for identifying the persons satirised would require almost 
a history of contemporary poetry, non-dramatic as well as 
dramatic. I must, therefore, limit my obseryations to a 
narrow compass. Asper-Macilente is, of course, Jonson. 



36o TUE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Funtarvolo with His dog may be Sir John Harington (for 
the dog see the engraved title of his Ariaski); but see 
CyrUhia^s Bevels. Carlo Baffone, "the Grand Scourge or 
Second Untmss of the Time/' is Dekker ; Marston, author 
of The Scourge of ViUany^ being the first nntrass. Fas- 
tidious Brisk I take to be Daniel ; Deliro, possibly Monday ; 
Saviolinay Elizabeth Carey. Sordido is a Bnrbadge (some 
country relative of Bichard Burbadge ; see the arms in iii. 
I, '' a boar without a head rampant " for a crest, and ** a 
boar's head between two annulets " (badges) for the coat, 
making up Boar-badge* For Shift cf. Epigraif^ 12 and 
The London Prodigal^ ii. 3. Clove and Orange are not 
Dekker and Marston, as some one has guessed them to 
be. Cordatus and Mitis may be Donne and Chapman. In 
the Induction Jonson claims that his play is, like Vetus 
Comediaj divided in the Terentian manner, with Gfrex or 
Chorus, and "within compass of a day's business." The 
lightly altering the scene by crossing the seas refers to 
Shakespeare's Henry 5, in action at the Globe. Carlo 
describes Jonson as a well-timbered, one-headed Cerberus ; 
and Cordatus describes Carlo. In i. i Macilente (Jonson) 
is a scholar and a soldier, and the date of the play is fixed 
by Sordido's almanacs as before July 20. For the use of 
" humourist," Ind. 2, compare the *' irregtdar humourists,'' 
2 Henry 4, Brum. Fers, In ii. i note Brisk's use of 
^* arrides " and of " real " (royal), and compare Carlo's de- 
scription of Puntarvolo with Amoretto in The Selum 
from Parnassus. In iii. i , Clove's allusion to Histriomastix 
(q.v.) fixes the date of that play. In iiL 2, " Shrove tide " 
(Feb. 20 in 1599), along with Sordido's prognostication 
(for July), "not having kept touch with him," does not 
agree with "the compass of a day's business;" and the 
placing this season in June, to say nothiDg of revels not 



JONSON. 361 

being "contrary to cnstom" at Shrovetide, is rather too 
great a blander even for Fangoso. Perhaps some learned 
editor may find here a demonstration that Jonson, like 
Shakespeare, used a '' doable-time " system. Note in iii. 
3 that ^* parenthesis " means a — (break) ; ignorance of 
Elizabethan punctuation has repeatedly misled the com- 
mentators on such points as this. In iv. 4 Macilente 
( Jonson) is " a rawboned anatomy ; " his corpulence is of 
much later date. Captain Pod's motion, Holdens camel, 
Banks' horse, and the elephant are also mentioned. The 
duel between Brisk and Luculento is the same as that 
between Emulo and Owen in Patient Oriselly iii. 2. Emulo 
in ii. i is called a " brisk spangled baby." That play was 
written 1599, Oct.-Dec. Yet Jonson had been writing 
with Dekker in September. See infra. The cause of 
this duel was, we are told, a love quarrel ; but I think this 
merely means that Daniel and Drayton (Luculento) were 
" at jealousies " concerning the patronage of Lucy Countess 
of Bedford. In iy. 6, "one of Kempe's shoes to throw 
after you " simply means that Eempe had left the Chamber- 
lain's men ; it cannot allude to his dancing to Norwich in 
1 600, as Gifford says. Armin probably acted the part of 
Carlo, though Jonson does not mention him. In v. 2, 
"Justice Silence," of course, alludes to 2 Henry 4. For 
Shift compare Epigram 1 2. In v. 4, I believe that " hog " 
and usurous cannibals " refers to the Boar-badges, and that 
all the allusions to swine in this play do likewise ; but I do 
not expect the reader to agree with me. The mention of 
"spring" and the allusion to the company's new "patent" 
for the Globe in the Epilogue fix the date of the first 
performance, I think, to i 599, c. April. The prose ending, 
which mentions lean Macilente (Jonson) and fat Falstaif, 
and the Epilogue for the Queen must have been for a 



362 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Court presentation at Christmas 1599; but Jonson had 
before that left writing for the Chamberlain's men. He 
would, however, be but too willing to add these for i)er- 
formance before Her Majesty. In 161 6 this play was 
dedicated to the Inns of Court. It was revived for King 
James 1605, Jan. 8. 

7. Page of Plymouth, T., with Dekker, 1599, Aug. 10, 
Sept. 2. This was founded on a murder committed I 591. 

8. Bobert 2, King of Scots, T., with Chettle, Dekker, 
and ** other gentleman " [Query (as I think) Wadeson, 
whose name Henslow avoids mentioning to pi'event confusion 
between the two Antonies, or, as others think, Marston, 
whose name appears Sept. 28], 1599, Sept. 3, 15, 16, 27. 
This and the preceding tragedy were for the Admiral's men 
at the Bose. 

9. Cynthia's Revds^ or The Fountain of Self -Love, C. S., 
was acted by the Chapel children on the stage 1600, at 
Court 1600— I, entered S. B. 1601, May 23, and published 
by Jonson. The 1 60 1 edition is evidently the Court copy ; 
that of 1 616 is greatly enlarged and insufferably tedious. 
I judge from the motto, Quod nan dant proceres dahit histrio 
(which occurs also in other men's plays), that the Queen 
found the Court play equally so. This motto was altered 
in 1 61 6, and a Dedication to the Court added, to which 
Jonson subscribes as ** thy servant, not thy slave." This was 
written c. 161 2, when he had ceased for a time to supply 
Court masks. This later copy replaces the parts omitted at 
Court — iv. 16, sport of a thing done; v. i, 2a, the prize 
playing — but retains the additions then made in their place. 
These alterations ought to be, but are not, carefully indicated 
in modem editions. The structure of the play, as usual in 
allegorical dramas, is very artificial. The chief characters 



JONSON. 363 

Lovers. Ladies, Pages, 

Crites. Arete. 

Amorphus. Phantaste. Coa 

Asotus. Argnrion. Moms and Prosaites. 

Hedon. Philautia. Mercury and Cupid. 

Anaides. Moria. Gelaia. 

Careful readers of the preceding play will recognise that 
all the men characters are repeated therefrom : Crites (Jon- 
son) from Asper; Amorphus (?B. Bich) from Puntarvolo; 
Asotus (? Lodge) from Fungoso; Hedon (Daniel) from Brisk; 
Anaides (Dekker) from Bufibne ; the Citizen and his wife 
(omitted in the Court version) from Deliro and Fallace. 
Narcissus, the original title-name, is Lyly. In the Court 
additions, v. 3 (the mask of Cynthia) Jonson has imitated 
Lyly's manner of dialogue, but not his euphuism. In 
the Induction the " ghosts of three or fonr plays departed 
a dozen years since" are mentioned as resuscitated by 
the Chapel boys. Among these were Kyd's Hieronimo and 
Lyly's Love's Metamorphosis, In i. i Diana's ''justice on 
Acteon " alludes to Nash's punishment for his Isle of Dogs. 
" As Acteon was worried of his own hounds, so is Tom Nash 
of his Isle of Dogs " Meres, 1598. The death of Narcissus 
is not to be literally taken ; it is the same as the death of 
Willy in Spenser's Tears of the J/ii^es, and means Lyly's 
retirement from play-writing. His true death was in 1606. 
Amorphus, the Deformed Traveller, who '' enriched his 
country with the true laws of the duello," i. I , must have 
been the translator of Saviolo's Practise^ S. R 1594, 
Nov. 19. I think Bamaby Bich is the man. Asotus, the 
prodigal son to the deceased Philargyrus, who was to have 
been praetor (Lord Mayor) next year, is, I think, the 
prodigal Lodge, whose father had been Mayor in 1562, 
and may have been expecting a second election at his death 
in 1583. The " politic Ulysses," i. i, will recur hereafter. 



364 THE ENGLISH DRA^LL 

Cos, I suppose, is George Whetstone. Hedon, " a rhymer, 
and that's thought better than a poet," ii. i, is certainly 
Daniel. The description of Anaides, ii i, identifies him 
with Carlo Buffone (Dekker). Lupus in fabula, ii. I ., may 
be Wolf the publisher (see Harvey and iii. 2). Hedon is 
Envy in iii. 2 ; compare the Prologue to The Poetaster. 
Anaides, iii. 2, gives out that all Jonson does is '' dictated 
by other men;" so does Demetrius in The Poetaster, v. i., 
in almost the same language, which to me seems conclusive 
as to the identity of Anaides, and therefore of Carlo Bufibne, 
with Demetrius (Dekker). '' I know the time and place 
where he stole it," says Anaides ; ''I know the authors 
from whence he stole, and could trace him too/' says 
Demetrius. In Satiromastix, Sc. 2, the lines in iii. 2 — 

'' The one a light voluptnouB reveller (Hedon), 
The other a strange arrogating puff (Anaides)," 

are taken as if spoken of Crispinus-Marston and Fannius- 
Dekker. But Dekker is certainly wrong as to the Marston 
part; Daniel was the man intended. In iv. i, Philautia, 
Hedon's lady, says, ^'I should be some Laura or some 
Delia, methinks ; " and Daniel in his Delia sonnets calls his 
lady " a Laura," Sonnet 40. This is quite inapplicable to 
Marston, or indeed to any one but Daniel. I think the 
explanation of this wrong attribution of Daniel allusions 
to Marston led to his reconciliation to Jonson in 160 1. It 
should be noticed that when Jonson was talking to Drum- 
mond of his quarrels with Marston he mentions no play but 
The Poetaster as written against him. " Connive," iv. i , is 
quoted in Satiromastix, Sc. 4, as one of Horace' words adopted 
by Asinius Bubo. ** Some idle Fungoso," applied to Asotus, 
iv. I , identifies him with Fungoso in the preceding play ; 
so ''the silent gentleman" (Asotus) is the ''kinsman to 
Justice Silence," Every man out of his Humour, v. 2. Asotus, 



JO^'SON. 36s 

the " goldfinch/' iv. i reminds one of Lodge's anagrammatic 
signatore, ^' Gfolde." Anaides, who puts Jonson down like 
a schoolboy, but " could not construe an author I quoted at 
first sight," is surely rather Dekker than Marston. Amorphus' 
" Science of Courtship," v. 2, which he teaches, iv. i, should 
be compared with As you Like i^, y. 4. It appears from 
y. 2 that Asotus is brother to the citizen or his wife. Note 
the full names, Ulysses Polytropus Amorphus and Aoolastos 
Polypragmon Asotus. Polypragmon is particularly suitable 
to Lodge. *' You haye played the painter yourself, and 
limned them (Amorphus, Hedon, and Anaides) to the life " 
would seem to be written before Marston's first acknow- 
ledged play, I Antonio and Mellida, y. i , where the painter 
who '* linms" two portraits is undoubtedly Jonson. If any 
one still doubts whether Hedon be Daniel, I recommend a 
perusal of Crites' speech in Hedon's character to Philautia 
on her stolen beauty, along with Daniel's Sonnet 1 9 to Delia. 
They are too long to ^uote, and to abridge would weaken 
the argument, which is conclusiye. See under Daniel for 
his calling Elizabeth Carey Delia, to the ofience of the Queen, 
and note that in this play Cynthia-Diana is carefully ad- 
dressed as the true ^' celestial Delia." The praise of Crites 
put into Cynthia's mouth is a consummate piece of impu- 
dence on Jonson's part. Note that when he told Drummond 
in 1 6 19 that by Criticus he meant Donne, he was not 
speakiug of Criticus in this play, which had been changed 
to Crites in the 1 61 6 Folio, but of Criticus in the lost 
'^ dialogue wise" translation of The Art 0/ Foetry. The 
play was probably publicly acted early in 1600, say c. 
April. 

10. The Poetaster, or his Arraignment, C. S., was acted 
by the Chapel children 1 60 1 , and entered S. B. Dec. 2 1 . 
In the 161 6 Folio a Dedication to Richard Martin, the 



366 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

Recorder, was added. He had answered for Jonson's in- 
nocence before the Lord Chief-Justice when an effort was 
made to suppress the play. Envy (the Induction) is also a 
name given to Hedon (Daniel), CyrUhia's BeveU, iii« 2. The 
** armed Prologue " is very important. He appears in " con- 
fidence/' and is unquestionably alluded to in the *^ armed 
Prologue " to Traylus and Cressida, who does not *' eome in 
confidence." It is, then, in this play of Shakespeare's that 
we must expect to find the purge that he gave to Jonson in 
return for the pill, Jonson administered to Marston, cf . Setum 
from Parnassus^ iv. 3 ; and whoever will take the trouble to 
compare the description of Crites in Ch/rUhia*8 Bevels, ii. i , 
with that of Ajaz in Troyliis and Cressida, i. 2, will see 
that Ajax is Jonson: slow as the Elephant crowded by 
Nature with ^'humors," valiant as the Lion, churlish as 
the Bear, melancholy without cause (compare Macilente). 
Hardly a word is spoken of or by Ajax in ii. 3, iii. 3, which 
does not apply literally to Jonson ; and in ii. i he beats 
Thersites of the ''mastic jaws," i. 3, 73 (Histriomastix, 
Theriomastix), as Jonson "beat Marston," Drum. Conv., 
1 1 . Thersites in all respects resembles Marston, the railing 
satirist. But it will be objected Troylus and Cressida was 
not acted. It was not staled, indeed, on the London stage, 
but in 1 60 1 the Chamberlain's men travelled and visited 
the Universities (see Hamlet in my Life of Shakespeare), and 
I have no doubt acted Troyliis and Cressida at Cambridge, 
where the author of The Return from Parnassus saw it. 
The "purge" is from ii. 3, 203, "hell be the physician 
that should be the patient" When the Chamberlain's men 
returned to London at the close of 1 60 1 Jonson, Marston, 
and Shakespeare were reconciled, and Troylus was not pro- 
duced on the public stage. But I must not dwell longer on 
this now. " Put case our author should once more swear 



JONSON. 367 

that his play were good " refers to the last line of Cynthia s 

Bevels: — 

*' Bj [God], 'tis good, and if jou like 't you maj/* 

a strong contrast to Shakespeare's modest title, ''As yon 
like it" For the "poet apes" cf. Epigram 56. In the 
play Ovid, I think, is Donne, who divided his attention 
between law and poetry, and married Anne Moore (Julia) 
without her father's consent It is possible that the. Medea 
tragedy is the Medea MS. Sloane 911; but I have not ex- 
amined this. It is more likely that some other play is referred 
to, the name Medea being only given for local colour. It 
was the real name of Ovid's one play. Perhaps the play 
mentioned as ''coming forth from the common players" 
never did come forth. I cannot trace any tragedy of this 
date likely to be alluded to, and Ovid says he had only begun 
it, and is not known to the open stage. Tibullus and his 
Delia (Plautia) are, I suppose, Daniel and Elizabeth Carey ; 
Virgil, Chapman (already at work on his HoTner). Horace 
is known to be Jonson ; Crispinus, Marston ; and Demetrius, 
Dekker. Albius and Cloe are identical with Deliro and 
Fallace in Every man out of his Hunumr. Lupus was cer- 
tainly some one named Wolf ; the allusions in many places 
to the English name are too numerous to admit of any other 
explanation ; but whether Wolf the printer. Wolf the apo- 
thecary, or some other I know not. The players Histrio 
and ^sop belonged to Pembroke's company, as we shall see. 
Tucca, the skeldering captain, is, I feel sure, the same as the 
skeldering Shift, who never was a soldier, in Every man oxit 
of his Rumour. ^The play^took fifteen weeks in the writiuf. 
In I i. the translation of Ovid's Elegy is taken bodily, 
with slight alterations, from Marlow, and was inserted as 
"by B. I." by the side of Marlow's in the 3rd (2nd Middle- 
burgh) edition of his translation. Lupus is a magistrate, a 



368 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

" yenerable cropshin ; " compare Jnsidce Crop in ScUironuis- 
tix. In ii. I, Crispinns has little legs as a gentleman bom, 
and his arms with the bloody toe or Mars-toen (for Mars 
means red), illustrate the way in which Jonson nses this 
heraldic method of designating his characters. Compare 
Boar-badge, supra. Hermogenes is a musician, but not a 
poet [is he meant for John Daniel ?]. In iii. i (from Horace' 
Satires, L 9) Crispinus has an ash-coloured feather, and 
uses the language of Pistol, " do not exhale me thus ; " cf. 
ffenry 5, ii. i. The Histrio "Gulch" (cf. ffistriomastix) 
is of a company that has Fortune (the Admiral's men) on 
its side, and that, if Marston write for it, " shall not need 
to travel with pumps full of gravel " any more. This is 
Pembroke's company, just settled, after years of strolling in 
the country, 1600 Nov., at the Rose under Henslow, who 
was also managing the Fortune. They do not produce 
Humorous Revels and Satires, like the Blackfriars boys the 
other side of Tyler, but are of the round theatres (Globes) 
on the Bankside, who enact Triumphs (pageants). Tucca 
purveys boys for them, the 2 Pyrgi, who act pieces from 
The Battle of Alcazar, ii. 3 ; The Blind Beggar of Alexandria, 
Sc. 1 1 ; and 2 Hieronymo, ii. i . These were plays belong- 
ing to the Admiral's men. Tucca is, therefore, coimected 
with that company. The players he invites to supper, i , 
lean Polyphagas; 2, fiddler uEnobarbus ; 3, politician .£sop 
(compare the politician players in Histriamastixy; 4, <' my 
zany," Frisker; 5, "my mango," the fat fool, belong to 
Pembroke's company. Frisker is probably Kemp ; the others 
Duke, Pallant, Beeston, &c. They are poor and starved thia 
winter, and mean to hire Demetrius (Dekker, who wrote for 
the Rose and the Fortune) to bring Horace in in a play. 
But they did not. It was the Eling's men and Paul's boys 
who did that. The description of Demetrius as a rank 



JONSON. 369 

slanderer, &c., is condnsive as to his identity with Bnffone 
and Anaides. In iv. i Crispinas plagiarises from Horace. 
The Histrio in iv. 2 is not he of iii. i, bnt the .£sop of 
V. I. In iv. 4 the " journeyman " playwright who writes to 
order is defined. Compare the Prologae to Volpane. In y. 
I note the refe^^nqp to Julius Casmr^ iii. i : the " monopoly 
of playing/' {.«., patent sought by Pembroke's men ; the 
Chamberlain's and Admiral's had theirs already : the asses' 
ears fixed on Lupus ; compare TifMm (the University play) : 
Tucca's having served in the wars against Mark Antony, his 
being only known for a '' motion " [can he be Captain Pod^ 
and did he exhibit at Paris Grarden ?], and especially the 
consummate impudence of Jonson, who had been marked 
with the Tyburn T, in arraigning Crispinus under the Lex 
Bemmia that he might be branded with the C of calumny. 
For Marston's words disgorged see under Marston. Tucca's 
subornation of the poetasters and his bifronted punishment 
may perhaps some time lead to his identification. With the 
locking up of Crispinus in some dark place compare the 
imprisonment of Malvolio in Tiuelfth Night. Finally, note 
that Demetrius as much as Crispinus affected the title of 
Untrusser, neglect of which fact has led to the common 
mistake in making Marston Carlo Buffone. 

Jonson, after having been brought before the Lord Chief- 
Justice for this play, wrote an apology for it, which was 
restrained in 1 60 1 , but published in 1 6 1 6. It is a dialogue 
between Nasutus, a name from Martial [but query with a 
glance at Ovidias Naso, " the well nosed "], PolyjKWus, 
and the author, who says he had been provoked for three 
years on every stage ; i.e., at Paul's in Antonio and Mdlida 
and Jack Drum ; at the Curtain in ffistriomastix ; at the 
Bose in Patient Grissell ; at the Globe (but not till The 

Poetaster had been acted) in ? Twelfth Night ; and by the 
VOL. I. 2 A 



370 THE ENGLISH DRAMA, 

Chamberlain'B men subsequently, in Troylus and Oresrida 
at the Uniyersity, and in ScUiranuistix in London, which was 
also acted by the Paul's boya But Jonson says nothing 
about the provocations he had given to others. The above 
list is not exhaustive ; nor can the subject be at present 
exhaustively treated. Jonson defends himself, but I donbt 
if with entire candour, against the charge of satirising the 
lawyers and captaius, Lupus and Tucca, "by their parti- 
cular names " (Query Wolf), but acknowledges as to the 
playera As to other poets (Daniel, &c), he ignores the whole 
matter. He introduces i^n^ram 1 08 on true Soldiers; and 
as to his slowness in making but one play a year, wishes he 
could do less. Play- writing with him was always a business, 
a mere matter of pay, and most deservedly he never suc- 
ceeded commercially in it. While Shakespeare, who threw 
his whole soul into whatever he did, made a fortune, Jonson 
for all his plays before 1 6 1 9 did not get ;C200. 

11.^ Tale of a Tvh^ C. In its original shape this play 
was certainly acted in Queen Elizabeth's time. All through 
it, in scores of instances, we meet with ''the queen, her 
majesty," and the like. " Old Blurt," ii. i, refers to Middle- 
ton's Murt Master Constable^ 1601. "John Clay and Cloth 
Breech," i. 2, alludes to the moral of Cloth Breeches, acted 
by the Chamberlain's men, S. B. 1600, May 27, and not to 
Greene's tract or its precursor. Diogenes Scriben is S. Row- 
lands, whose Letting of Humours hlood in the head vein was 
published 1 600, " with a new Morisco, danced by seven Satyrs 
upon the bottom of Diogenes' tub." In-and-in Medley in 
1 600 would no doubt be Monday. The date of production 
was almost certainly 1601, Feb 14, and the company the 
Chapel boys, from whom the play was lineally handed down 
to Queen. Henrietta's, who had it in 1634. For its repro- 
duction by them, and the additions then made, iv. 2, v. 2, 



JONSON. 371 

** can any man make — to him alone ; " v. 3, ** I mnst- con- 
fer" — end of play, see infra. Note that Scriben is of 
ChilcQt, Finsbnry, and not Ghalcot, as the editors ¥rill have 
it. The word-play on smiter and scymitar and the tune 
of Dargison occur iv. 3. This play was not published by 
Jonson. 

12. Jeronymo {The Spanish Tragedy\ q.v, Jonson wrote 
" additions " for the Admiral's men at the Fortune 1 60 1 , 
Sept. 25; 1602, June 24. 

13. Richard Orookback, 1602, June 24, for the same 
company. Prol)ably an alteration of Marlow's play (on which 
Shakespeare's was founded), brought by Jonson from the 
Chamberlain's company, just as he had taken Jeronymo from 
them, first to the Chapel boys, and then to the Admiral's 
men. This was apparently retaliation for their publishing 
Uvery Man in his Humour without his consent See the 
Malcontent for their reprisal. 

14. Sejantis his Fall, T. Acted by the King's servants 
1603; therefore after May 17, when their patent was 
granted ; and as the theatres were closed, on account of the 
plague, from June 9 to Dec. 22, probably c. Christmas. 
Entered S. B. i6o4» ^ov. 2, for Blount, but not published 
till 1 60 5 by Thorpe. The 1 6 1 6 Folio has a list of actors, of 
whom Shakespeare was one. " Northampton was his mortal 
enemy for beating on a St. George's day [1605, when 
he was made Knight of the Garter] one of his attendants. 
He was called before the Council for his Sejanus^ and ac- 
cused both of popery and treason by him " {Drum, Conv,^ 13). 
This was the occasion of Jonson's second imprisonment with 
Chapman (already noticed supra) from which they were 
released by the intervention of the Earl of Suffolk. As this 
nobleman's applause of the play is especially alluded to in 
Chapman's Complimentary Verses, the publication was pro- 



373 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

bably Bubsequent to the imprisonment, and that was after 
1605, May 4. The intended pablication in 1604 Nov. 
had been, no doubt, interrupted by ihe Eastward Ho trouble. 
Chapman's imprisonment with Jonson in this matter leaves 
small doubt that his was the second pen mentioned in the 
Address. Chapman, frightened by the second imprisonment, 
seems to have withdrawn his consent to the publication of 
his part of Sejanus, although he had consented to that of 
Eastward Ho^ and Jonson had to replace it with '' weaker 
lines of his own/' a phrase he would hardly have used of 
any other contemporary in 1605. -^^ ^^ ^^^ Jonson 
was living with Esme, Lord Aubigny, and to him he dedi- 
cated the play in the 1 6 1 6 Folio. It was condemned by the 
multitude r applauded by the gentry, t.e., by Suffolk, &a 
(Fennor, Descriptions^ 1616). I suspect the incriminated 
parts of Sejanus were by Chapman. It was he who wrote 
the EcLstward Ho bits against the Scots, and he that gave sub- 
sequent offence in Byron, In the Address Jonson refers to 
the translation of Horace' Ars Foetioay which he had just 
finished. He was now preparing the notes from Aristotle. 
The last sentence of the Argument in the 1605 Quarto, 
which mentions ''God miraculously working" to preserve 
King James, would suit the Gunpowder Plot better than 
Salegh's, and indicates a date of publication a Nov. Jon- 
son's elaborate notes were depreciated in Marston's Address 
to his Sophqnisba 1 606, Mar. 1 7. 

1 5. Eastivard Ho, C. Acted by the Queen's Bevels boys 

1604, a Nov. See Chapman. 

16. Volpone, or The Fox, C. Acted by the King's men 

1605. Published 1607, with a Dedication to the Two 
Universities. It had been acted '' with love and acceptance 
at Oxford and Cambridge." See further under Mueedorus, 
The actor-list of the 16 16 Folio does not contain Shake- 



JONSON. 373 

speare's name. Jonson refers to the Eastward Ho matter in 
his Dedication, and claims that in the '' works" entirely his 
there are no personalities except to mimics, buffoons, &c. 
(Marston, Dekker); he has not attacked public persons 
(Northumberland), nation (the Scots), order, or state (sol- 
diers or lawyers) ; other men's crimes have been imputed to 
him. The date of this Address, "nth Feb. 1 607," must mean 
1607-8, and the play was published in i6o7[-8], which is 
to be taken as before 25th Mar. 1608. The acting at the 
Universities was most likely^during the plague, 1 606 July- 
Dec, but may have been 1607 July-Nov. The date of 
original production must be 1606, before 25th Mar. The 
new star, iL I, appeared 1604, Oct. 10, and was visible 
about a year. The porpoises and whale at Woolwich date 
1 606, Jan. 1 9, and a few days after {Staw, p. 88 1 ) ; a second 
lion whelp in the Tower, 1605, Feb. 26 (Stow, p. 857); 
a former one was on 5 th Aug. 1604 (Stow, p. 844). But 
a lioness had two whelps 1605, July 27, according to Stow, 
p. 870, and these must be those here alluded to. Gifford's 
dates are all wrong, and have given me much trouble. The 
whale gives the decisive date. The play (which was only five 
weeks in writing) must have been produced Jan.-Feb. 1 606, 
immediately before Mucedorus (q.v.) was acted on Shrove Sun- 
day, Mar 2. A most interesting passage in the Prologue 
shows how joint plays were written ; the second hand was 
either i, coadjutor, where the authors had equal powers each 
over his own share of the play, as in the Beaumont and 
Fletcher series; 2, novice, where the second hand was 
learning his business, and 4, the tutor, superintended and 
corrected, as in the early form of some of Shakespeare's 
plays; or 3, journeyman, where a part of the play was put 
out to an underwriter, as one act of The Arraignment of 
London was to Cyril Toumeur. The passage in iii. 2 about 



374 THE ENGLISH DRAMA, 

authors who steal from Montaigne, Guarini, &C.9 is directed 
against Daniel, whose Arcadian pastorals had been acted 
before Royalty 1 60.5 Aug. It has been absurdly supposed 
to point to Shakespeare. Jonson, who cared for the classics, 
had a poor opinion of the French and Italian authors, whom, 
says Drummond, he did not understand. ''Fitting the 
time and catching the Court ear " certainly refers to Daniel : 
Shakespeare never wrote mask or pastoral for the Court, 
The verses to Celia, iii. 6, seem to me to indicate personal 
reference. They are reproduced in The Forest, 5, and Celia 
was a real person. See Underwoods, 26 (47). 

17. Byron, 1608. See Chapman. 

18 £picosne, or The Silent Women, C, was acted in 
i6o9[-io] by the Children of Her Majesty's Revels at 
Whitefriars (see Prologue); and therefore after the date 
when the patent was granted, 16 10, Jan. 4, and of course 
before Mar. 25. Entered S. R. 16 10, Sept. 20. The 
earliest known edition is of 161 2. It was dedicated in the 
161 6 Folio to Sir Francis Stuart, and had been subjected 
to '' contumely." Jonson anticipates a friendly verdict 
from Stuart, as he has not changed a syllable from the first 
copy. There is no reference to The Poetaster or any other 
early play, as Gifibrd carelessly supposed. The anecdote pre- 
served by Drummond, that the name Silent was well chosen 
because no fian would say PUmdiie, confirms the view that 
it was badly received at first — probably on account of its 
personal satire. Truewit appears to be Jonson. The name 
Clerimont and the verses i. i from Bonefons (bom at 
Clermont) seem to point at the " Swan" who wrote Pan-- 
eharisy for Bonefons had written a Pancharis. Is this 
English book founded on Bonefons, and is Clerimont the 
Swan? Sir John Daw is Sir John Harington. Compare 
ii. 2, "Every man that writes in verse is not a poet," with 



JONSON. 375 

^* the common sort term all that is written in verse poetry/' 
Harrington's Apology of Poetry; Daw's enumeration of 
authors, ii. 2, with Harington's references in the Apology, 
especially in disparagement of the ancients and in reference 
to Aristotle ; and Daw's verses with Harington's JSpigrams, 
which Jonson said were Narrations, not Epigrams, Drum. 
Conv,, 3. There is a reference to Harington's ifeto- 
morphosis of A-jax in iv. 2. Some one more familiar 
than I with Harington's life may be able to identify La 
Foole. The plagae of 1608 July- 1609 Nov. is the one 
alluded to in i. I. There is, as for all the 16 16 Folio 
plays, a list of actors, and their difference from the Chapel 
children's lists ought to have shown the editors that a 
different company is here in question. This play, like The 
Fox and other plays, has hitherto been dated a year too 
early, in consequence of the use of Old Style dates. 

19. The Alchemist y C, was acted 16 10 by the King's 
servants. Entered S. B. 1 6 10, Oct. 3. Published 161 2. 
This delay, combined with that of the publication of JSpicosne, 
indicates some '^ staying" of these comedies. In the 1 6 16 
Folio the *'priu3 " in the motto no doubt refers to Albumazar, 
but that play was presented 161 5, Mar. 9, and published 
S. B. April 28 ; not in 16 14, as Oifford and Halliwell say. 
The 1 6 1 6 issue was dedicated to Lady Mary Wroth. The 
Address to the Beader (16 10 Oct.) refers to the "mocking 
at the term," Art, in The Winters Tale, iv. 4, 85-95. 
The " dances and antics " allude to the dances in the same 
scene ; and however it may savour of ** clumsy sarcasm," I 
do not hesitate to affirm that '' those who, to gain the opinion 
of copy, utter all they can," is meant of Shakespeare, with 
regard to whose lines Jonson said he wished " he had blotted 
a* thousand." In the Acrostic Argument (16 10, Oct.) the 
plague is said to be hot in London. It prevailed from July 1 2 



376 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

to Nor. 22. In iv. 2 Doll is bom in 1 591 ; in ii. i she is 
nineteen in 1 6 1 o : this shows how accurately time is marked, 
as, indeed, it generally is in these old plays. For Ward, y. 2, 
cf. Dabome and S. R. 1609, June 2, July 3. In iii. 2, 
r. 3, the date is placed in the eighth month of 16 10, and 
ii. I the plague is still in the kingdom. It is clear that 
the play was written in the plague-time, and could not then 
be performed in London ; cf . " the players will thank you 
then,'- i,e., if you drive out the plague, ii. i , It was, there- 
fore, Jonson*s intention to publish it in Oct. ; but as the 
plague " fell below 40 " in Nov., the publication was deferred 
and the play was acted. This explanation does not apply 
to EjnecRne, 

20. Catiline his Conspiracy, T., was acted by the Eling's 
men 161 1, and published the same year. In the Address 
of the 1 6 1 1 edition it appears that the people commended 
the two first acts, but disliked the oration of Cicero iv. 2. 
The want of success, as usual with Jonson, only provoked 
early, publication. The learned notes do not appear here, as 
in iSejdntLSy but there is a chorus in Seneca's manner. The 
Dediqation is to William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. Note 
the '' places in Court go otherwise " in the Addres& Jonson 
wrote no Court mask between 1 6 1 1 Jan. and 1 6 1 3 Dec. 
There must have been a quarrel with Inigo Jones at this 
time. The 1 6 1 6 Folio stops here. 

2 1 . Bartholomew Fair, C, was acted at the Hope Theatre 
1 6 14, Oct. 31, by the Lady Elizabeth's servants (who had 
been joined by Prince Charles'), and at Court on Nov. i . 
Published by Jonson 163 1. The motto, as usual, refers to 
its reception (favourable in this case) ; but I cannot spare 
space to indicate all these allusions, though the reader of 
Jonson should not neglect them. This play in 163 1 had a 
Prologue and Epilogue to King James \ hence the statement 



JONSON. 377 

in the title that it was "dedicated" to him in 1 6 14. In 
the Induction Brome is mentioned as "the poet's man;" 
the ''earthquake Jn the Fair," made by "some writer that I 
know," alludes, I think, to 2Tie Faithful Friends, v. I (Uy 
Dabome ? who retired in 1 6 1 4), " if we must down, let us 
make an earthquake tumbling;" the kindheart, juggler, 
monsetrapman, &c., are forecasts of Pan's Anniversary ; the 
pump and "witty young masters of the Inns of Court" 
alludes to the " stately fountain " in the Gray*s Inn Mask of 
Flowers, 16 14, Jan. 6; Adams, an actor with Tarleton, is 
mentioned ; " the bears within " confirms my identification 
of the Hope with the Bear Garden ; the admission money, 
6d. to 2s. 6d., is mentioned; Jeronymo, c. 1588 (the first 
part, not The Spanish Tragedy , which Jonson always calls 
Hieronymo), and Andronicus, 1594, are also mentioned as 
of twenty- five to thirty years' standing (over the mark, but 
these plays were before Jonson's time) ; the servant monster, 
nest of antics, '* Tales, Tempests, and such-like drolleries 
to mix his head with other men's heels," are directly aimed 
at T?ie Tempest and Winter's Tale, more outspoken than in 
the Alchemist preface, because Jonson is now writing for a 
rival company. The stage is said to be as dirty and stinking 
as Smithfield. This may seem strange, but Bossiter's Black- 
friars private house was then in contemplation. Littlewit, 
who makes the puppet-play for the motion-man, i. i , whose 
wife is '' a Delia," v. 3, is Samuel Daniel. The Damon and 
Pythias of the puppets, v. 3, are burlesqued from the 
Thirsis and Palasmon of his Queen's Arcadia, 1605, Aug. 
30. This pastoral is founded on fact, and many characters 
are continued in Hymen's Triumph, 1 6 1 4, Feb. 3. Attention 
is drawn to this play in iv. 2, where Quarlous takes his word 
Argalus out of Sidney's Arcadia, and Quarlous his Palsemon 
from the play The Queen's Arcadia. The notion that Palamon 



378 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

and Arcite hare any ooncem in this is most, unlucky. Gifford 
was right in identifying Littlewit with the Dacus of Sir John 
DayieSy Epigram 30, who made plays for the puppets, but 
did not see that the "silent eloquence" of Epigram 45 
identifies Dacus with Daniel He thinks Dekker was meant ; 
but, virulent as Jonson was, he has not been accused by any 
one except Oifford of attacking a quondam friend when im- 
poverished and imprisoned. That Lantern Leatherhead the 
puppet-man is Lugo Jones I cannot doubt. Jones had pre- 
pared the show part of Daniel's Ttthys* Festival 1 6 10, June 
5, just after the rupture between Jones and Jonson, who 
worked together till 1609, ^^b- 2- He is " parcel poet and 
an inginer/' ii. i , his poetry consisting of his doggrel to 
Coryat's Crudities, 1 61 1, June 7. His " velvet jerkin " is 
mentioned iii. i ; he is sought for "at your great city 
suppers," such as the mask of the Four Seasons (q.v,)j can 
"set out a mask," and "engrosses all," iii. i (compare 
Dominus Do-all in The Expostulation) \ puts down Cokely as 
puppet-master (compare The Tale of a Tvh), and "baited 
the fellow in the bear's skin," the "fighting bear of last 
year " in Love JRestored (q^v.) ; he succeeds Captain Pod as 
motion-master, v. i ; is the mouth of the dumb shows, y. 2 
(compare The Expostulation with its " lantem-lerry " and 
Tale of a Tub with its " lantern-paper," which allude to the 
very name in this play) ; presents nothing but what is 
licensed by authority with the Master of the Bevels' hand to 
it, iScc., &c. This is all Jones. Note by the way the allu- 
sions to Burbadge and Ostler of the King's men, and to 
Field of the Lady Elizabeth's as Bnrbadge's rival, in y. 3 ; 
also to female actors (who were they ?) in Overdo's speech^ 
" The female putteth on the apparel of the male." There 
is much more personal allusion in this play which I have as 
yet only partially deciphered. 



J0N80N. S79 

22. .Z%e Sad Shepherd^ P., was published 164 1 ; Acts i., 
ii., iii. (part), and with it the plot of L, ii., iii. complete. In 
the Prologue Jonson says, " he that hath feasted you these 
forty years." This must have been written at the end of 
his career, and the latest date of any writing known as his 
iB 1635, Jan. I. This would give 1595, Jan. i, as the 
date of his earliest play ; and this cannot be far from the 
truth, for he was mentioned by Meres as one of our best 
''in tragedy" in 1598, and tragedies by him must have 
existed anterior to 1597 Oct., from which date we have 
complete lists of his plays for 1 597-8 in Henslow's Diary : 
no tragedy there appears ; but plays in 1 595-7 (e,g., Cassar, 
Harry 5, Julian) may have been by him. He also mentions 
^^ a heresy of late let fall That mirth by no means fits a 
Pastoral." This leads us to Drum. Conv., 16, ''He hath a 
Pastoral entitled The May Lard. His own name is Alkin ; 
Ethra, the Countess of Bedford's; MogibellOverbury; the old 
Countess of Suffolk, an enchantress. Other names are given 

t 

to Somerset's lady, [Lady] Pembroke, the Countess of Rut- 
land, Lady Wroth. Li his first story Alkin cometh in mend* 
ing his broken pipe. Contrary to all other pastorals, he 
bringeth the clowns making mirth and foolish sports." The 
appearance of Alkin in both plays ; the witch of Papplewick 
in one, and an enchantress in the other ; the palpable identity 
of Robin Hood and Maid Marian as possessors of Belvoir 
and Sherwood with Roger Earl and Elizabeth Countess of 
Rutland (for Belvoir was their seat, and the Earl was Justice 
in Eyre of Sherwood Forest) ; the correspondence in num- 
ber of the female characters in the two plays ; the allusion 
to mirth in Pastoral, which could not have been let fall '^ of 
late" in 1635, since Jonson discussed it with Drummond 
in 1 6 1 9 ; the witch's daughter Douce in one play, and Frances 
Howard, Somerset's lady, in the other ; the time of action. 



38o TH£ ENGLISH DRAMA. 

"jonthfal June" — ^all point to the identification of these 
two plays. Moreover, The May Lord is the only play unacted 
mentioned by Jonson to Drammond. Part of only one play 
was bamed in the J 623 fire (see JExecration on Vulcan), and 
only of one unnoted play was part found in Jonson s MSS., 
for I do not suppose any one will take The Fail of Mortimer, 
after what I have said of it above, to fall under that category. 
I must here intercalate a personal explanation. Casually 
dipping into Ben Jonson by John Addington Symonds in 
The English Worthies^ published by Longmans 1886, and 
edited by Andrew Lang, *' all rights reserved," I was surprised 
and delighted to find that a critic of whom I had heard so 
favourably from a friend of his should have come to the 
same conclusion as myself respecting the identity of these 
plays, p. 190 seq. ; and as he does not mention my name 
once in his book, I of course thought his investigations 
were independent of my own. When, on further exami- 
nation, I found that he agreed with me in the division of 
Jonson's life into four periods, in supposing (contrary to all 
other critics known to me) that he was attacked in Marston's 
Satires J p. 37, and above all in stating that Jonson was with 
Shakespeare when they acted at the Curtain, p. 24 (a fact 
entirely unknown to any writer on Jonson before me), my 
delight was increased. My article, which had been published 
in Sfiakespeariana 1 884 June, was not known to the general 
English public, and I took it for granted that no honourable 
man would borrow from it without acknowledgment, and 
that no man base enough to parade its results as his own 
would escape the keen eyes of our English reviewers. Yet 
one point perplexed me. No one acquainted with Stage His- 
tory could talk about the Chamberlain's men as using the 
Blackfriars in Elizabeth's reign, p. 24, and I scrutinised the 
book. I did not find any single new fact in the whole of 



JONSOK 381 

it, except that Jonson had showed *' The Pirates^ to their 
Majesties, p. 46. On referring to my article in Shake- 
speariana, I found, among a number of misprints which are 
a disgrace to that periodical, The Pirates misprinted for The 
Penates. Evidently some shameless plagiarist has copied this 
misprint, and, as I suppose, misled Mr. J. A. Symonds, who 
will no doubt, on this public appeal, give an explanation of 
the source from which he obtained his statements. I do not 
apply to him privately, because some years since I wrote to 
him on another matter, and not receiving an answer, sup- 
pose that my letter miscarried — a risk I cannot incur in this 
case. I confidently rely on Mr. Symonds' aid to help me to 
expose this appropriator of my property. 

Returning to the play. It was no doubt written close to 
the Overbury trial, commenced 1615 April. Somerset's lady 
would hardly have been made a witch's daughter till then, 
and it was on 20th Jan. 1 6 1 5 that Jonson 's altered mask, 
omitting Somerset's name, was entered S. B. ; nor could it 
have well been much later. I should date it 161 5, c. Mar., 
and in the original Prologue read " xx years." Whether 
it was ever finished I doubt. The plot of only three acts is 
extant, and the loss of the end of the third act would suffi- 
ciently account for what Jonson says in The Execration. Had 
the whole play been written, I should have expected to find 
the plot of all five acts prefixed to the fragment. The 
applicability of the name Maid Marian to the Countess of 
Rutland will require no proof for readers of Beaumont's 
Elegy on her, and of Drummond's Conversations. A pastoral 
involving the story of so many people since dead could never 
have been acted, and it is difficult to suppose what Jonson 
meant to do with it; but as Gofie, who died in 1627, imi- 
tated many passages of it in his Careless Shepherdess, it is 
certain that he allowed the MS. to be circulated. 



383 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

23. Tht Devil is an om, C, was acted by the King's men 
1 6 1 6 at Blackf riara. Pablishedbj Jonson 1631. The Pro- 
logue complains of the spectators who sat on the stage as 
undalj crowding it, mentions Drajrton's The Merry Devil of 
Edmonton f and alludes to Dekker's If this he not a good play 
the Devil is inX In i. i Heywood's Wise Womun of Hog9- 
don is alluded to; and so are The Lancashire Witches of 
1 6 1 3, Yennor, Ciokeley, and the standard in Chepe. In i. 2 
Gresham, Forman, Franklin, Fisk, Savory, are mentioned ; 
they were concerned in the Overbury matter, and Bretnor 
is their successor (compare Rollo). Play-bills (programmes) 
are also spoken of. The story of i. 3, from Boccaccio's De^ 
Cameron^ iii. 5 1 ^^^ \i^ix used in other plays. The allusions 
to the Peak in Derbyshire should be noted by those who care 
to unravel Jonson's personal satire (compare The Metamor^ 
phosed Oipdes). The '' noble house " which pretends to a 
Duke's title, ii. I, is, I think, that of Stuart. Lodowick was 
made Earl of Eichmond 161 3, and Duke in 1623. The 
song in ii. 2 identifies Mrs. Fitzdottrel and Chans, and that 
Chans was Lady E. Hatt6n no reader of Chans, Uhdenooods, 
i6> 17 (35) 3^)» ^^ Metamorphosed Oipsies, and the pre- 
sent play will, I think, be inclined to dispute. Here, as in 
U. 17 (36), we have the "milk and roses," the "banks of 
kisses," and the husband who is the '' just excuse," for any- 
thing can be done to him, ii. 2. That the husband, Sir. E. 
Coke, should not be mistakes, Jonson makes Fitzdottrel an 
" esquire of Norfolk." Wittipol, returned from travel, who 
had seen Mrs. Fitzdottrel before he went, is evidently Jon- 
son. The disguise of Fitzdottrel as the sham demoniac, the 
boy of Norwich, Thomas Harrison, v. 3 (with many details 
borrowed from the parallel case of Will Somers, the boy 
of Burton, v. 5), is a covert allusion to Coke's adoption of 
the popular witch doctrines in the Overbury trial ; and his 



JONSON. 383 

jealousy of his wife was shown in this, same trial, when he 
refused to read the document of '^ what ladies loved what 
lords," because, as was popularly supposed (and it must be 
remembered in these plays common rumour rather than 
exact truth should always be expected), his own wife's name 
headed the list. The motto to this play, Ficta voluptatis 
causa sint proxima veris, I think implies that we are to look 
on its characters as real persons. The date of the play is 
probably late in 1 6 1 6, after Coke's discharge in November. 
Jonson was always ready to attack the fallen. How he had 
flattered Coke in 161 3 may be seen in U. 44 (65). There 
are several compliments to the actor Dick Robinson in 
ii. I, iii. I. The ''Globes and Mermaids" (theatres and 
taverns), iii i, should be compared with ** your Globes, your 
Triumphs" (theatres and pageants) in The Poetaster, on 
which so much nonsense has been written. Meercraft is, I 
think, Sir Giles Mompesson, the projector and monopolist ; 
he was knighted 16 16, Nov. 16. Plutarchus Gilthead, who 
is writing the lives of the great men in the City ; the captain 
who writes of the Artillery Garden " to train the youth," 
&C,, iii. I, is, I think, Edmond Howes, whose continuation 
of Stow's chronicle was published 161 5. Query, Is Howes 
the ** Howe, do you call him " of Epicoene, ii. 3 ? For 
brevity, I always quote Howe's continuation as " Stow," the 
date being sufficient guide as to authorship. The falling 
off in this play of Jonson's power is manifest, and for literary 
criticism it would be much better to begin Jonson's Second 
Period at the date of his laureate pension, 1 6 1 6, Feb. i , 
than in 1 6 1 2 ; but for dramatic history this latter date is 
much more convenient. 

1616-25. See The Widow, The Spanish Curate, The 
City Madam, Juliris Ccesar. 

24. The Staple of News, C, was acted by the King's men 



384 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

1 625 [—6] ; entered S. R. 1626, April 14 (but the publica- 
tion was, I think, interrupted by Jonson's paralysis). Pub- 
lished by Jonson 1 63 1. It was acted at Court, probably in 
1626 Feb. The mention of Shrovetide (which began Feb. 
19 in 1626) in the Induction, coupled with ''now at the 
Coronation," 1626, Feb. 2, fixes the public performance to 
Candlemas, and the Court one to Shrovetide. This is one 
more instance of the misdating of Jonson's plays b^ Gifford, 
&C., through the neglect of the use of Old Style. In the 
Induction occurs a reference to the celebrated line in Julius 
Gcesar, " Caesar did never wrong but with just cause," and 
one to Jonson's tunlike unwieldiness, which developed c. 
1 6 1 8. In the stage Prologue " left to write " means began 
to write badly ; not has ceased writing for years, as often, 
but absurdly, interpreted. For the plot compare JVeu» from 
the Moon. There are many allusions to Nat Butter in i. 2, 
iii. ^, V. I ; to The Merry Devil of Edvionton in the Induction 
(2) ; to Dr. Lamb, Ind. 2, 4 ; to Pocahontas, ii. i ; to the 
triply named Infanta of Spain, ii. I. Act iii. gave offence 
for its many personal allusions, not so much those to Gon- 
domar, Spalato, Middleton*s Game at Chess, the Amboyna 
massacre, Archy, &c., as I. That to '' the fine poet " Daniel, 
whose " silent eloquence " is recognised even by Gifford in 
this instance. He therefore prefixed an exculpatory Address, 
in which the meaning he attached to the motto already 
quoted, Ficta voluptatis, &c., is unmistakable. 2. That to 
Inigo Jones, the cook poet, wherein there is much repetition 
from Xeptune's Triumph (y.i?.), which had been publicly per^ 
formed at the Fortune 1625 Dec. Madrigal, the '' Horace, 
his Art of Poetry," who begins all works and finishes none, 
iv. I, is, of course, Jonson. For the use made of Aristo- 
phanes see Gifford, who has quite sufficiently treated that 
question. 



J0N80N. 3^5 

2 5 . The New Inn, or The Light Heart, C, was " negli- 
gently" played by the King's servants 1629 [Jan. 19], 
" squeamishly censured " by the King's subjects ; entered 
S. R 1 63 1, April 17; published 163 1 with an argument 
or plot and " characterism of the chief actors." The chief 
offence was in the character of the chambermaid, '' Secre- 
tary Sis " (Query Cecil or Cicely). That this is no imagi- 
nary character is clear from Charis 8. Chans must be 
the Frances Lady Frampul of the play. I am not learned 
enough in the history of the Hatton family to explain the 
personal allusions. The statement, ii. 2, that the Shirleys 
were a great Irish family is interesting. There is a quota- 
tion, iv. 3, "Every stoop he made Was like an eagle's at a 
flight of cranes," which I have tried in vain to trace. For 
the part of this play common to it and Love's Pilgrimage 
see under Fletcher. The Epilogue [for the Court] **in 
the Poet's defence, but the Flay lived not in opinion to 
have it spoken," would seem to have been written in ex- 
pectation of a Court presentation. The stage Epilogue 
says, "the maker is sick and sad/' and the words, '* had he 
lived the care of King and Queen " must precede the gift 
of ;£^ 1 00 in his sickness, U. 60 (80). The Ode to him- 
self, and the answers to it, have been sufficiently noticed 
above. 

26. The Magnetic Lady, or Humors Reconciled, C, was 
licensed to the King's men 1632, Oct. 12. On 1633, 
Oct. 24, the players in their second petition to the High 
Commission Court ''did Herbert right," and the Arch- 
bishop " laid the whole fault " of this play on them. In 
their first petition they had excused themselves on Herbert 
and Jonson ; i.e., denied having made interpolations (mostly 
oaths ; see Oill's verses). In the Induction or Chorus, Dam- 
play, who derives magnetic from magnus, and requires '' a 

VOL. I. 2 B 



386 THE ENGLISH DRAMA. 

portal according to Vitruvius," is certainly Inigo Jones 
(VitmviuB Hoop). I think this Chorus, which at the end 
is changed into an '' Epilogue for the King/' was added 
for a Court presentation. Jones had been present at the 
first public performance with Butter, and laughed " because 
there was nothing worth laughing at " (Gill). Note Dam- 
play's use of the word " business," and compare Mercury 
Vindicated thereon. Ironside, the ** fat, corpulent, unwieldy 
fellow/' iii. 3, is certainly Jonson ; Diaphanous Silkworm, 
the courtier, is, I think, Aurelian Townsend (the Town 
top of iii. 4), who had supplanted Jonson as Court mask- 
maker. I cannot agree with Gifford that " one who had 
lost, his ears/' iii. 4, in 1632 was Prynne, who wore his 
till 1634. I think Alexander Leighton is intended. Nat. 
Butter, Allestrie's almanacs, The Practice of Piety, are 
alluded to i7. I . Thinwit, " surveyor of the projects," I 
do not know. The Ember week, v, 2, must be that of 
1632 Sept. The painting of all city statues, v. 5, is 
remarkable. Alexander Gill's virulent verses on this play, 
already mentioned, are further noticeable as alluding to 
Jonson's having sent a play to the Fortune (i.e.. The Fortti^ 
note Isles, q.v,), and the low estimate in which Pursfoot 
and Trundell were held as printers. Zouch, Townley and 
Jonson answered him. Gill had been sentenced to lose 
his ears for treasonous talk, and it may be that he took 
the iii. 4 allusion to himself. This play was not published 
till 1 64 1. 

27. The Tale of a Tub, C, was altered in 1633; 
licensed for Queen Henrietta s men May 7, and performed 
at Court 1634, Jan. 14. But the added part iv. inter- 
loping scene [iv. 2, Gifford] ; v. 26, " Can any man — him 
alone;" v. 36, "I must confer" — end of play, including 
Vitruvius Hoop's part (assimilated to In-and-in Medlay's 



JONSON. 387 

when published), was all left out, because Inigo Jones ex- 
cepted to it. In this part we have the characteristics 
which identify Jones with characters in other plays; he 
is the " Do-all/' and talks of " feasible and conduce," v. 2 ; 
makes blunders in Latin, must be joined with no man, and 
uses " lantern paper/' v. 3 ; makes masks, v. 4 (where the 
'' half lord chamberlain in my master's absence " is a severe 
hit at Herbert ; Astley being the nominal, but he the acting 
Master of the Bevels); acts as architect, motion-maker, 
and interpreter to the puppets in v. 5. This was Jonson's 
last production for the stage ; his repeated failures com- 
pletely broke him down, and nothing can be more absurd 
than the attribution of some of his best work to subsequent 
years. For his Ma^ks, &c., see the next volume. 



END OF VOL. I. 



PRINTED BY BALLANTYNK, HANSON AND Ca, 
ftOINBURCH AND LONDON. 




C0001*^4515